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Gender differences

Xing Chen, Detlef Wolf, Juliane Siebourg-Polster, Christian Czech, Ulrike Bonati, Dirk Fischer, Omar Khwaja, Martin Strahm
Progressive and irreversible muscle atrophy characterizes Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and other similar muscle disorder diseases. Objective assessment of muscle functions is an essential and important, although challenging, prerequisite for successful clinical trials. Current clinical rating scales restrain the movement abnormalities to certain predefined coarse-grained individual items. The Kinect 3-D sensor has emerged as a low-cost and portable motion sensing technology used to capture and track people's movement in many medical and research fields...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Abeer A Nasir, Razan Salah, Abla Sayyed Ahmad, Samah Abu Hijleh, Sa'eed Abu Kattab, Alia Al Kurd, Rawan Al Sharif, Raed Amro, Ahmad Khatib, Hana' Mousa, Walaa Shamasnah, Khammisa Shqerat, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Hamm is an Arabic word that is used to express suffering. Idioms of distress are communicated differently in different contexts and cultures. Understanding idioms of distress and symptoms can help in diagnosis and lead to socioculturally sensitive health care. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we did semi-structured interviews with men and women of all age groups. Questions focused on the definition, causes, and consequences of Hamm. Responses were analysed by reading and re-reading interview transcripts until themes and subthemes emerged...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Jenny Olofsson, Mojgan Padyab, Gunnar Malmberg
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that the social network may play very different roles in relation to health in countries with differing welfare regimes. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the interplay between social network, socioeconomic position, and self-rated health (SRH) in European countries. METHODS: The study used cross-sectional data on individuals aged 50+ from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and includes data from 16 countries...
2018: Global Health Action
Meredith B Rosenthal, Carrie H Colla, Nancy E Morden, Thomas D Sequist, Alexander J Mainor, Zhonghe Li, Kevin H Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: A substantial portion of healthcare spending is wasted on services that do not directly improve patient health and that cause harm in some cases. Features of health insurance coverage, including enrollment in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) or health maintenance organizations (HMOs), may provide financial and nonfinancial mechanisms to potentially reduce overuse of low-value healthcare services. STUDY DESIGN: Using 2009 to 2013 administrative data from 3 large commercial insurers, we examined patient characteristics and health insurance plan types associated with overuse of 6 healthcare services identified by the Choosing Wisely campaign...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Şengül Tosun Altınöz, Ali Ercan Altınöz, Çisem Utku, Altan Eşsizoğlu, Selçuk Candansayar
Female homicides are widely prevalent in Turkey with rising trend. The aim of this study is to identify gender role attitudes, childhood trauma histories, and individual characteristics of men who have been involved in the femicide, and to compare them with men who do not exercise violence against women. Participants completed a Sociodemographic and Clinical Information form, Semistructured Interview form, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Case group was not significantly different than the control group in terms of any measured individual characteristics including childhood traumas, psychopathology, and gender attitudes...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Chen Sun, Jianxia Li
PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of microRNA (miRNA-137) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its effects on activity, invasion and proliferation of OSCC human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines 2 (HSC-2 cell line). METHODS: 158 cases of pathologically-confirmed OSCC tissues and corresponding para-cancerous tissues were collected. The tissue mRNA was extracted and miRNA-137 expression in tissues was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Yunlei Wang, Jianwei Zheng, Zhigang Gao, Xiaofeng Han, Fanrong Qiu
PURPOSE: To investigate the malnutrition, the incidence of nutritional risk and the application of nutritional support for patients with colorectal cancer, so as to provide a basis for the rational clinical application of nutritional support. METHODS: A total of 264 surgical patients with colorectal cancer treated/followed up from January 2016 to March 2017 in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital were selected. The nutritional risk was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002), and the nutritional risk and application of nutritional support for patients with different gender, age and clinical disease stage were analyzed; the hospitalization duration and postoperative complications were also analyzed and compared...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Haojun Miao, Shanming Ruan, Minhe Shen
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) in rectal cancer tissues and clinicopathological factors. METHODS: The molecular expression of VEGF-C in rectal cancer tissue derived from 45 patients and normal colon tissue from 15 subjects was detected using the immunohistochemical streptavidin/biotin/peroxidase complex (SABC) three-step method. The expression of VEGF-C in rectal cancer and its relationship with clinicopathological factors were statistically analyzed via x2 test or Spearman's rank correlation analysis or Wilcoxon rank sum test...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
K M Shivakumar, Snehal Patil, Vidya Kadashetti, Vaishali Raje
Introduction: The individuals suffering from various disabilities form a considerable proportion of the community. The psychological reactions associated with a deformity can be devastating to the disabled, parents, caregivers, and family which often lead to attitudes of hopelessness in the lives of these disabled individuals. Objectives: To assess the oral health status and treatment needs among 5-12-year-old children attending special school in Western Maharashtra, India...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Lisa Carter-Harris, James E Slaven, Patrick O Monahan, Rivienne Shedd-Steele, Nasser Hanna, Susan M Rawl
Lung cancer screening is a relatively new screening option. Inequalities related to screening behavior have been documented in other types of cancer screening. Because stage at presentation drives mortality in lung cancer, it is critical to understand factors that influence screening behavior in lung cancer screening in order to intervene. However, we must first understand where disparities exist in lung cancer screening participation in order to effectively guide intervention efforts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the association of sociodemographic (including key disparity-related variables) and knowledge with lung cancer screening behavior...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Rahat Ullah, Saranjam Khan, Samina Javaid, Hina Ali, Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Saleem
This study presents differentiation in milk samples of mother's feeding male and female infants using Raman spectroscopy combined with a support vector machine (SVM). Major differences have been observed in the Raman spectra of both types of milk based on their chemical compositions. Overall, it has been found that milk samples of mother's having a female infant are richer in fatty acids, phospholipids, and tryptophan. In contrast, milk samples of mother's having a male infant contain more carotenoids and saccharides...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Krystal M Sattler, Frank P Deane, Linda Tapsell, Peter J Kelly
Weight stigma is related to lower levels of motivation to exercise in overweight and obesity. This study explored the nature of the relationship between stigma, motivation to exercise and physical activity while accounting for gender differences. Participants were 439 adults with overweight and obesity (mean body mass index = 32.18 kg/m2 , standard deviation = 4.09 kg/m2 ). Females reported significantly more frequent stigma experiences than males. Mediation models found a conditional direct effect of weight stigma for males, with higher frequency of stigma experiences related to higher levels of walking and vigorous physical activity...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
Giorgina B Piccoli, Mona Alrukhaimi, Zhi-Hong Liu, Elena Zakharova, Adeera Levin
Background: Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 10% of the world's adult population: It is within the top 20 causes of death worldwide, and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. World Kidney Day and International Women's Day in 2018 coincide, thus giving an occasion to reflect on open questions on the importance of kidney health in women for the present and the future generations. Objectives: In this review, we summarize some aspects that are unique to women's kidney health, offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women's health and specifically their kidney health, on the community, and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply those learnings more broadly...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
Pu-Ji Peng, Ya Li, Shuang Sun
Objective: We aim to explore the connection between Tim-3 expression in both cancerous pancreatic and pericarcinous tissues and the clinicopathological features of pancreatic cancer. We will also preliminarily assess the role and significance of Tim-3 in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of pancreatic cancer. Methods: Cancerous pancreatic and pericarcinous tissues from 50 patients with pancreatic cancer and six healthy pancreatic tissues were collected from the pathological specimens of traumatic patients to distinguish Tim-3 expression using immunohistochemistry...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Tugrul Bulut, Merve Gursoy
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical and radiologic results of surgically treated isolated medial malleolar fractures and compare the clinical and radiologic results of the fixation methods of headless cannulated fully threaded compression screws and cancellous lag screws and tension band wiring. We included 32 patients who attended the final follow-up examination. Group 1 consisted of 11 patients (34.4%) treated with headless cannulated fully threaded compression screws. Group 2 consisted of 10 patients (31...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Juan A López-Rodríguez, Alina Rigabert, M Nieves Gómez Llano, Gabriel Rubio
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to estimate risky-drug use patterns of consumption of primary care patients. DESIGN: Multicentric descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: five primary health care centers of the South of Madrid. PARTICIPANTS: all patients between 16-100 year-old consulting with their family physician. MEASUREMENTS: Spanish-validated World Health Organization ASSIST test was use to screen risky drug use in primary care...
March 15, 2018: Atencion Primaria
Pooja Agrawal, Andrew Mercer, Jamila Hassanali, Chakema Carmack, Darleesa Doss, Rosenda Murillo
PURPOSE: We examined differences in the association between alcohol use and sedentary behavior by gender among adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study that employs a complex, multistage stratified probability cluster sample design. SETTING: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007 to 2014. PARTICIPANTS: NHANES participants aged ≥20 years and identifying as Hispanic, white, or black (N = 18 441)...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Chul-Hyun Cho, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Seung-Gul Kang, Leen Kim, Eun-Il Lee, Heon-Jeong Lee
Objective: Light pollution has become a social and health issue. We performed an experimental study to investigate impact of dim light at night (dLAN) on sleep in female subjects, with measurement of salivary melatonin. Methods: The 25 female subjects (Group A: 12; Group B: 13 subjects) underwent a nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) session with no light (Night 1) followed by an NPSG session randomly assigned to two conditions (Group A: 5; Group B: 10 lux) during a whole night of sleep (Night 2)...
March 19, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Jacob Y Shin, Ja Kyoung Yoon, Gaurav Marwaha
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess temporal trends in population-based treatment and survival rates in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Data were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression models were employed in SPSS 23.0. RESULTS: Fifty-seven thousand and eighty-eight NSCLC patients with early-stage disease from 1988 to 2014 were identified...
March 17, 2018: Lung
Erik Schmude, Hannah M H Ertl, Robert J Taylor, Miguel A Mora
Northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) have been declining across the range of the species primarily due to habitat loss and habitat fragmentation. There is increasing concern regarding effects related to elevated environmental contaminants, including pesticides and metals. Elevated concentrations of some metals are known to have adverse effects on reproduction, development, and survival in birds; however, little research has been conducted on metal exposure in wild bobwhites. We analyzed metal concentrations in the feathers of 60 bobwhites from 3 ecoregions in Texas and evaluated differences between age-class, gender, and location with the objective of determining if bobwhites in Texas are at increased risk of exposure to elevated metal concentrations...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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