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Neonatal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681952/growth-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-preterm-lbw-infants-with-sepsis-in-india-a-prospective-cohort
#1
Sunil J Pawar, Tejopratap Oleti, Siluvery Bharathi, Shyamsunder Tipparaju, Ershad Mustafa
Objective: Neonatal sepsis is associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes but not with poor growth at 9 to 15 months of corrected age in LBW infants. Design Setting and Participants: This is a prospective cohort study involving 128 eligible preterm low-birth-weight (LBW) infants admitted during the period of 2013-2014 to the Durgabai Deshmukh Hospital and Research Center. All patients were followed up in the outpatient Department of Pediatrics. They were divided into the sepsis and nonsepsis group...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681513/antimicrobial-consumption-and-resistance-in-adult-hospital-inpatients-in-53-countries-results-of-an-internet-based-global-point-prevalence-survey
#2
Ann Versporten, Peter Zarb, Isabelle Caniaux, Marie-Françoise Gros, Nico Drapier, Mark Miller, Vincent Jarlier, Dilip Nathwani, Herman Goossens
BACKGROUND: The Global Point Prevalence Survey (Global-PPS) established an international network of hospitals to measure antimicrobial prescribing and resistance worldwide. We aimed to assess antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in hospital inpatients. METHODS: We used a standardised surveillance method to collect detailed data about antimicrobial prescribing and resistance from hospitals worldwide, which were grouped by UN region. The internet-based survey included all inpatients (adults, children, and neonates) receiving an antimicrobial who were on the ward at 0800 h on one specific day between January and September, 2015...
April 19, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680200/biological-feasibility-and-importance-of-a-gonorrhea-vaccine-for-global-public-health
#3
Leah R Vincent, Ann E Jerse
There is a growing public health interest in controlling sexually transmitted infections (STIs) through vaccination due to increasing recognition of the global disease burden of STIs and the role of STIs in women's reproductive health, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and the health and well-being of neonates. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has historically challenged vaccine development through the expression of phase and antigenically variable surface molecules and its capacity to cause repeated infections without inducing protective immunity...
April 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679983/evaluation-of-a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-detection-and-quantification-of-bacterial-dna-directly-in-blood-of-preterm-neonates-with-suspected-late-onset-sepsis
#4
Marre van den Brand, Frank A M van den Dungen, Martine P Bos, Mirjam M van Weissenbruch, A Marceline van Furth, Annemieke de Lange, Anna Rubenjan, Remco P H Peters, Paul H M Savelkoul
BACKGROUND: Rapid and accurate diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is highly warranted because of high associated morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel multiplex PCR assay for diagnosis of late-onset sepsis and to investigate the value of bacterial DNA load (BDL) determination as a measure of infection severity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a neonatal intensive care unit. Preterm and/or very low birth weight infants suspected for late-onset sepsis were included...
April 22, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679373/cytokine-producing-b-cells-promote-immune-mediated-bile-duct-injury-in-murine-biliary-atresia
#5
Joseph Bednarek, Brianna Traxinger, Dania Brigham, Jonathan Roach, David Orlicky, Dong Wang, Roberta Pelanda, Cara L Mack
Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal T cell-mediated inflammatory, sclerosing cholangiopathy. In the Rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced neonatal mouse model of BA (murine BA), mice lacking B cells do not develop BA, and the lack of B cells is associated with loss of T cell and macrophage activation. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of B cell-mediated immune activation (antigen presentation versus cytokine production) in murine BA. RESULTS: Normal neonatal B cells in the liver are predominantly at pro-B and pre-B cellular development...
April 20, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679046/impact-of-antenatal-corticosteroids-in-preterm-neonates-based-on-maternal-body-mass-index
#6
Maheer Faden, Sarah D McDonald, Prakeshkumar S Shah, Amit Mukerji
OBJECTIVE: Impact of antenatal corticosteroid (ACS) in context of maternal body mass index (BMI) as it relates to neonatal outcomes remains unclear. We sought to evaluate effects of ACS on clinical outcomes of preterm infants based on maternal BMI. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study among neonates 23-33 weeks' GA at a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit from 2011 to 2015. Outcomes of neonates exposed to any ACS and pre-pregnancy maternal BMI ≥ 25 (N = 491) were compared with maternal BMI < 25 (N = 484)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678190/neonatal-and-congenital-malaria-a-case-series-in-malaria-endemic-eastern-uganda
#7
Peter Olupot-Olupot, Emma I E Eregu, Ketty Naizuli, Julie Ikiror, Linda Acom, Kathy Burgoine
BACKGROUND: Congenital malaria is the direct infection of an infant with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth. Neonatal malaria is due to an infective mosquito bite after birth. Neonatal and congenital malaria (NCM) are potentially life-threatening conditions that are believed to occur at relatively low rates in malaria endemic regions. However, recent reports suggest that the number of NCM cases is increasing, and its epidemiology remains poorly described. NCM can mimic other neonatal conditions and because it is thought to be rare, blood film examinations for malaria are not always routinely performed...
April 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677086/hematologic-adverse-events-associated-with-prolonged-valganciclovir-treatment-in-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#8
Liron Ziv, Joanne Yacobovich, Joseph Pardo, Havatzelet Yarden-Bilavsky, Jacob Amir, Micky Osovsky, Efraim Bilavsky
BACKGROUND: Valganciclovir (2/d) therapy for 6 months in neonates with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection improves hearing and neurodevelopmental outcome. The only reported adverse event was neutropenia. Since 2009, our protocol for symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection was a 1-year treatment of 2/d for the first 3 months followed by 9 months of 1/d. METHODS: A retrospective study. Infants with congenital cytomegalovirus treated with valganciclovir for 1 year were recruited...
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673331/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-preterm-birth-at-kenyatta-national-hospital
#9
Peter Wagura, Aggrey Wasunna, Ahmed Laving, Dalton Wamalwa, Paul Ng'ang'a
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization estimates the prevalence of preterm birth to be 5-18% across 184 countries of the world. Statistics from countries with reliable data show that preterm birth is on the rise. About a third of neonatal deaths are directly attributed to prematurity and this has hindered the achievement of Millennium Development Goal-4 target. Locally, few studies have looked at the prevalence of preterm delivery and factors associated with it. This study determined the prevalence of preterm birth and the factors associated with preterm delivery at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya...
April 19, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672989/a-novel-model-to-study-neonatal-escherichia-coli-sepsis-and-the-effect-of-treatment-on-the-human-immune-system-using-humanized-mice
#10
Florian Schlieckau, Daniela Schulz, Sara Fill Malfertheiner, Kathrin Entleutner, Birgit Seelbach-Goebel, Wolfgang Ernst
PROBLEM: Neonatal sepsis is a serious threat especially for preterm infants. As existing in vitro and in vivo models have limitations, we generated a novel neonatal sepsis model using humanized mice and tested the effect of Betamethasone and Indomethacin which are used in the clinic in case of premature birth. METHOD OF STUDY: Humanized mice were infected with Escherichia coli (E. coli). Subsequently, the effect of the infection itself, and treatment with Betamethasone and Indomethacin on survival, recovery, bacterial burden, leukocyte populations, and cytokine production, was analyzed...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671238/dairy-calf-rearing-unit-and-infectious-diseases-diarrhea-outbreak-by-bovine-coronavirus-as-a-model-for-the-dispersion-of-pathogenic-microorganisms
#11
Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Juliane Ribeiro, Luciana de Carvalho Balbo, Elis Lorenzetti, Alice Fernandes Alfieri
Dairy calf rearing unit is a management system that is only recently being implemented by some milk producer's cooperatives in southern Brazil. However, aspects related to the health profile of the heifer calves that arrive in the rearing unit as well as about biosecurity practices and microbiological challenges have not yet been evaluated in this rearing system in a tropical country. Diarrhea is the main and most frequent consequence of enteric infections in newborn calves. This study, through some etiological and epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of neonatal diarrhea, has the aim to alert to the possibility of pathogenic microorganism spread in a dairy heifer calf rearing unit...
April 18, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670869/pathogenetic-and-prognostic-factors-for-neonatal-gastric-perforation-personal-experience-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
Chiara Iacusso, Alessandro Boscarelli, Fabio Fusaro, Pietro Bagolan, Francesco Morini
Introduction: Neonatal gastric perforation (NGP) is a rare entity. Our aim was to report our experience and review the recent literature to characterize NGP, describe associated factors, and define prognostic factors. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of all consecutive patients with NGP treated between June 2009 and December 2017 in a third level pediatric hospital. In addition, a systematic review of Medline and Scopus database was performed using a defined strategy...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670610/neonatal-immunization-rationale-current-state-and-future-prospects
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth Whittaker, David Goldblatt, Peter McIntyre, Ofer Levy
Infections take their greatest toll in early life necessitating robust approaches to protect the very young. Here, we review the rationale, current state, and future research directions for one such approach: neonatal immunization. Challenges to neonatal immunization include natural concern about safety as well as a distinct neonatal immune system that is generally polarized against Th1 responses to many stimuli such that some vaccines that are effective in adults are not in newborns. Nevertheless, neonatal immunization could result in high-population penetration as birth is a reliable point of healthcare contact, and offers an opportunity for early protection of the young, including preterm newborns who are deficient in maternal antibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669381/prevalence-of-congenital-cmv-infection-and-antiviral-therapy-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-observations-of-the-german-neonatal-network
#14
Alexander Humberg, Viola Leienbach, Mats I Fortmann, Tanja K Rausch, Horst Buxmann, Andreas Müller, Egbert Herting, Christoph Härtel, Wolfgang Göpel
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of congenital CMV infection (cCMV) in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) and to evaluate epidemiological characteristics of VLBWI with antiviral therapy (AT). METHODS: CMV-specific PCR in umbilical cord tissue was performed (n=3330). Univariate analyses and logistic regression models were used to identify associations with outcome. RESULTS: 22/3330 VLBWI received AT (0.66%). 4 of these (0.12%) were PCR positive, with 2 VLBWI showing pathological screening for hearing loss...
April 18, 2018: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668900/burden-and-risk-factors-for-coronavirus-infections-in-infants-in-rural-nepal
#15
S M Iftekhar Uddin, Janet A Englund, Jane Kuypers, Helen Y Chu, Mark C Steinhoff, Subarna K Khatry, Steve C LeClerq, James M Tielsch, Luke C Mullany, Laxman Shrestha, Joanne Katz
Background: Knowledge of risk factors for symptomatic human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in children in community settings is limited. We estimated the disease burden and impact of birth-related, maternal, household and seasonal factors on HCoV infections among children from birth to six months old in rural Nepal. Methods: Prospective, active, weekly surveillance for acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) was conducted in infants over a period of 3 years during two consecutive, population-based randomized trials of maternal influenza immunization...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668899/how-uterine-microbiota-might-be-responsible-for-a-receptive-fertile-endometrium
#16
Marilen Benner, Gerben Ferwerda, Irma Joosten, Renate G van der Molen
BACKGROUND: Fertility depends on a receptive state of the endometrium, influenced by hormonal and anatomical adaptations, as well as the immune system. Local and systemic immunity is greatly influenced by microbiota. Recent discoveries of 16S rRNA in the endometrium and the ability to detect low-biomass microbiota fueled the notion that the uterus may be indeed a non-sterile compartment. To date, the concept of the 'sterile womb' focuses on in utero effects of microbiota on offspring and neonatal immunity...
April 16, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668856/seroprevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-types-1-and-2-among-pregnant-women-and-sexually-active-non-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#17
Monica E Patton, Kyle Bernstein, Gui Liu, Akbar Zaidi, Lauri E Markowitz
Background: Neonatal herpes is a rare, devastating consequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or 2 (HSV-2) infection during pregnancy. The risk of neonatal infection is higher among pregnant women seronegative for HSV-1 or HSV-2 who acquire their first HSV infection near delivery. Methods: We estimated HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalence among pregnant women aged 20-39 years in 1999-2014, assessed HSV seroprevalence changes between 1999-2006 and 2007-2014, and compared HSV seroprevalence between pregnant women and sexually active, non-pregnant women aged 20-39 years in 2007-2014 using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667256/procalcitonin-and-c-reactive-protein-as-biomarkers-for-neonatal-bacterial-infection
#18
Ashfaque F Quadir, Philip N Britton
AIM: Neonates are predisposed to bacterial infection which are an important cause of early childhood morbidity and mortality globally. It has been proposed that procalcitonin has significant utility as a diagnostic marker for bacterial infection in febrile neonates when compared to C-reactive protein (CRP). The aim of this study is to conduct a literature search to find the best available evidence to answer the clinical question of the utility of procalcitonin when compared to CRP as a predictor of bacterial infection in febrile neonates...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666685/identifying-risk-factors-for-healthcare-associated-infections-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#19
Amira M Sultan, Wael A Seliem
Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii is a causative pathogen of various healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and is particularly prevalent in high-risk hospital settings. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with HAIs caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods: This prospective study was performed between January 2013 and June 2014 among NICU patients at the Mansoura University Children's Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt...
February 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666679/intrauterine-fetal-blood-transfusion-descriptive-study-of-the-first-four-years-experience-in-oman
#20
Arwa Z Al-Riyami, Mouza Al-Salmani, Sabria N Al-Hashami, Sabah Al-Mahrooqi, Ali Al-Marhoobi, Sumaiya Al-Hinai, Saif Al-Hosni, Sathiya M Panchatcharam, Zainab A Al-Arimi
Objectives: Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) causes hydrops fetalis . The successful treatment of HDFN has been reported with intrauterine blood transfusion (IUT). This study aimed to describe the initial experience with IUT procedures in Oman. Methods: This retrospective observational study took place at the Royal Hospital and Sultan Qaboos University Hospital Blood Bank, Muscat, Oman, and included all women who underwent IUT procedures in Oman between March 2012 and March 2016...
February 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
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