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Neonatal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933339/mothers-emotional-experiences-providing-care-for-their-infants-within-the-culture-of-an-iranian-neonatal-unit
#1
Mahnaz Jabraeili, Hadi Hassankhani, Reza Negarandeh, Mohammad Abbaszadeh, Lisa M Cleveland
BACKGROUND: Each year, 5% to 8% of Iranian newborns require care in a neonatal unit (NU). Reasons for admission include prematurity, infection, and congenital anomalies. Little research has been conducted on the culture of Iranian NUs and the impact this has on mothers' emotional caregiving experiences. PURPOSE: To explore the emotional caregiving experiences of mothers in an Iranian NU. METHODS: Focused ethnography was used for this study...
June 21, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932044/optimization-of-antimicrobial-treatment-to-minimize-resistance-selection
#2
Luca Guardabassi, Mike Apley, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Scott Weese
Optimization of antimicrobial treatment is a cornerstone in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Various national and international authorities and professional veterinary and farming associations have released generic guidelines on prudent antimicrobial use in animals. However, these generic guidelines need to be translated into a set of animal species- and disease-specific practice recommendations. This article focuses on prevention of antimicrobial resistance and its complex relationship with treatment efficacy, highlighting key situations where the current antimicrobial drug products, treatment recommendations, and practices may be insufficient to minimize antimicrobial selection...
May 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931284/performance-of-surveillance-case-definitions-in-detecting-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-among-young-children-hospitalized-with-severe-respiratory-illness-south-africa-2009-2014
#3
Brian Rha, Rebecca M Dahl, Jocelyn Moyes, Alison M Binder, Stefano Tempia, Sibongile Walaza, Daoling Bi, Michelle J Groome, Ebrahim Variava, Fathima Naby, Kathleen Kahn, Florette Treurnicht, Adam L Cohen, Susan I Gerber, Shabir A Madhi, Cheryl Cohen
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in young children, but data on surveillance case definition performance in estimating burdens have been limited. Methods: We enrolled children aged <5 years hospitalized for ALRTI (or neonatal sepsis in young infants) through active prospective surveillance at 5 sentinel hospitals in South Africa and collected nasopharyngeal aspirates from them for RSV molecular diagnostic testing between 2009 and 2014...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930990/variation-in-macrophage-phagocytosis-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-does-not-reflect-bacterial-capsular-serotype-multilocus-sequence-type-or-association-with-invasive-infection
#4
Lisa M Rogers, Jennifer A Gaddy, Shannon D Manning, David M Aronoff
Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an encapsulated Gram-positive coccus that is an important cause of infections in adults with chronic medical conditions, pregnant women, and neonates. GBS causes a range of clinical syndromes, from asymptomatic colonization to deep-seated invasive and highly lethal infections. Macrophages are important sentinels of innate immunity, protecting host tissues from infection when bacteria advance beyond cutaneous or mucosal barriers. We hypothesized that the capacity for macrophages to phagocytose unopsonized GBS would vary across distinct clinical strains, and such differences would reflect serotype diversity...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929472/impact-of-nutrition-and-rotavirus-infection-on-the-infant-gut-microbiota-in-a-humanized-pig-model
#5
Anand Kumar, Anastasia N Vlasova, Loic Deblais, Huang-Chi Huang, Asela Wijeratne, Sukumar Kandasamy, David D Fischer, Stephanie N Langel, Francine Chimelo Paim, Moyasar A Alhamo, Lulu Shao, Linda J Saif, Gireesh Rajashekara
BACKGROUND: Human rotavirus (HRV) is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis in infants; particularly in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Malnutrition perturbs the infant gut microbiota leading to sub-optimal functioning of the immune system and further predisposing infants to enteric infections. Therefore, we hypothesized that malnutrition exacerbates rotavirus disease severity in infants. METHODS: In the present study, we used a neonatal germ free (GF) piglets transplanted with a two-month-old human infant's fecal microbiota (HIFM) on protein deficient and sufficient diets...
June 22, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928941/nosocomial-outbreak-of-candida-parapsilosis-sensu-stricto-fungemia-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-china
#6
Lihua Qi, Weihong Fan, Xian Xia, Lu Yao, Lirui Liu, Haiyan Zhao, Xiangyong Kong, Jie Liu
BACKGROUND: Candida parapsilosis is a common agew2nt of fungemia, but few outbreaks of Candida parapsilosis infection have been reported in China. AIM: This study aimed to elaborate an outbreak of nosocomial Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto fungemia in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a comprehensive hospital in China from July to October 2017. METHODS: Epidemics and characteristics of fungemia cases were investigated. Surveillance samples were collected...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925850/consequences-of-in-utero-exposure-to-zika-virus-in-offspring-of-ag129-mice
#7
Justin G Julander, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Albert H Park, Elizabeth Preston, Pranav Mathur, Michael Bertolio, Hong Wang, Katherine Zukor, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Donal G Sinex, John D Morrey
Zika virus (ZIKV) can cause various diseases in offspring after congenital infection. The purpose of this study was to identify disease phenotypes in pups exposed to ZIKV in utero. Female interferon-α/β, -γ receptor knockout mice (AG129) were infected intraperitoneally with ZIKV 7.5 days' post coitus (dpc). Viral RNA, antigen and infectious virus were detected in some, but not all, maternal and fetal tissues at various times during gestation. Fetuses of infected dams had significant intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which was more pronounced as females neared parturition...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925108/febrile-neutropenia-following-parvovirus-b19-infection-and-cross-anti-kell-reaction-to-e-coli-in-pregnancy
#8
Pedro Brandão, Marília Freixo, Elisa Soares, Catarina Estevinho, Ana Sofia Portela Carvalho, Anabela Melo
Parvovirus B19 has tropism for red line blood cells, causing immune hydrops during pregnancy. A positive anti-Kell Coombs reaction usually happens during pregnancy when there is production of antibodies that target Kell antigens, but cross reactions to other antigens may occur. A 24-year-old Gypsy primigravida, 0 Rhesus positive, presented with persistent isolated hyperthermia for 2 weeks and a positive indirect Coombs test result with anti-Kell antibodies at routine tests. She had a 19-week live fetus. The blood tests revealed bicytopenia with iron deficiency anemia, leucopoenia with neutropenia, and elevated C-reactive protein...
June 20, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923969/clinical-symptoms-laboratory-and-microbial-patterns-of-suspected-neonatal-sepsis-cases-in-a-children-s-referral-hospital-in-northwestern-iran
#9
Majid Mahallei, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Bahareh Mehramuz, Shayan Beheshtirooy, Babak Abdinia
Sepsis is the systemic response to infection manifested as hyperthermia or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, and shock. This condition represents a major life-threatening factor in all age groups, particularly in neonatal period. The present study aimed to examine the results of blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine culture tests in suspected neonatal sepsis cases in northwestern Iran.This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on suspected neonatal sepsis cases hospitalized in Tabriz Children's Hospital...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922491/immunological-emergency-in-neonate-case-report-and-role-of-early-screening
#10
Veronica Mugarab Samedi, Amy Shafey, Essa Al Awad, Luis Murguia Favela
Healthy looking newborns may have severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), and neonatologists frequently are the first physicians to encounter these patients. Physicians usually have a high index of suspicion for this condition in presence of certain risk factors (unexplained infants' deaths, consanguinity); however, >80% of infants with SCID have no positive family history. A timely diagnosis of this condition is crucial in decreasing both mortality and morbidity. The only way to detect SCID prior to the onset of infections is newborn screening (NBS)...
April 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922282/cord-blood-cd8-t-cells-have-a-natural-propensity-to-express-il-4-in-a-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-caspase-activation-dependent-manner
#11
Yuxia Zhang, Jovana Maksimovic, Bing Huang, David Peter De Souza, Gaetano Naselli, Huan Chen, Li Zhang, Kai Weng, Hanquan Liang, Yanhui Xu, John M Wentworth, Nicholas D Huntington, Alicia Oshlack, Sitang Gong, Axel Kallies, Peter Vuillermin, Min Yang, Leonard C Harrison
How T cells differentiate in the neonate may critically determine the ability of the infant to cope with infections, respond to vaccines and avert allergies. Previously, we found that naïve cord blood CD4+ T cells differentiated toward an IL-4-expressing phenotype when activated in the presence of TGF-β and monocyte-derived inflammatory cytokines, the latter are more highly secreted by infants who developed food allergy. Here, we show that in the absence of IL-2 or IL-12, naïve cord blood CD8+ T cells have a natural propensity to differentiate into IL-4-producing non-classic TC 2 cells when they are activated alone, or in the presence of TGF-β and/or inflammatory cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921914/zika-virus-vaccines
#12
REVIEW
Peter Abbink, Kathryn E Stephenson, Dan H Barouch
The recent epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has revealed the devastating consequences of ZIKV infection, particularly in pregnant women. Congenital Zika syndrome, characterized by malformations and microcephaly in neonates as well as developmental challenges in children, highlights the need for the development of a safe and effective vaccine. Multiple vaccine candidates have been developed and have shown promising results in both animal models and phase I clinical trials. However, important challenges remain for the clinical development of these vaccines...
June 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921674/the-icp27-homology-domain-of-the-human-cytomegalovirus-protein-ul69-adopts-a-dimer-of-dimers-structure
#13
Richard B Tunnicliffe, Richard F Collins, Hilda D Ruiz Nivia, Rozanne M Sandri-Goldin, Alexander P Golovanov
The UL69 protein from human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a multifunctional regulatory protein and a member of the ICP27 protein family conserved throughout herpesviruses. UL69 plays many roles during productive infection, including the regulation of viral gene expression, nuclear export of intronless viral RNAs, and control of host cell cycle progression. Throughout the ICP27 protein family, an ability to self-associate is correlated with the functions of these proteins in transactivating certain viral genes. Here, we determined the domain boundaries of a globular ICP27 homology domain of UL69, which mediates self-association, and characterized the oligomeric state of the isolated domain...
June 19, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921210/off-label-use-of-drugs-and-adverse-drug-reactions-in-pediatric-units-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#14
Andrea D Pratico, Laura Longo, Silvana Mansueto, Lucia Gozzo, Ignazio Barberi, Venera Tiralongo, Vincenzo Salvo, Raffaele Falsaperla, Giovanna Vitaliti, Mario La Rosa, Antonio Rotondo, Nicoletta Avola, Debora Sgarlata, Annalisa Damiano, Massimo Tirantello, Gaspare Anzelmo, Domenico Cipolla, Angelo Rizzo, Antonio Russo, Martino Ruggieri, Salvatore Salomone, Filippo Drago
BACKGROUND: Given the growing use of off-label in pediatric practice, there is a growing interest on pharmacovigilance programs monitoring the occurrence of adverse drug reactions related to off-label drug prescription in childhood. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The results of a one-year program of pharmacovigilance issued in the Sicilian Region, Italy, are herein presented. The study involved 6 pediatric and neonatal centres and prospectively reviewed the prescriptions of 5,060 patients, who were stratified for age (newborn, infant, children, adolescents)...
June 19, 2018: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915592/neonatal-immunity-respiratory-virus-infections-and-the-development-of-asthma
#15
REVIEW
Katherine H Restori, Bharat T Srinivasa, Brian J Ward, Elizabeth D Fixman
Infants are exposed to a wide range of potential pathogens in the first months of life. Although maternal antibodies acquired transplacentally protect full-term neonates from many systemic pathogens, infections at mucosal surfaces still occur with great frequency, causing significant morbidity and mortality. At least part of this elevated risk is attributable to the neonatal immune system that tends to favor T regulatory and Th2 type responses when microbes are first encountered. Early-life infection with respiratory viruses is of particular interest because such exposures can disrupt normal lung development and increase the risk of chronic respiratory conditions, such as asthma...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915441/dengue-fever-during-pregnancy
#16
Trinh Tien Dat, Tomomi Kotani, Eiko Yamamoto, Kiyosumi Shibata, Yoshinori Moriyama, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Mamoru Yamashita, Hiroaki Kajiyama, Dien Duc Thien Minh, Le Quang Thanh, Fumitaka Kikkawa
Dengue fever during pregnancy is an expanding issue in Southeast Asia; however, the knowledge of adverse effects on mothers and neonates remains limited. Therefore, we aimed to determine the impact of dengue fever. The clinical information of 20 patients of dengue fever during pregnancy in Vietnam from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015 was collected and their outcomes were retrospectively investigated. A total of 18 patients (90%) presented with positivity of nonstructural protein 1, and a primary infection...
May 2018: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914659/microbial-source-tracking-of-cronobacter-spp
#17
Steve Forsythe
Being able to track bacterial pathogens is essential for epidemiological purposes as well as monitoring in-house production facilities. Common bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella serovars, are already been well defined, and their detection methods are very advanced. However, this will not be the case for emergent bacterial pathogens, as was the case for Cronobacter. The clinical significance of the organism is due to its association with rare sporadic infections in adults, and severe life-threatening outbreaks of necrotizing enterocolitis and meningitis in newborn babies...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913173/diagnostic-accuracy-of-4-th-generation-architect-hiv-ag-ab-combo-assay-and-utility-of-signal-to-cutoff-ratio-to-predict-false-positive-hiv-tests-in-pregnancy
#18
Emily H Adhikari, Devin Macias, Donna Gaffney, Sarah White, Vanessa L Rogers, Donald D McIntire, Scott W Roberts
BACKGROUND: False positive HIV screening tests in pregnancy may lead to unnecessary interventions in labor. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a new algorithm for HIV diagnosis using a 4th generation screening test, which detects antibodies to HIV as well as p24 antigen and has a shorter window period compared with prior generations. A reactive screen requires a differentiation assay, and supplemental qualitative RNA testing is necessary for nonreactive differentiation assay...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913028/neonatal-compartment-syndrome-treated-within-the-first-24-hours-of-life
#19
Allison K Tetreault, Derek P Axibal, Frank A Scott
Neonatal compartment syndrome is rare. There are multiple proposed etiologies, including infection, vascular insult, and mechanical compression. Much like compartment syndrome in adults, delayed surgical intervention for neonatal compartment syndrome can have catastrophic results. The authors present a unique case of a neonate who presented with left forearm and hand swelling and skin ulceration after vaginal delivery. Findings from the evaluation for vascular injury, infection, and hypercoagulability were normal...
June 18, 2018: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912684/large-outbreaks-of-fungal-and-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-a-neonatal-unit-south-africa-2012-2016
#20
Erika van Schalkwyk, Samantha Iyaloo, Serisha D Naicker, Tsidiso G Maphanga, Ruth S Mpembe, Thokozile G Zulu, Mabatho Mhlanga, Sibongile Mahlangu, Motlatji B Maloba, Grace Ntlemo, Kgomotso Sanyane, Dini Mawela, Nelesh P Govender
Candidemia is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections. We describe a large outbreak of Candida krusei bloodstream infections among infants in Gauteng Province, South Africa, during a 4-month period; a series of candidemia and bacteremia outbreaks in the neonatal unit followed. We detected cases by using enhanced laboratory surveillance and audited hospital wards by environmental sampling and epidemiologic studies. During July-October 2014, among 589 patients, 48 unique cases of C. krusei candidemia occurred (8...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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