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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240727/health-and-development-at-age-19-24-months-of-19-children-who-were-born-with-microcephaly-and-laboratory-evidence-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection-during-the-2015-zika-virus-outbreak-brazil-2017
#1
Ashley Satterfield-Nash, Kim Kotzky, Jacob Allen, Jeanne Bertolli, Cynthia A Moore, Isabela Ornelas Pereira, André Pessoa, Flavio Melo, Ana Carolina Faria E Silva Santelli, Coleen A Boyle, Georgina Peacock
In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MOH) declared the Zika virus outbreak a public health emergency after an increase in microcephaly cases was reported in the northeast region of the country (1). During 2015-2016, 15 states in Brazil with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus transmission reported an increase in birth prevalence of microcephaly (2.8 cases per 10,000 live births), significantly exceeding prevalence in four states without confirmed transmission (0.6 per 10,000) (2). Although children with microcephaly and laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection have been described in early infancy (3), their subsequent health and development have not been well characterized, constraining planning for the care and support of these children and their families...
December 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238972/the-functional-anatomy-of-the-cerebrocerebellar-circuit-a-review-and-new-concepts
#2
REVIEW
Vincenzo Benagiano, Anna Rizzi, Loredana Lorusso, Paolo Flace, Matteo Saccia, Raffaele Cagiano, Domenico Ribatti, Luisa Roncali, Glauco Ambrosi
The cerebrocerebellar circuit is a feedback circuit that bidirectionally connects the neocortex and the cerebellum. According to the classic view, the cerebrocerebellar circuit is specifically involved in the functional regulation of the motor areas of the neocortex. In recent years, studies carried out in experimental animals by morphological and physiological methods, and in humans by magnetic resonance imaging, have indicated that the cerebrocerebellar circuit is also involved in the functional regulation of the non-motor areas of the neocortex, including the prefrontal, associative, sensory and limbic areas...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238952/executive-functions-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-2-year-follow-up-study
#3
Marialivia Bernardi, Hayley C Leonard, Elisabeth L Hill, Nicola Botting, Lucy A Henry
AIM: Executive function impairments have been identified in children with poor motor skills, with and without a diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). However, most studies are cross-sectional. This study investigates the development of executive function in children with poor motor skills over 2 years. METHOD: Children aged 7 to 11 years (n=51) were assessed twice, 2 years apart, on verbal and nonverbal measures of executive functions: executive-loaded working memory (ELWM); fluency; response inhibition; planning; and cognitive flexibility...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238716/pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-in-tunisia-a-retrospective-study-over-11-years
#4
Nedia Ben Achour, Ibtihel Rebai, Sarra Raddadi, Hanene Benrhouma, Hedia Klaa, Aida Rouissi, Ichraf Kraoua, Ilhem Ben Youssef Turki
Introduction: Pediatric multiple sclerosis (pMS) is a rare demyelinating disorder with an onset before the age of 18 years. In this study, we aimed to investigate the characteristics of pMS in Tunisian children. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study over 11 years (2005-2016) including all patients diagnosed with pMS according to the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) criteria of 2012 and followed up in a tertiary care research center...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237523/-clinical-analysis-of-15%C3%A2-851-children-at-risk-of-inherited-metabolic-diseases
#5
Shu-Xiang Lin, Jian-Bo Shu, Chao Wang, Rui Pan, Ying-Tao Meng, Chun-Hua Zhang, Bi-Li Zhang, Dan Wang, Yu-Qin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the screening of children at risk of inherited metabolic diseases (IMD), and to identify the disease spectrum of IMD and the clinical characteristics of children with IMD. METHODS: The clinical data of 15 851 children at risk of IMD who underwent urine GC-MS in the Tianjin Children's Hospital between February 2012 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: In the 15 851 children, 5 793 (36...
December 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236921/intermittent-theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-open-label-pilot-study
#6
Caio Abujadi, Paul E Croarkin, Bianca B Bellini, Helena Brentani, Marco A Marcolin
OBJECTIVE: Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) modulates synaptic plasticity more efficiently than standard repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation delivery and may be a promising modality for neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). At present there are few effective interventions for prefrontal cortex dysfunction in ASD. We report on an open-label, pilot study of intermittent TBS (iTBS) to target executive function deficits and restricted, repetitive behaviors in male children and adolescents with ASD...
December 11, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234739/effects-of-cross-rearing-with-social-peers-on-myelination-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-a-mouse-model-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Manabu Makinodan, Kazuki Okumura, Daisuke Ikawa, Yasunori Yamashita, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Michihiro Toritsuka, Sohei Kimoto, Takahira Yamauchi, Takashi Komori, Yoshinori Kayashima, Hiroki Yoshino, Akio Wanaka, Toshifumi Kishimoto
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, poor communication skills, and repetitive/restrictive behaviors. Recent studies have indicated that early rehabilitative intervention can alleviate the symptoms of individuals with ASD. However, it remains unknown whether rehabilitative intervention can restore brain structures such as myelin, which generally shows abnormalities in individuals with ASD. Therefore, in the present study, we used a mouse model of ASD (BTBR mice) that demonstrated asocial behaviors and hypomyelination in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to investigate whether interaction with social peers (C57BL/6J mice) has an effect on myelination...
November 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234300/temporal-discrimination-mechanisms-and-relevance-to-adult-onset-dystonia
#8
REVIEW
Antonella Conte, Eavan M McGovern, Shruti Narasimham, Rebecca Beck, Owen Killian, Sean O'Riordan, Richard B Reilly, Michael Hutchinson
Temporal discrimination is the ability to determine that two sequential sensory stimuli are separated in time. For any individual, the temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the minimum interval at which paired sequential stimuli are perceived as being asynchronous; this can be assessed, with high test-retest and inter-rater reliability, using a simple psychophysical test. Temporal discrimination is disordered in a number of basal ganglia diseases including adult-onset dystonia, of which the two most common phenotypes are cervical dystonia and blepharospasm...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234273/indirubin-derivative-7-bromoindirubin-3-oxime-7bio-attenuates-a%C3%AE-oligomer-induced-cognitive-impairments-in-mice
#9
Liping Chen, Chunhui Huang, Jieyi Shentu, Minjun Wang, Sicheng Yan, Fei Zhou, Zaijun Zhang, Chuang Wang, Yifan Han, Qinwen Wang, Wei Cui
Indirubins are natural occurring alkaloids extracted from indigo dye-containing plants. Indirubins could inhibit various kinases, and might be used to treat chronic myelocytic leukemia, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. 7-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (7Bio), an indirubin derivative derived from indirubin-3-oxime, possesses inhibitory effects against cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK5) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), two pharmacological targets of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we have discovered that 2...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234141/cannabinoid-type-2-receptors-in-dopamine-neurons-inhibits-psychomotor-behaviors-alters-anxiety-depression-and-alcohol-preference
#10
Qing-Rong Liu, Ana Canseco-Alba, Hai-Ying Zhang, Patricia Tagliaferro, Monika Chung, Eugene Dennis, Branden Sanabria, Norman Schanz, Joao Carlos Escosteguy-Neto, Hiroki Ishiguro, Zhicheng Lin, Susan Sgro, Claire M Leonard, Jair Guilherme Santos-Junior, Eliot L Gardner, Josephine M Egan, Jeung Woon Lee, Zheng-Xiong Xi, Emmanuel S Onaivi
Cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs) are expressed in mouse brain dopamine (DA) neurons and are involved in several DA-related disorders. However, the cell type-specific mechanisms are unclear since the CB2R gene knockout mice are constitutive gene knockout. Therefore, we generated Cnr2-floxed mice that were crossed with DAT-Cre mice, in which Cre- recombinase expression is under dopamine transporter gene (DAT) promoter control to ablate Cnr2 gene in midbrain DA neurons of DAT-Cnr2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234100/a-bi-fluorescence-complementation-system-to-detect-associations-between-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria
#11
Mark Harmon, Philip Larkman, Giles Hardingham, Mandy Jackson, Paul Skehel
Close contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and the mitochondrial outer membrane facilitate efficient transfer of lipids between the organelles and coordinate Ca2+ signalling and stress responses. Changes to this coupling is associated with a number of metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and motor neuron disease. The distance between the two membranes at regions of close apposition is below the resolution of conventional light microscopy, which makes analysis of these interactions challenging...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233741/cyclooxygenase-enzyme-activity-does-not-impair-respiratory-motor-plasticity-after-one-night-of-intermittent-hypoxia
#12
Adrianne G Huxtable, Elizabeth Kopp, Brendan J Doughtery, Jyoti J Watters, Gordon S Mitchell
Although inflammation is prevalent in many clinical disorders challenging breathing, we are only beginning to understand the impact of inflammation on neural mechanisms of respiratory control. We recently demonstrated one form of respiratory motor plasticity is extremely sensitive to even mild inflammation induced by a single night (8hours) of intermittent hypoxia (IH-1), mimicking aspects of obstructive sleep apnea. Specifically, phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following moderate acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is abolished by IH-1, but restored by high doses of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen...
December 9, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233555/human-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-rescues-functional-deficits-in-r6-2-and-q140-huntington-s-disease-mice
#13
Jack C Reidling, Aroa Relaño-Ginés, Sandra M Holley, Joseph Ochaba, Cindy Moore, Brian Fury, Alice Lau, Andrew H Tran, Sylvia Yeung, Delaram Salamati, Chunni Zhu, Asa Hatami, Carlos Cepeda, Joshua A Barry, Talia Kamdjou, Alvin King, Dane Coleal-Bergum, Nicholas R Franich, Frank M LaFerla, Joan S Steffan, Mathew Blurton-Jones, Charles K Meshul, Gerhard Bauer, Michael S Levine, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Leslie M Thompson
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder with no disease-modifying treatment. Expansion of the glutamine-encoding repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene causes broad effects that are a challenge for single treatment strategies. Strategies based on human stem cells offer a promising option. We evaluated efficacy of transplanting a good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell (hNSC) line into striatum of HD modeled mice. In HD fragment model R6/2 mice, transplants improve motor deficits, rescue synaptic alterations, and are contacted by nerve terminals from mouse cells...
December 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232836/spasticity-management-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#14
REVIEW
Géraldine Martens, Steven Laureys, Aurore Thibaut
Background: Spasticity is a motor disorder frequently encountered after a lesion involving the central nervous system. It is hypothesized to arise from an anarchic reorganization of the pyramidal and parapyramidal fibers and leads to hypertonia and hyperreflexia of the affected muscular groups. While this symptom and its management is well-known in patients suffering from stroke, multiple sclerosis or spinal cord lesion, little is known regarding its appropriate management in patients presenting disorders of consciousness after brain damage...
December 9, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231490/-discussing-the-relationship-among-the-ashi-point-tender-point-and-myofascial-trigger-point
#15
Decheng Chen, Guanhu Yang, Fuchun Wang, Wei Qi
The conception and the history of ashi point, tender point and myofascial trigger point are described in the paper. All of three kinds of point are the reaction of musculoskeletal pain and visceral diseases. Theoretically, ashi point originates from the theory of muscle region of meridian, tender point from the theory of soft tissue and muscles and myofascial trigger point from the theory of muscular fasciae. Anatomically, ashi point is localized in the muscle region of meridian, on the boundary between muscles, tender point is on the muscular attachment to skeleton (the starting and ending points) and myofascial trigger point is on the motor point of neuromuscles...
February 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231330/-hypothesis-of-sinew-meridian-system
#16
Nongyu Liu
The author provides the hypothesis on the "sinew-meridian system" in terms of the physiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of meridians and sinew-meridians. Meridians are nourished with blood and sinew-meridians are softened with yang qi. Meridians are circulated in linear form and sinew-meridians are distributed in centripetal state. Meridians are communicated externally and internally and sinew-meridians are connected with tendons and bones. Meridians pertain to zangfu organs and sinew-meridians stabilize zangfu organs...
January 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231090/esophageal-dysmotility-in-patients-following-total-laryngectomy
#17
Teng Zhang, Julia Maclean, Michal Szczesniak, Paul P Bertrand, Harry Quon, Raymond K Tsang, Peter I Wu, Peter Graham, Ian J Cook
Objectives Dysphagia is common in total laryngectomees, with some symptoms suggesting esophageal dysmotility. Tracheoesophageal (TE) phonation requires effective esophagopharyngeal air passage. Hence, esophageal dysmotility may affect deglutition or TE phonation. This study aimed to determine (1) the characteristics of esophageal dysmotility in laryngectomees, (2) whether clinical history is sensitive in detecting esophageal dysmotility, and (3) the relationship between esophageal dysmotility and TE prosthesis dysfunction...
November 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230520/ipsilesional-functional-recruitment-within-lower-mu-band-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy-an-event-related-desynchronization-study
#18
Alberto Inuggi, Michela Bassolino, Chiara Tacchino, Valentina Pippo, Valeria Bergamaschi, Claudio Campus, Valentina De Franchis, Thierry Pozzo, Paolo Moretti
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of non-progressive developmental movement disorders inducing a strong brain reorganization in primary and secondary motor areas. Nevertheless, few studies have been dedicated to quantify brain pattern changes and correlate them with motor characteristics in CP children. In this context, it is very important to identify feasible and complementary tools able to enrich the description of motor impairments by considering their neural correlates. To this aim, we recorded the electroencephalographic activity and the corresponding event-related desynchronization (ERD) of a group of mild-to-moderate affected unilateral CP children while performing unilateral reach-to-grasp movements with both their paretic and non-paretic arms...
December 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230170/the-dancing-brain-structural-and-functional-signatures-of-expert-dance-training
#19
Agnieszka Z Burzynska, Karolina Finc, Brittany K Taylor, Anya M Knecht, Arthur F Kramer
Dance - as a ritual, therapy, and leisure activity - has been known for thousands of years. Today, dance is increasingly used as therapy for cognitive and neurological disorders such as dementia and Parkinson's disease. Surprisingly, the effects of dance training on the healthy young brain are not well understood despite the necessity of such information for planning successful clinical interventions. Therefore, this study examined actively performing, expert-level trained college students as a model of long-term exposure to dance training...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229708/neuronal-glutamate-transporters-control-dopaminergic-signaling-and-compulsive-behaviors
#20
Stefania Bellini, Kelsey E Fleming, Modhurika De, John P McCauley, Maurice A Petroccione, Lianna Y D'Brant, Artem Katchenko, SoYoung Kwon, Lindsey A Jones, Annalisa Scimemi
There is an ongoing debate on the contribution of the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1 to the onset of compulsive behaviors. Here we use behavioral, electrophysiological, molecular and viral approaches in male and female mice to identify the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which EAAC1 controls the execution of repeated motor behaviors. Our findings show that in the striatum, a brain region implicated with movement execution, EAAC1 limits group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluRI) activation, facilitates D1 dopamine receptor (D1R) expression and ensures long-term synaptic plasticity...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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