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Neonatal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822736/-rhinovirus-underestimated-pathogens-in-patients-during-the-neonatal-period
#1
S Zacharie, A Vabret, B Guillois, C Dupont, J Brouard
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, developments in virological tools have led to the easy detection of rhinoviruses and enteroviruses (E/RV). Their detection is very frequent in cases of airway involvement in children and their demonstrated causality. But the morbidity of E/RV in the neonatal period is unknown due to lack of epidemiological data. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical characteristics of these infections in hospitalized neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the virology specimens of all neonates hospitalized at the Caen University Hospital between 2006 and 2011...
August 16, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822735/-the-care-of-skin-lesions-caused-by-extravasation-of-intravenous-fluids-in-peripheral-venous-perfusion
#2
C Ly
INTRODUCTION: Infiltration and extravasation account for 23-78 % of the complications stemming from peripheral venous perfusions in neonatal intensive care units. Their consequences, sometimes dramatic, can be pain, infections, or even loss of skin, which can lead to nerve and/or muscle damage, particularly severe for preterm neonates. Today there are no recommendations on the care of these lesions, which can lead to an erroneous choice or to a delay in the possible treatments. OBJECTIVE: This review of the literature aims to explore and propose elements of therapeutic care collected in the scientific literature...
August 16, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822646/the-crucial-role-of-maternal-care-providers-as-vaccinators-for-pregnant-women
#3
Maria Luz Vilca, Susanna Esposito
Vaccination during pregnancy is increasingly being recognised internationally a useful means of preventing illness in pregnant women and their newborns. It has been used since the 1960s, when it was found that tetanus vaccine was highly effective in preventing neonatal tetanus, but interest has greatly increased over the last few years. As new data become available showing the numerous benefits of maternal immunisation and its potential for improving maternal and neonatal health in relation to a number of infectious conditions, it is being increasingly incorporated into the national vaccination programmes around the world...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822226/perinatal-outcomes-after-previable-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-before-24-weeks-of-gestation
#4
Verena Kiver, Vinzenz Boos, Anke Thomas, Wolfgang Henrich, Alexander Weichert
OBJECTIVE: A current descriptive assessment of perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by previable preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPPROM) at <24 weeks of gestation, after expectant treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal and short-term neonatal data were collected for patients with pPPROM. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients with 93 fetuses were hospitalized with pPPROM at 15-24 weeks' gestation. Among these patients, 27.4% (n=20) chose pregnancy termination, 27...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821388/a-case-control-analysis-investigating-risk-factors-and-outcomes-for-nephrocalcinosis-and-renal-calculi-in-neonates
#5
Melissa Huynh, Roderick Clark, Jenny Li, Guido Filler, Sumit Dave
INTRODUCTION: Studies on outcomes and risk factors for neonatal nephrocalcinosis (NC) and renal calculi (RC) are limited, and often do not include controls for comparison. We conducted a case-control analysis to identify risk factors associated with NC and/or RC in neonates and studied the natural course of these anomalies. STUDY DESIGN: Infants diagnosed with NC/RC on ultrasound within the first year of life and corresponding gestational age- and gender-matched controls were identified from the neonatal intensive care unit database at our institution over a 10-year period...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819195/human-cytomegalovirus-escapes-immune-recognition-by-nk-cells-through-the-downregulation-of-b7-h6-by-the-viral-genes-us18-and-us20
#6
Yoav Charpak-Amikam, Tobias Kubsch, Einat Seidel, Esther Oiknine-Djian, Noemi Cavaletto, Rachel Yamin, Dominik Schmiedel, Dana Wolf, Giorgio Gribaudo, Martin Messerle, Luka Cicin-Sain, Ofer Mandelboim
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major human pathogen, causing serious diseases in immunocompromised populations and congenially infected neonates. One of the main immune cells acting against the virus are Natural Killer (NK) cells. Killing by NK cells is mediated by a small family of activating receptors such as NKp30 that interact with the cellular ligand B7-H6. The outcome of B7-H6-NKp30 interaction was, so far, mainly studied with regard to NK recognition and killing of tumors. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of B7-H6 is upregulated following HCMV infection and that HCMV uses two of its genes: US18 and US20, to interfere with B7-H6 surface expression, in a mechanism involving endosomal degradation, in order to evade NK cell recognition...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818852/accuracy-of-11-formulae-to-guide-umbilical-arterial-catheter-tip-placement-in-newborn-infants
#7
Wei Ling Lean, Jennifer A Dawson, Peter G Davis, Christiane Theda, Marta Thio
BACKGROUND: Umbilical arterial catheter (UAC) insertion is a common procedure in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Correct placement of the tip of the UAC at first attempt minimises handling of the infant and reduces the risk of infection and complications. We aimed to determine the accuracy of 11 published formulae to guide UAC placement. METHODS: This was a one-year prospective observational study in a tertiary NICU. Clinicians used their preferred formula for UAC insertion, with X-rays performed immediately post-procedure to check the tip position...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818032/prevention-strategy-for-father-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Hong-Lin Chen, Man-Li Zha, Gang Qin
OBJECTIVE: Father to child transmission (FTCT) occurs in infants born to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected father. In this study, we aim to summarize the prevention strategy for FTCT of HBV by systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database were systematically searched. We systematically reviewed the prevention strategy for father, mother, and infant before, during pregnancy and after birth. We also examined trial sequential analysis (TSA) for the required information size (RIS)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816860/management-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-pregnancy
#9
Jie Li, Matthew S Chang, Tram T Tran, Mindie H Nguyen
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection due to mother-to-child transmission during the perinatal period remains an important global health problem. Despite standard passive-active immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin and hepatitis B vaccine in neonates, up to 8.5% of newborns still acquire HBV infection. Thus, management of chronic HBV during pregnancy and strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission are important steps in eradicating or reducing the global burden of chronic HBV infection...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815644/role-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-exacerbated-airway-inflammation-during-reinfection-of-neonatally-primed-mice-in-adulthood
#10
Jianqi Wu, Lei Xu, Xu Han, Haiyan Hu, Feifei Qi, Song Bai, Ruonan Chai, Yuee Teng, Beixing Liu
Age at primary infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a crucial factor in determining the outcome of reinfection. However, how neonatal RSV infection affects the immune system and renders the host more susceptible to reinfection in later life is poorly understood. In the present study, by using BALB/c mice that were first infected with RSV as neonates, the role of γδ T cells in the development of airway inflammation during reinfection in adulthood was investigated. We found that neonatal RSV infection resulted in an aggravated infiltration of mononuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, in parallel with a significant increase in the levels of type 2 cytokines in lungs on day 4 after reinfection...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814408/intrinsic-maturational-neonatal-immune-deficiencies-and-susceptibility-to-group-b-streptococcus-infection
#11
REVIEW
Michelle L Korir, Shannon D Manning, H Dele Davies
Although a normal member of the gastrointestinal and vaginal microbiota, group B Streptococcus (GBS) can also occasionally be the cause of highly invasive neonatal disease and is an emerging pathogen in both elderly and immunocompromised adults. Neonatal GBS infections are typically transmitted from mother to baby either in utero or during passage through the birth canal and can lead to pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis within the first few months of life. Compared to the adult immune system, the neonatal immune system has a number of deficiencies, making neonates more susceptible to infection...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813477/colonization-prevalence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-group-b-streptococcus-in-pregnant-women-over-a-6-year-period-in-dongguan-china
#12
Wenjing Ji, Lihua Zhang, Zhusheng Guo, Shujin Xie, Weiqing Yang, Junjian Chen, Jiamin Wang, Zhiqin Cheng, Xin Wang, Xuehai Zhu, Jianwen Wang, Haiqing Wang, Juan Huang, Ning Liang, David J McIver
This study investigated the prevalence of recto-vaginal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among pregnant women in Dongguan, China. Recto-vaginal swabs were collected from pregnant women at gestational age 35-37 weeks between January 1st 2009 and December 31st 2014. Isolates were serotyped by latex-agglutination and were tested against seven antimicrobials by disk diffusion. Of 7,726 pregnant women who completed GBS testing, 636 (8.2%) were GBS carriers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813414/a-randomized-synbiotic-trial-to-prevent-sepsis-among-infants-in-rural-india
#13
Pinaki Panigrahi, Sailajanandan Parida, Nimai C Nanda, Radhanath Satpathy, Lingaraj Pradhan, Dinesh S Chandel, Lorena Baccaglini, Arjit Mohapatra, Subhranshu S Mohapatra, Pravas R Misra, Rama Chaudhry, Hegang H Chen, Judith A Johnson, J Glenn Morris, Nigel Paneth, Ira H Gewolb
Sepsis in early infancy results in one million annual deaths worldwide, most of them in developing countries. No efficient means of prevention is currently available. Here we report on a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an oral synbiotic preparation (Lactobacillus plantarum plus fructooligosaccharide) in rural Indian newborns. We enrolled 4,556 infants that were at least 2,000 g at birth, at least 35 weeks of gestation, and with no signs of sepsis or other morbidity, and monitored them for 60 days...
August 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811343/comparative-genomics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-and-other-extraintestinal-infections
#14
Amit Ranjan, Sabiha Shaik, Nishant Nandanwar, Arif Hussain, Sumeet K Tiwari, Torsten Semmler, Savita Jadhav, Lothar H Wieler, Munirul Alam, Rita R Colwell, Niyaz Ahmed
Escherichia coli, an intestinal Gram-negative bacterium, has been shown to be associated with a variety of diseases in addition to intestinal infections, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), meningitis in neonates, septicemia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and colisepticemia. Thus, for nonintestinal infections, it is categorized as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). It is also an opportunistic pathogen, causing cross infections, notably as an agent of zoonotic diseases. However, comparative genomic data providing functional and genetic coordinates for ExPEC strains associated with these different types of infections have not proven conclusive...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811170/zika-virus-research-models
#15
REVIEW
Jessica L Kublin, James B Whitney
The 2015 Brazilian Zika virus outbreak sparked a rapid response to control the spread of the virus. What was first understood to be a mild self-resolving infection is now linked to significant neurological defects in both neonates, and adults. The WHO declared the 2016 Zika epidemic a public health emergency and issued an unprecedented recommendation to women in affected regions to delay pregnancy until the risks surrounding Zika virus could be understood, or the epidemic contained. Since that time, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding Zika transmission and pathogenesis to aid the development of drugs and vaccines...
August 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810610/microbial-investigations-in-throat-swab-and-tracheal-aspirate-specimens-are-beneficial-to-predict-the-corresponding-endotracheal-tube-biofilm-flora-among-intubated-neonates-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#16
Yun Pan, Lizhong Du, Qing Ai, Sijie Song, Xiaoli Tang, Danping Zhu, Jialin Yu
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units with high morbidity and mortality. Bacterial biofilm in the endotracheal tube (ET) provides a notable and persistent source of pathogens that may cause VAP, and thus is important for VAP detection. However, during intubation microbial investigations in ET, samples are unavailable due to the infeasibility of collecting ET samples during intubation of neonates. It is therefore of great importance to find alternative sources of samples that can help identify the ET biofilm flora...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810609/value-of-serum-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-immunoglobulin-in-the-diagnosis-of-mycoplasma-related-pneumonia-in-newborns
#17
Yan Dong, Wei Lv, Zhen Lin
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is an important pathogen of neonatal acquired pneumonia in newborns. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection is critical because timely antibiotic therapy can reduce drug overuse and prevent the development of bacterial resistance. Anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an indicator of early infection that can persist for several months. Studies have shown that anti-M. pneumoniae IgA in adults is a reliable indicator of early M. pneumoniae infection...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808938/advances-in-vaccines-to-prevent-viral-respiratory-illnesses-in-children
#18
Aleisha J Anderson, Tom L Snelling, Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. Key bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the prevention of viral disease...
August 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807835/the-role-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-programmes-in-children-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
André Ricardo Araujo da Silva, Déborah Cardoso Albernaz de Almeida Dias, Amanda Fáris Marques, Clara Biscaia di Biase, Indah K Murni, Angela Dramowski, Mike Sharland, Johanes Huebner, Walter Zingg
The United Nations and the World Health Organization have designated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as a major health priority and developed action plans to reduce AMR in all healthcare settings. Establishment of institutional antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) is advocated as a key intervention to reduce antibiotic consumption in hospitals and address high rates of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. We searched PUBMED and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1/2007-3/2017) to identify studies reporting about the effectiveness of ASPs in general paediatric wards and paediatric intensive care units (PICU), on reducing antibiotic consumption, on using broad spectrum/restricted antibiotics, and on antibiotic resistance and healthcare-associated infections (HAIs)...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807426/clinical-usefulness-of-catheter-drawn-blood-samples-and-catheter-tip-cultures-for-the-diagnosis-of-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-in-neonatology-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Janita Ferreira, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Wanessa Trindade Clemente, Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli
OBJECTIVES: Neonatal sepsis is the most frequent health care-associated infection in neonatal units. This study aimed to analyze articles on the clinical usefulness of catheter-drawn blood samples and catheter tip cultures for the diagnosis of intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in neonates. METHODS: A systematic search was performed for studies published from 1987-2017, without language restriction. Observational studies carried out in neonates with CRBSI diagnosed using catheter-drawn blood samples or catheter tip cultures were included...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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