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Neonatal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029337/protective-effect-of-indoor-residual-spraying-of-insecticide-on-preterm-birth-among-pregnant-women-with-hiv-in-uganda-a-secondary-data-analysis
#1
Michelle E Roh, Stephen Shiboski, Paul Natureeba, Abel Kakuru, Mary Muhindo, Teddy Ochieng, Albert Plenty, Catherine A Koss, Tamara D Clark, Patricia Awori, Miriam Nakalambe, Deborah Cohan, Prasanna Jagannathan, Roly Gosling, Diane V Havlir, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey
Background: Recent evidence demonstrated improved birth outcomes among HIV-uninfected pregnant women protected by indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS). Evidence regarding its impact on HIV-infected pregnant women is lacking. Methods: Data were pooled from two studies conducted before-and-after an IRS campaign in Tororo, Uganda among HIV-infected pregnant women who received bednets, daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), and combination antiretroviral therapy (c-ART) at enrollment...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028970/poor-obstetric-and-infant-outcomes-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-with-tuberculosis-in-south-africa-the-tshepiso-study
#2
Nicole Salazar-Austin, Jennifer Hoffmann, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Ziyaad Waja, Sanjay Lala, Christopher Hoffmann, Kelly E Dooley, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson
Background: Prior to the wide availability of antiretroviral therapy, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV disease among pregnant women resulted in poor maternal and neonatal outcomes including high rates of mother-to-child transmission of both HIV and TB. We aimed to describe the impact of TB among HIV-infected mothers on obstetric and infant outcomes in a population with access to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed HIV-infected pregnant women with and without TB disease from January 2011 through January 2014 in Soweto, South Africa...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026372/delivery-practices-hygiene-birth-attendance-and-neonatal-infections-in-karamoja-uganda-a-community-based-study
#3
Leah J Hopp
BACKGROUND: Drawing attention to home birth conditions and subsequent neonatal infections is a key starting point to reducing neonatal morbidity which are a main cause of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of respiratory, ophthalmic, and diarrhoeal infections in neonates; the proportion of mothers of neonates, following clean delivery practices; and to explore existing community practices during delivery and the neonatal period...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025303/serum-surfactant-protein-d-as-a-marker-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#4
Suja Vinod, Andrew Gow, Barry Weinberger, Debra Potak, Mark Hiatt, Shaku Chandra, Thomas Hegyi
BACKGROUND: Lung epithelial cells express surfactant protein D (SP-D), a calcium-dependent lectin that plays an important role in antibody-independent pulmonary host defense. Previous studies have shown that it is found in the peripheral circulation in patients with pulmonary disease, likely because of translocation into the blood when lung epithelial barriers are disrupted by inflammation or acute injury. In adults, serum SP-D levels are biomarkers for the progression and severity of chronic lung disease...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024833/health-of-vlbw-infants-in-germany-at-five-years-of-age-what-do-parents-describe
#5
Juliane Spiegler, Guido Stichtenoth, Inke R König, Egbert Herting, Wolfgang Göpel
BACKGROUND: There are only few data on medical problems and utilization of health services of former very low birth weight (VLBW) children at preschool age. STUDY DESIGN: At five years of age parents of a cohort of VLBW children (N=862) received questionnaires, a medical interview and examination. The results were compared to the KIGGS cohort (Deutscher-Kinder-und Jugendgesundheitssurvey, N=777). RESULTS: Parents of the VLBW and KIGGS cohort reported a very good or good health in 95% in their children...
October 9, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023477/possible-cases-of-leprosy-from-the-late-copper-age-3780-3650-cal-bc-in-hungary
#6
Kitti Köhler, Antónia Marcsik, Péter Zádori, Gergely Biro, Tamás Szeniczey, Szilvia Fábián, Gábor Serlegi, Tibor Marton, Helen D Donoghue, Tamás Hajdu
At the Abony-Turjányos dűlő site, located in Central Hungary, a rescue excavation was carried out. More than 400 features were excavated and dated to the Protoboleráz horizon, at the beginning of the Late Copper Age in the Carpathian Basin, between 3780-3650 cal BC. Besides the domestic and economic units, there were two special areas, with nine-nine pits that differed from the other archaeological features of the site. In the northern pit group seven pits contained human remains belonging to 48 individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022924/listeriosis-in-pregnancy-under-diagnosis-despite-over-treatment
#7
Y Fouks, S Amit, A Many, A Haham, D Mandel, S Shinar
OBJECTIVE: To compare the symptomatology of pregnant women with suspected listeriosis to culture confirmed listeriosis. STUDY DESIGN: All cases of suspected and culture confirmed pregnancy-associated listeriosis from a single center were retrospectively reviewed assessing demographics, clinical, laboratory and pathological findings, and maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: Listeriosis was identified in seven patients, none of whom belonged to the 117 women with suspected listeriosis...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022569/syphilis
#8
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, David Mabey, Mary L Kamb, Xiang-Sheng Chen, Justin D Radolf, Adele S Benzaken
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum) causes syphilis via sexual exposure or via vertical transmission during pregnancy. T. pallidum is renowned for its invasiveness and immune-evasiveness; its clinical manifestations result from local inflammatory responses to replicating spirochaetes and often imitate those of other diseases. The spirochaete has a long latent period during which individuals have no signs or symptoms but can remain infectious. Despite the availability of simple diagnostic tests and the effectiveness of treatment with a single dose of long-acting penicillin, syphilis is re-emerging as a global public health problem, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income and middle-income countries...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022536/short-term-outcomes-of-inborn-v-outborn-very-low-birth-weight-neonates-1-500-g-in-the-neonatal-nursery-at-groote-schuur-hospital-cape-town-south-africa
#9
L Gibbs, L Tooke, M C Harrison
BACKGROUND: The Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH) neonatal nursery provides level 3 care for the Metro West Health District in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Worldwide, very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates delivered in level 3 neonatal units have better outcomes than those transported from other facilities. OBJECTIVES: To identify the characteristics and outcomes of VLBW neonates at GSH, with emphasis on differences between inborns and outborns. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021957/whole-genome-shotgun-sequencing-of-indian-strains-of-streptococcus-agalactiae
#10
Balaji Veeraraghavan, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Sridhar Santhanam, Valsan Philip Verghese, Francis Yesurajan Inbanathan, Charles Livingston
Group B streptococcus is known as a leading cause of neonatal infections in developing countries. The present study describes the whole genome shotgun sequences of four Group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates. Molecular data on clonality is lacking for GBS in India. The present genome report will add important information on the scarce genome data of GBS and will help in deriving comparative genome studies of GBS isolates at global level. This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession numbers NHPL00000000 - NHPO00000000...
December 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020827/the-frequency-and-clinical-significance-of-intra-amniotic-inflammation-in-twin-pregnancies-with-preterm-labor-and-intact-membranes
#11
Kyung Joon Oh, Joon-Seok Hong, Roberto Romero, Bo Hyun Yoon
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of intra-amniotic inflammation in twin pregnancies with preterm labor and intact membranes. STUDY DESIGN: Amniotic fluid (AF) was retrieved from both sacs in 90 twin gestations with preterm labor and intact membranes (gestational age between 20 and 34 6/7 weeks). Preterm labor was defined as the presence of painful regular uterine contractions, with a frequency of at least 2 every 10 min, requiring hospitalization...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020825/the-yield-of-the-prenatal-work-up-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-the-spectrum-of-fetal-abnormalities-detected-postnatally
#12
Rivka Sukenik-Halevy, Adi Katz, Rivka Regev, Ofer Markovitch, Reuven Sharony, Yael Ganor Paz, Tal Biron-Shental
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the yield of work-up in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pregnancies and their outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data regarding prenatal work-up (serology, genetic testing and imaging), and neonatal outcomes of 198 IUGR pregnancies (estimated fetal weight < 10th percentile) were analyzed. RESULTS: IUGR was isolated in 72. Work-up performed in 158 (80%) cases was positive in 4 (2.5%). No abnormalities were detected in prenatal genetic testing...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020335/hiv-drug-resistance-in-african-infants-and-young-children-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv-a-multicounty-analysis
#13
Michael R Jordan, Martina Penazzato, Amandine Cournil, Adolfo Vubil, Ilesh Jani, Gillian Hunt, Sergio Carmona, Gugu Maphalala, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Christine Watera, Pontiano Kaleebu, Christine Chakanyuka Musanhu, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Janet Dzangare, Martine Peeters, Chunfu Yang, Neil Parkin, Silvia Bertagnolio
Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs have been scaled-up in many low- and middle-income countries; however, HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) data amongst HIV-1-infected young children remain limited. Methods: Surveys of pre-treatment HIVDR amongst children younger than 18 months of age who were diagnosed with HIV through Early Infant Diagnosis were conducted in five sub-Saharan African countries (Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe) between 2011 and 2014 following World Health Organization guidance...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017005/early-planned-removal-of-umbilical-venous-catheters-to-prevent-infection-in-newborn-infants
#14
REVIEW
Adrienne Gordon, Mark Greenhalgh, William McGuire
BACKGROUND: Lengthy duration of use may be a risk factor for umbilical venous catheter-associated bloodstream infection in newborn infants. Early planned removal of umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) is recommended to reduce the incidence of infection and associated morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of early planned removal of UVCs (up to two weeks after insertion) versus an expectant approach or a longer fixed duration in preventing bloodstream infection and other complications in newborn infants...
October 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016591/caesarean-section-during-second-stage-of-labor-in-a-tertiary-centre
#15
Padma Gurung, Sameer Malla, Sushma Lama, Anagha Malla, Alka Singh
BACKGROUND: There is an alarming rise in caesarean section leading to increased adverse outcomes for both the mother and fetus when compared with vaginal delivery. Within this increasing caesarean section rate, there is a concerning increase in the rate of second stage caesarean section. This study highlight the feto-maternal outcome of caesarean section in second stage of labour. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort review of all women with a singleton, cephalic fetus at term delivered by caesarean section in the second stage of labor between April 1, 2013 and March 30, 2017 at Patan Academy of Health Sciences...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993767/genomic-programming-of-human-neonatal-dendritic-cells-in-congenital-systemic-and-in-vitro-cytomegalovirus-infection-reveal-plastic-and-robust-immune-pathway-biology-responses
#16
Widad Dantoft, Pablo Martínez-Vicente, James Jafali, Lara Pérez-Martínez, Kim Martin, Konstantinos Kotzamanis, Marie Craigon, Manfred Auer, Neil T Young, Paul Walsh, Arnaud Marchant, Ana Angulo, Thorsten Forster, Peter Ghazal
Neonates and especially premature infants are highly susceptible to infection but still can have a remarkable resilience that is poorly understood. The view that neonates have an incomplete or deficient immune system is changing. Human neonatal studies are challenging, and elucidating host protective responses and underlying cognate pathway biology, in the context of viral infection in early life, remains to be fully explored. In both resource rich and poor settings, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993064/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-microorganisms-that-cause-urinary-tract-infections-in-pediatric-patients
#17
Jesús Rodríguez-Lozano, Ana de Malet, María Eliecer Cano, Luis de la Rubia, Reinhard Wallmann, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Jorge Calvo
INTRODUCTION: Cumulative susceptibility reports are a valuable tool for the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections, especially in the current context of increasing resistance rates. Our objective was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates in urine cultures of pediatric patients during a five-year period. METHODS: Retrospective study of urine cultures from 2011 to 2015. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the Vitek-2 system (BioMérieux(®)) and categorized according to EUCAST criteria...
October 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992068/cost-benefit-analysis-of-a-chlamydia-trachomatis-vaccine-program-in-adolescent-girls-in-the-united-states
#18
Jared Ditkowsky, Afsana Rahman, Margaret R Hammerschlag, Stephan Kohlhoff, Tamar A Smith-Norowitz
Background: With >1.4 million cases in the United States reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012, Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a major public health concern. We examined the impact of a C trachomatis vaccination program using a decision-analysis model to estimate the effects of vaccination on C trachomatis-associated costs and morbidity. Methods: We developed a Markov model considering a cohort of 2158117 US females aged 9 to 26 years...
September 7, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991911/associations-between-an-igg3-polymorphism-in-the-binding-domain-for-fcrn-transplacental-transfer-of-malaria-specific-igg3-and-protection-against-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-during-infancy-a-birth-cohort-study-in-benin
#19
Celia Dechavanne, Sebastien Dechavanne, Ibrahim Sadissou, Adjimon Gatien Lokossou, Fernanda Alvarado, Magalie Dambrun, Kabirou Moutairou, David Courtin, Gregory Nuel, Andre Garcia, Florence Migot-Nabias, Christopher L King
BACKGROUND: Transplacental transfer of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the fetus helps to protect against malaria and other infections in infancy. Recent studies have emphasized the important role of malaria-specific IgG3 in malaria immunity, and its transfer may reduce the risk of malaria in infancy. Human IgGs are actively transferred across the placenta by binding the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) expressed within the endosomes of the syncytiotrophoblastic membrane. Histidine at position 435 (H435) provides for optimal Fc-IgG binding...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991764/hypoglycaemia-in-the-newborn
#20
Orhideja Stomnaroska, Elizabeta Petkovska, Sanja Ivanovska, Snezana Jancevska, Dragan Danilovski
AIM: Severe neonatal hypoglycaemia (HG) leads to neurologic damage, mental retardation, epilepsy, impaired cardiac performance and muscle weakness. The aim was to assess the frequency and severity of HG in a population of newborns. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated 739 patients with neonatal hypoglycaemia (HG) (M:F=370:369) born at the University Clinic for Gynaecology and Obstetritics in Skopje in the period 2014-2016 and treated at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
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