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Gender differences

Nathan J Turnbull, Keith R Berend, Vincent Y Ng, Joanne B Adams, David A Crawford, Adolph V Lombardi
INTRODUCTION: The gender-specific total knee arthroplasty (TKA) debate focuses on differences in distal femoral mediolateral to anteroposterior aspect ratio between males and females. However, randomized studies have been unable to demonstrate significant differences in outcomes utilizing gender-specific implants. No studies have examined the effect of intermediate femoral component sizes on outcome. We compared outcomes before and after intermediate sizing availability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 331 patients (413 knees) who underwent primary TKA between 2003 and 2004 with a single complete knee system...
October 26, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Gregory Reychler, Justine Fabre, Amandine Lux, Gilles Caty, Thierry Pieters, Giuseppe Liistro
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different kinds of music on submaximal performance and exercise tolerance in healthy children by means of the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) and to explore the influence of gender. DESIGN: Cross-over study. METHOD: Ninety-seven children performed 6MWT in four conditions (without music, with their preferred music, with slow and with fast music). Distance, cardio-respiratory parameters, perceived exertion rate, and amount of dyspnea were measured...
October 25, 2016: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Helena Mihaljević-Brandt, Lucía Santamaría, Marco Tullney
Despite the increasing number of women graduating in mathematics, a systemic gender imbalance persists and is signified by a pronounced gender gap in the distribution of active researchers and professors. Especially at the level of university faculty, women mathematicians continue being drastically underrepresented, decades after the first affirmative action measures have been put into place. A solid publication record is of paramount importance for securing permanent positions. Thus, the question arises whether the publication patterns of men and women mathematicians differ in a significant way...
2016: PloS One
Metin Gündüz, Tamer Sekmenli, İlhan Ciftci, Ahmet Midhat Elmacı
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the effects of preoperative urinary catheterization in nephrolithiasis treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). METHODS: Patients admitted to the Department of Pediatric Surgery for renal stones between June 2012 and June 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on JJ stent placements. Group 1 did not receive JJ stents, while group 2 did. The recorded demographic data for each group included age, gender, stone size, location, sessions, and complications...
October 26, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Ruby Charak, Brianna M Byllesby, Michelle E Roley, Meredith A Claycomb, Tory A Durham, Jana Ross, Cherie Armour, Jon D Elhai
The aims of the present study were first to identify discrete patterns of childhood victimization experiences including crime, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, sexual violence, and witnessing violence among adult trauma victims using latent class analysis; second, to examine the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior, and third to investigate the differential role of dispositional anger on the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that those classes with accumulating exposure to different types of childhood victimization (e...
October 22, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Rebecca-Lee Kuhnert, Sander Begeer, Elian Fink, Marc de Rosnay
Although key differences have been found in boys' and girls' prosocial behavior toward peers, few studies have systematically examined gender differences in how intrinsic perspective-taking abilities-theory of mind (ToM) and emotion understanding (EU)-and the extrinsic peer environment relate to prosocial behavior. In this prospective longitudinal study, we studied gender differences in the relations between children's observed prosocial behavior and their ToM, EU, and social preference ratings in 114 children (58 boys and 56 girls)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Xuan-Binh D Pham, Jerry J Kim, Aaron B Parrish, Cynthia Tom, Ezinne J Ihenachor, David Mina, Christian de Virgilio
Prior studies have shown racial and gender differences with respect to maturation of arteriovenous fistulas. Women and minorities have lower maturation rates for unclear reasons. Small arterial diameter and high brachial artery bifurcation (HBB) are also implicated in reduced maturation rates. We sought to correlate differences in upper extremity arterial anatomy to race and gender. All upper extremity vascular mapping ultrasounds from 2013 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 509 arms in 284 patients were evaluated...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Kushagra Verma, Senthil T Nathan, Carly D Comer, Baron Lonner, Suken A Shah
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective Analysis OBJECTIVE.: This study aims to: 1) establish a baseline for the SRS-22 in South East Asia and 2) evaluate the influence of patient demographics on the SRS-22. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies have established a baseline for the SRS-22 in the US and described the impact of patient demographics. While the SRS-22 is used internationally, limited normative data is available. METHODS: After approval from the local hospital and school board, 1200 adolescents (age 10-18) were asked to anonymously complete the SRS-22 in English...
October 24, 2016: Spine
Jeffery C Strickler, Kenneth K Lopiano
OBJECTIVE: This study profiles an innovative approach to capture patient satisfaction data from emergency department (ED) patients by implementing an electronic survey method. This study compares responders to nonresponders. BACKGROUND: Our hypothesis is that the cohort of survey respondents will be similar to nonresponders in terms of the key characteristics of age, gender, race, ethnicity, ED disposition, and payor status. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional design using secondary data from the database and provides an opportunity for univariate analysis of the key characteristics for each group...
November 2016: Journal of Nursing Administration
E Gregoraszczuk, M Slupecka, J Wolinski, A Hejmej, B Bilinska, E Fiedor, N Piwnicka, A Rak
This study investigated the effect of a high-fat (HF) diet on plasma adiponectin and steroid hormones levels, and the protein expression of adiponectin and its receptors, in the gonads and gonadal (periovarian and epididymal) white adipose tissue (WAT) of dams and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed a HF diet (30% fat) or a standard breeding (BD) diet (5% fat) during pregnancy and lactation. At 21 days of lactation, mothers and both sexes of prepubertal offspring were killed by decapitation. Plasma adiponectin, testosterone (T) and oestradiol (E2) levels were analyzed by ELISA...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Anatoly Margolis, Paola Rosca, Rena Kurs, Sharon R Sznitman, Alexander Grinshpoon
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the proportion of drug users among patients with mental disorders that attended the emergency department of one major psychiatric hospital in Northern Israel, the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses associated with drug use and the impact of confirmed drug use on hospital admission. We hypothesized that the proportion of individuals with positive urine drug test results presenting at the psychiatric emergency department during the study period would be 20-30%...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Juan P Boriosi, Jens C Eickhoff, Kristi B Klein, Gregory A Hollman
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Both propofol and dexmedetomidine have been found to be safe and effective sedation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our program experienced an increase in patients arousing and experiencing an adverse airway event during propofol sedation for MRI in the first months of using a new 3T (Tesla) MRI scanner that was found to have a longer reverberation time compared to the previous 1.5 T MRI. In an effort to decrease patient arousal and adverse airway events during MRI, we administered a dexmedetomidine load prior to our standard propofol protocol...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Hui Shen, Desmond K P Chau, Jianpo Su, Ling-Li Zeng, Weixiong Jiang, Jufang He, Jintu Fan, Dewen Hu
Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions are investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in 41 young adults (22 males and 19 females). The subjects underwent fMRI while they were presented with computer-generated, yet realistic face images, which had varying facial proportions, but the same neutral facial expression, baldhead and skin tone, as stimuli. Statistical parametric mapping with parametric modulation was used to explore the brain regions with the response modulated by facial attractiveness ratings (ARs)...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Teresa Rincón-Del Toro, Adela Villanueva-Guerra, Ricardo Rodríguez-Barrientos, Elena Polentinos-Castro, Mª José Torijano-Castillo, Emilia de Castro-Monteiro, Blanca Escrivá de Romaní de Gregorio, Margarita Barba Calderón, María Soledad de Frías Redondo, Nury Alejo Brú, Concepción Blanco Morales, Margarita Vázquez Pinilla, Cristina Besora Altés, Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Juan Ángel Infantes Rodríguez, Pilar Bustamante Fernández, Victorina de Blas Salvador
OBJECTIVE: The number of aggressions towards health care professionals has risen over the past few years. There are no previous studies in primary care covering an entire region and to all professional categories. The aim of this study was to characterize aggressions in Primary Care in the Community of Madrid. METHODS: Multicenter cross-sectional study. Analysis of a Registration System that reports any type of aggression suffered by Primary Care workers, in the Community of Madrid...
October 25, 2016: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Fahad D Alosaimi, Mujahid Bukhari, Maram Altuwirqi, Mohamad Habous, Khaled Madbouly, Zeinab Abotalib, Saleh Binsaleh
The objective of the study was to evaluate the differences in psychosocial distress and coping mechanisms among infertile men and women in Saudi Arabia (SA). We performed a cross-sectional study of infertile patients (206 women and 200 men) attending infertility clinics in three referral hospitals in Riyadh, SA. A semi-structured questionnaire was developed to assess socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables. Infertility-related psychosocial pressures were reported in 79 (39.7%) male and 97 (47...
October 25, 2016: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
P Kovalenko, A T DiCioccio, J D Davis, M Li, M Ardeleanu, Nmh Graham, R Soltys
An exploratory population pharmacokinetic model for functional dupilumab was developed. Data from healthy volunteers and patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) receiving intravenous or subcutaneous doses were integrated. The data included 197 participants (2,518 measurements of dupilumab in serum) from six phase I and II studies. The data were analyzed using stochastic approximation expectation-maximization and importance sampling methods. The best structural model was a two-compartment model with parallel linear and Michaelis-Menten elimination from the central compartment...
October 25, 2016: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Sharon Teo, John A Cheek, Simon Craig
OBJECTIVES: The clean-catch method of urine collection carries a high contamination rate. This study aims to evaluate the effects on contamination rate of providing a parent handout and pre-made urine collection pack for clean-catch urine collection. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre prospective cohort interventional study in a tertiary paediatric ED. All children younger than 24 months who presented from April 2013 to June 2014 requiring a urine sample to be obtained were included...
October 24, 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Isolde G Rojas, Maria L Spencer, Paulina A Zapata, Alejandra Martínez, Rosario Alarcón, Francisco J Marchesani, Mine Tezal
BACKGROUND: Differences in immune profile between actinic cheilitis (AC), a precursor of lip squamous cell carcinoma, and normal lip vermillion (NL) have not been elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To compare density, distribution, and ratios of CD8+ and FoxP3+ cells between AC and NL and assess their associations with clinicopathologic variables. METHODS: Samples of AC and NL obtained between 2001 and 2013 at the College of Dentistry of the University of Concepcion, Chile, were retrospectively analyzed for immunohistochemical detection of CD8+ and FoxP3+ cells...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Rosa Maria Paragliola, Salvatore Maria Corsello, Roberto Salvatori
INTRODUCTION: Somatostatin (SST) receptor ligands (SRL), in particular those of first generation (Octreotide and Lanreotide), are widely used in medical treatment of acromegaly, but they assure biochemical control of disease (and the possibility of an improvement of clinical symptoms and tumor shrinkage), only in a subset of patients. DISCUSSION: The mechanisms underlying the so called "SRL resistance" are various and involve in particular SST receptor expression and molecular pathways of signal transduction...
October 24, 2016: Pituitary
W Asher Wolf, Nicholas A Piazza, Jessica H Gebhart, Spencer Rusin, Shannon Covey, Leana L Higgins, RoseMary Beitia, Olga Speck, Kimberly Woodward, Cary C Cotton, Thomas M Runge, Swathi Eluri, John T Woosley, Nicholas J Shaheen, Evan S Dellon
BACKGROUND: Because eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) causes dysphagia, esophageal narrowing, and strictures, it could result in low body mass index (BMI), but there are few data assessing this. AIM: To determine whether EoE is associated with decreased BMI. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study at the University of North Carolina from 2009 to 2013 enrolling consecutive adults undergoing outpatient EGD. BMI and endoscopic findings were recorded...
October 24, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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