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Artistic gymnastics

Ali Guermazi, Daichi Hayashi, Mohamed Jarraya, Michel D Crema, Roald Bahr, Frank W Roemer, João Grangeiro, Richard G Budgett, Torbjorn Soligard, Romulo Domingues, Abdalla Skaf, Lars Engebretsen
Purpose To describe the occurrence of imaging-depicted sports-related stress injuries, fractures, and muscle and tendon disorders during the 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Materials and Methods Data on radiologic examinations were collected and retrospectively analyzed centrally by two board-certified musculoskeletal radiologists (with a third musculoskeletal radiologist acting as an adjudicator in case of discrepancies). Descriptive data on all imaging examinations by using radiography, ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were collected and analyzed according to imaging modality, country of origin of the athletes, type of sport, and type and location of injury...
February 26, 2018: Radiology
Roman Farana, Timothy Exell, Gerda Strutzenberger, Gareth Irwin
Biophysical loading of the elbow and wrist is a potential reason for chronic lesions in gymnastics and present a real concern for coaches, scientist and clinicians. Previous research has identified injury risk factors during round-off (RO) skills in elite female gymnasts. The aim of this study was to investigate key elbow and wrist joint injury risk factors during different techniques of fundamental cartwheel (CW) and RO skills performed by young female artistic gymnasts. Seventeen active young female gymnasts performed 30 successful trials of both CW and RO from a hurdle step with three different hand positions (parallel (10), T-shape (10) and reverse (10))...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Bojan Bukva, Goran Vrgoč, Dejan Madić, Goran Sporiš, Nebojša Trajković
BACKGROUND: Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is suggested as a contributing factor for injuries in young athletes and adults. It is presumed that GJH causes decreased joint stability, thereby increasing the risk of joint and soft tissue injuries during sports activities. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the hypermobility rate (using the Beighton`s modification of the Carter-Wilkinson criteria of hypermobility) in gymnasts and injury rate, during the period of one year...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Daichi Hayashi, Mohamed Jarraya, Lars Engebretsen, Michel D Crema, Frank W Roemer, Abdalla Skaf, Ali Guermazi
BACKGROUND: Bone stress injuries are common in high-level athletics. AIM: To describe the demographics, frequency and anatomical location of stress injuries (ie, stress reaction and stress fractures) in athletes at the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympic Games. METHODS: We recorded all sports injuries at the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics reported by the National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and in the polyclinic and medical venues...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
J Dumortier, A Mariman, J Boone, L Delesie, E Tobback, D Vogelaers, J G Bourgois
Training load (TL) and recovery should be in optimal balance to obtain maximal performance gains. We aimed to study sleep as a recovery technique and its relationship with TL and performance in elite athletes. Twenty-six elite female artistic gymnasts were divided into an under 13 (n = 6), an under 14 (n = 6), a junior (n = 7; 14-15y) and a senior (=World Championship (WC) competitors, n = 7; ≥16y) category. Sleep, through sleep logs, and training parameters, using the session Rate of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) scale, were monitored to calculate total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), TL, monotony and strain...
October 26, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
Pascal Edouard, Kathrin Steffen, Astrid Junge, Michel Leglise, Torbjørn Soligard, Lars Engebretsen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and characteristics of injuries in female and male gymnastics disciplines (artistic, rhythmic and trampoline) during three Olympic Games with a view to ultimately improving injury prevention. METHODS: The National Olympic Committee's head physicians and the medical teams of the Local Organising Committee of the Olympic Games reported daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries in artistic, rhythmic and trampoline gymnastics on a standardised report form during the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Summer Olympic Games...
October 14, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Stephen B Buckner, Nicholas T Bacon, Phillip A Bishop
This study assessed physical performance in women's artistic gymnastics following three variable recovery periods. Participants included fifteen female gymnasts (mean age = 13.5 ± 1.1) who had competed at USA Gymnastics (USAG) levels 7 - 10 within at least one year prior to the study. Each testing session consisted of a warm-up followed by four muscular endurance tests and one explosive maximal test. Assessments included pull-ups, leg lifts, handstand push-ups, vertical jump, and push-ups. After the performance assessments, the participants completed a typical practice session...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Jacopo A Vitale, Tito Bassani, Fabio Galbusera, Alberto Bianchi, Nicolò Martinelli
BACKGROUND: Previous studies attempted to identify possible risk factors for acute and overuse injuries in several sports disciplines such as running, gymnastics or team sports. Given the lack of scientific works focused on risk factors for lower limb injuries in martial arts, the present study was aimed to investigate foot anatomy, anthropometric measures, and other background information as possible risk factors of injury in barefoot athletes practicing judo, karate, kung fu, thai boxe, or aikido...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Sarita Bacciotti, Adam Baxter-Jones, Adroaldo Gaya, José Maia
It has been suggested that successful young gymnasts are a highly select group in terms of the physique. This review summarizes the available literature on elite female gymnasts' anthropometric characteristics, somatotype, body composition and biological maturation. The main aims were to identify: (i) a common physique and (ii) the differences, if any, among competitive/performance levels. A systematic search was conducted online using five different databases. Of 407 putative papers, 17 fulfilled all criteria and were included in the review...
September 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
Laurie Isacco, Gaël Ennequin, Johan Cassirame, Nicolas Tordi
The outstanding progress in women's artistic gymnastics in recent decades has led to increased technical and physiological demands. The aim of this study was to investigate i) the physiological demands of elite French gymnasts and ii) the impact of a competitive routine on physiological pattern changes. Fourteen French elite female gymnasts performed anthropometric measurements, physical fitness tests and a simulated four event competition. Heart rate (HR) was continuously recorded throughout the duration of the simulated competition...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ioanna Bolia, Hajime Utsunomiya, Renato Locks, Karen Briggs, Marc J Philippon
OBJECTIVE: To identify (1) the predominant level of evidence of the clinical studies regarding the hip pathology, risk factors, treatment, and clinical outcomes in artistic athletes (dancers, figure skaters, and gymnasts) (2) the most commonly reported hip pathology, risk factors, treatments, and clinical outcomes in dancers, figure skaters, and gymnasts. METHODS: To conduct this systematic review PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were searched for relevant studies and pertinent data were collected from the eligible articles...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Sarita Bacciotti, Adam Baxter-Jones, Adroaldo Gaya, José Maia
This study aimed to identify physique characteristics (anthropometry, somatotype, body proportionality) of Brazilian female artistic gymnasts, and to compare them across competitive levels (sub-elite versus non-elite) within competitive age-categories. Two hundred forty-nine female gymnasts (68 sub-elite; 181 non-elite) from 26 Brazilian gymnastics clubs, aged 9-20 years and split into four age-categories, were sampled. Gymnasts were assessed for 16 anthropometric traits (height, weight, lengths, widths, girths, and skinfolds); somatotype was determined according to Heath-Carter method, body fat was estimated by bioimpedance, and proportionality was computed based on the z-phantom strategy...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
Małgorzata Żychowska, Andrzej Kochanowicz, Kazimierz Kochanowicz, Jan Mieszkowski, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Stanisław Sawczyn
This study aimed to compare the effect of upper and lower body high intensity exercise (HIE) on select gene expression in athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 2.6 years; weight 68.6 ± 7.2 kg; fat free mass 63.6 ± 6.7 kg; height 1.70 ± 0.04 m) performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests (WAnTs) before and after eight weeks of specific HIIT. Two milliliters of blood was collected before and after (5, 30 min, resp.) lower and upper body WAnTs, and select gene expression was determined by PCR...
2017: BioMed Research International
Vladimir B Issurin
Extensive findings related to nature and nurture in determining athletic talent (AT) have been reviewed. Available data demonstrate the important contribution of hereditary factors as well as the crucial importance of environmental prerequisites for identifying and developing AT. Recent publications provide examples of contemporary approaches intended to solve the problem of how to discover and nurture AT. A number of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies highlighted possibilities of revealing a predisposition to certain sports among youthful prospects, but were unable to predict attainment of world-class status...
October 2017: Sports Medicine
Piotr Sawicki, Marcin Dornowski, Tomasz Grzywacz, Jan J Kaczor
BACKGROUND: One of the aims of the study was to describe the physiological factors of young boys participating in artistic gymnastic training and evaluate differences between the levels of aerobic and anaerobic efficiency in this group as compared to the control group. METHODS: The young male gymnasts selected to participate in the present study have been (G) participating in the training process since they were six years old (n=12, age 11-12 y). In the control group (n=12, age 11-12 y), boys were participating in physical education classes (C)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Jose M Sanz-Mengibar, Pilar Sainz-DE-Baranda, Fernando Santonja-Medina
BACKGROUND: Specific adaptations of the spine in the sagittal plane have been described according to different sports disciplines. The goal of this study was to describe the integrative diagnosis of the sagittal morphotype of the spine in male and female artistic gymnasts. METHODS: 48 gymnasts were measured with an inclinometer. Thoracic and Lumbar curves were quantified in standing position, in Sit and Reach and Slump Sitting in order to assess the sagittal spine posture and analyze if adaptations were related to training intensity...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Dóra Boldizsár, István Soós, Ian Whyte, Pál Hamar
This study investigated the relationship between pre-competition mood state factors in gymnastics by gender, age and a national ranking. Participant-gymnasts (total n=116, male n=49, female n=67) completed a Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) one day prior to their main competition of the year. Information was also gathered from gymnasts of gender, age and a national ranking. Consistent with theoretical predictions, results confirmed that a number of pre-competition mood states differed by age with both juniors and seniors having a higher level of anger than children (p<...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
Andrzej Kochanowicz, Stanisław Sawczyn, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Jan Mieszkowski, Kazimierz Kochanowicz, Małgorzata Żychowska
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to compare the effect of upper and lower body high-intensity exercise on chosen genes expression in athletes and non-athletes. METHOD: Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (EAG) aged 20.6 ± 3.3 years and 14 physically active men (PAM) aged 19.9 ± 1.0 years performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests. Blood samples were collected before, 5 and 30 minutes after each effort to assess gene expression via PCR. RESULTS: Significantly higher mechanical parameters after lower body exercise was observed in both groups, for relative power (8...
2017: PloS One
Michael J Hiley, Maurice R Yeadon
The Kovacs is a release and regrasp skill performed on the horizontal bar in men׳s artistic gymnastics. It is a popular skill in elite competitive gymnastics with over 40% of male gymnasts performing a variation of the Kovacs at the London 2012 Olympics. In the qualifying competition 84% of Kovacs were successfully regrasped, with the remaining 16% resulting in a fall. The aim of the present study was to determine why some gymnasts are more successful than others at regrasping the bar, with a secondary aim to determine how a less successful gymnast could alter his technique in order to become more successful...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Clara Mockdece Neves, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras Meireles, Pedro Henrique Berbert de Carvalho, Astrid Schubring, Natalie Barker-Ruchti, Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
Body dissatisfaction is prevalent in women's artistic gymnastics (WAG). Cross-sectional research points to social and individual risk factors, however it does not account for potential changes in body dissatisfaction during an athletic season. This study aimed to determine how gymnasts' body dissatisfaction, risk factors for eating disorders, media internalisation, perfectionism and mood state change during pre-competition, competition and post-competition seasons and to identify how these psychosocial indicators impact on body dissatisfaction during the athletic year...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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