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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054081/reductive-dehalogenation-of-ddt-with-folate-models-formation-of-the-ddt-metabolite-spectrum-under-biomimetic-conditions
#1
Michael K Denk, Nicholas S Milutinović
The insecticide DDT is an omnipresent environmental contaminant and an ongoing toxicological concern. The recent discovery that methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHF) models are capable of reducing a range of halocarbons to hydrocarbons under biomimetic conditions has prompted us to investigate the possible role of MTHF in the metabolism of DDT. We now report that the reaction of MTHF models with DDT produces no less than five known in vivo metabolites of DDT, namely DDD, DDE, DDMU, DBP, and DDM. The capability of the MTHF models to produce the full spectrum of known DDT dehalogenation products is strong evidence that the mechanistically obscure metabolism of DDT may involve MTHF...
October 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054021/qprtase-modified-n-doped-carbon-quantum-dots-a-fluorescent-bioprobe-for-selective-detection-of-neurotoxin-quinolinic-acid-in-human-serum
#2
Ranjana Singh, Sunayana Kashayap, Vimal Singh, Arvind M Kayastha, Hirdyesh Mishra, Preeti Suman Saxena, Anchal Srivastava, Ranjan K Singh
Highly fluorescent nitrogen doped carbon quantum dots (NCQDs) were synthesized using microwave assisted green method. It was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), FTIR, UV-Visible absorption and Photoluminiscence (PL) techniques. The NCQDs were immobilized with an enzyme named quinolinate phoshphoribosyl transferase (QPRTase). The NCQDs immobilized by QPRTase was used as a fluorescent bioprobe for the selective detection of endogenous neurotoxin quinolinic acid (QA) whose elevated level in serum is marker of many neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's and HIV associated dementia (HAD) as well as deficiency of vitamin B6...
October 10, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053974/depression-as-seen-through-the-eyes-of-rural-chinese-women-implications-for-help-seeking-and-the-future-of-mental-health-care-in-china
#3
Peiyuan Qiu, Eric D Caine, Fengsu Hou, Catherine Cerulli, Marsha N Wittink
BACKGROUND: As part of a larger epidemiological study of depression among rural Chinese women, we sought to understand their explanatory models of depression. We explored how participants describe depression, to what cause they attribute depression, and what sources of treatment they would recommend. METHODS: Participants first were assessed with the Center for Epidemiological-Depression scale (CES-D), with a cut-point of 16 or greater indicative of depression. The Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI), a semi-structured questionnaire, was our primary tool for exploring participants' explanatory models relating to a vignette describing a rural Chinese woman with depression...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053869/enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-fumonisins-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-broiler-chickens
#4
B Grenier, H E Schwartz-Zimmermann, C Gruber-Dorninger, I Dohnal, M Aleschko, G Schatzmayr, W D Moll, T J Applegate
Fumonisins (FB) are among the most frequently detected mycotoxins in feedstuffs and finished feed, and recent data suggest that the functions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in poultry species might be compromised at doses ranging from 10 to 20 mg/kg, close to field incidences and below the US and EU guidelines. Strategies are therefore necessary to reduce the exposure of poultry to FB. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of fumonisin esterase FumD (EC 3.1.1.87, commercial name FUMzyme®) to cleave the tricarballylic acid side chains of FB, leading to the formation of non-toxic hydrolyzed fumonisins in the GIT of broiler chickens...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053773/less-is-more-neural-mechanisms-underlying-anomia-treatment-in-chronic-aphasic-patients
#5
Davide Nardo, Rachel Holland, Alexander P Leff, Cathy J Price, Jennifer T Crinion
Previous research with aphasic patients has shown that picture naming can be facilitated by concurrent phonemic cueing [e.g. initial phoneme(s) of the word that the patient is trying to retrieve], both as an immediate word retrieval technique, and when practiced repeatedly over time as a long-term anomia treatment. Here, to investigate the neural mechanisms supporting word retrieval, we adopted-for the first time-a functional magnetic resonance imaging task using the same naming procedure as it occurs during the anomia treatment process...
September 27, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053720/vocalizations-of-adult-male-asian-koels-eudynamys-scolopacea-in-the-breeding-season
#6
Abdul Aziz Khan, Irfan Zia Qureshi
Defining the vocal repertoire provides a basis for understanding the role of acoustic signals in sexual and social interactions of an animal. The Asian koel (Eudynamys scolopacea) is a migratory bird which spends its summer breeding season in the plains of Pakistan. The bird is typically wary and secretive but produces loud and distinct calls, making it easily detected when unseen. Like the other birds in the wild, presumably Asian koels use their calls for social cohesion and coordination of different behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053688/a-millimeter-scale-flexural-testing-system-for-measuring-the-mechanical-properties-of-marine-sponge-spicules
#7
Michael A Monn, Jarod Ferreira, Jianzhe Yang, Haneesh Kesari
Many load bearing biological structures (LBBSs)-such as feather rachises and spicules-are small (<1 mm) but not microscopic. Measuring the flexural behavior of these LBBSs is important for understanding the origins of their remarkable mechanical functions. We describe a protocol for performing three-point bending tests using a custom-built mechanical testing device that can measure forces ranging from 10(-5) to 10(1) N and displacements ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-2) m. The primary advantage of this mechanical testing device is that the force and displacement capacities can be easily adjusted for different LBBSs...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053676/laminotomy-for-lumbar-dorsal-root-ganglion-access-and-injection-in-swine
#8
Mark D Unger, Timothy P Maus, Ross C Puffer, Laura K Newman, Bradford L Currier, Andreas S Beutler
Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are anatomically well defined structures that contain all primary sensory neurons below the head. This fact makes DRG attractive targets for injection of novel therapeutics aimed at treating chronic pain. In small animal models, laminectomy has been used to facilitate DRG injection because it involves surgical removal of the vertebral bone surrounding each DRG. We demonstrate a technique for intraganglionic injection of lumbar DRG in a large animal species, namely, swine. Laminotomy is performed to allow direct access to DRG using standard neurosurgical techniques, instruments, and materials...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053638/neuroprotective-surgical-strategies-in-parkinson-s-disease-role-of-preclinical-data
#9
REVIEW
Napoleon Torres, Jenny Molet, Cecile Moro, John Mitrofanis, Alim Louis Benabid
Although there have been many pharmacological agents considered to be neuroprotective therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, neurosurgical approaches aimed to neuroprotect or restore the degenerative nigrostriatal system have rarely been the focus of in depth reviews. Here, we explore the neuroprotective strategies involving invasive surgical approaches (NSI) using neurotoxic models 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which have led to clinical trials. We focus on several NSI approaches, namely deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, glial neurotrophic derived factor (GDNF) administration and cell grafting methods...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053608/the-multi-parameter-wireless-sensing-system-mpwise-its-description-and-application-to-earthquake-risk-mitigation
#10
Tobias Boxberger, Kevin Fleming, Massimiliano Pittore, Stefano Parolai, Marco Pilz, Stefan Mikulla
The Multi-Parameter Wireless Sensing (MPwise) system is an innovative instrumental design that allows different sensor types to be combined with relatively high-performance computing and communications components. These units, which incorporate off-the-shelf components, can undertake complex information integration and processing tasks at the individual unit or node level (when used in a network), allowing the establishment of networks that are linked by advanced, robust and rapid communications routing and network topologies...
October 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053576/toward-age-friendly-slums-health-challenges-of-older-slum-dwellers-in-nairobi-and-the-applicability-of-the-age-friendly-city-approach
#11
Isabella Aboderin, Megumi Kano, Hilda Akinyi Owii
A majority of urban residents in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and other developing regions live in informal settlements, or slums. Much of the discourse on slum health centres on younger generations, while an intensifying agenda on healthy ageing as yet lacks a systematic focus on slums. Similarly, the global age-friendly cities (AFC) movement does not, thus far, extend to slums. This paper examines the particular challenges that a slum-focused age-friendly initiative in SSA may need to address, and the relevance of present AFC indicators and domains for initiatives to advance the health and well-being of older slum dwellers...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053467/relaxation-dynamics-and-polydispersivity-associated-with-defects-and-ferroelectric-correlations-in-ba-doped-eutio3
#12
Asad M Iqbal, Ghulam Hassnain Jaffari, Mohsin Saleemi, Abdullah Ceylan
We present the frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric response of Eu1-x Ba x TiO3 (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.5) in detail. Excluding grain boundary effects, four relaxation mechanisms were observed. Relaxation dynamics were observed to arise due to hopping conduction associated with defects, namely oxygen vacancies as well as Eu(3+) and Ti(3+) ions. Dielectric relaxation analysis led to the identification of Ti ions in two different environments with different relaxation rates in the overall EuTiO3 perovskite structure...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053455/co-saliency-detection-for-rgbd-images-based-on-multi-constraint-feature-matching-and-cross-label-propagation
#13
Runmin Cong, Jianjun Lei, Huazhu Fu, Qingming Huang, Xiaochun Cao, Chunping Hou
Co-saliency detection aims at extracting the common salient regions from an image group containing two or more relevant images. It is a newly emerging topic in computer vision community. Different from the most existing co-saliency methods focusing on RGB images, this paper proposes a novel co-saliency detection model for RGBD images, which utilizes the depth information to enhance identification of co-saliency. First, the intra saliency map for each image is generated by the single image saliency model, while the inter saliency map is calculated based on the multi-constraint feature matching, which represents the constraint relationship among multiple images...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053439/factors-influencing-indonesian-women-s-use-of-maternal-health-care-services
#14
Anna Kurniati, Ching-Min Chen, Ferry Efendi, Sarni Maniar Berliana
Employing the 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey data, we aimed to examine factors influencing married women to use maternity services. Data of married women who had given birth in the last five years before the survey were included in the analysis (n = 14,672). Factors of education, employment, women's age at first marriage, age at first birth, spousal education difference, contraceptive use, place of residence, and woman's attitude toward wife beating were associated with the use of antenatal care, institutional delivery, and postnatal care services...
October 20, 2017: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053287/general-criterion-for-harmonicity
#15
Karel Proesmans, Hans Vandebroek, Christian Van den Broeck
Inspired by Kubo-Anderson Markov processes, we introduce a new class of transfer matrices whose largest eigenvalue is determined by a simple explicit algebraic equation. Applications include the free energy calculation for various equilibrium systems and a general criterion for perfect harmonicity, i.e., a free energy that is exactly quadratic in the external field. As an illustration, we construct a "perfect spring," namely, a polymer with non-Gaussian, exponentially distributed subunits which, nevertheless, remains harmonic until it is fully stretched...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053280/structural-and-biochemical-investigation-of-pglf-from-campylobacter-jejuni-reveals-a-new-mechanism-for-a-member-of-the-short-chain-dehydrogenase-reductase-superfamily
#16
Alexander S Riegert, James B Thoden, Ian C Schoenhofen, David C Watson, N Martin Young, Peter A Tipton, Hazel M Holden
Within recent years it has become apparent that protein glycosylation is not limited to eukaryotes. Indeed, in Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram negative bacterium, more than 60 of its proteins are known to be glycosylated. One of the sugars found in such glycosylated proteins is 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy--d-glucopyranose, hereafter referred to as QuiNAc4NAc. The pathway for its biosynthesis, initiating with UDP-GlcNAc, requires three enzymes referred to as PglF, PglE, and PlgD. The focus of this investigation is on PglF, an NAD+-dependent sugar 4,6-dehydratase known to belong to the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily...
October 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053169/whole-body-physiologically-based-modelling-of-beta-blockers-in-the-rat-events-in-tissues-and-plasma-following-an-intravenous-bolus-dose
#17
S Y A Cheung, T Rodgers, L Aarons, I Gueorguieva, G L Dickinson, S Murby, C Brown, B Collins, M Rowland
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been increasingly applied in drug development to describe kinetic events of therapeutic agents in animals and human. The advantage of such modelling is the ability to incorporate vast amounts of physiological information, such as organ blood flow and volume, to ensure that the model is as close to reality as possible. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Prior PBPK model development of enantiomers of a series of seven racemic betablockers, namely acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, pindolol and propranolol, together with S-timolol in rat was based on tissue and blood concentration data at steady state...
October 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052944/differential-expression-of-the-three-alcanivorax-borkumensis-sk2-genes-coding-for-the-p450-cytochromes-involved-in-the-assimilation-of-hydrocarbons
#18
Emma Sevilla, Luis Yuste, Renata Moreno, Fernando Rojo
Alcanivorax borkumensis, a marine bacterium highly specialized in degrading linear and branched alkanes, plays a key ecological role in the removal of marine oil spills. It contains several alternative enzyme systems for terminal hydroxylation of alkanes, including three P450 cytochromes (P450-1, P450-2 and P450-3). The present work shows cytochrome P450-1 to be expressed from the promoter of the upstream gene fdx. Promoter Pfdx was more active when C8 -C18 n-alkanes or pristane were assimilated than when pyruvate was available...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052848/beyond-amyloid-widening-the-view-on-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Christian Behl, Christine Ziegler
For 25 years, the amyloid cascade hypothesis, based on the finding that mutations in the amyloid precursor protein are closely linked to familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), dominated the research on this disease. Recent failures of clinical anti-amyloidogenic trials, however, substantially support the reasoning (i) that the pathomechanisms that trigger familial AD, namely the generation, aggregation, and deposition of amyloid beta, cannot necessarily be extrapolated to sporadic cases and (ii) that amyloid beta represents a prominent histopathological feature in AD but not its exclusive causative factor...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052838/research-review-early-intervention-for-infants-and-young-children-with-or-at-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Lorna French, Eilis M M Kennedy
BACKGROUND: There has been increased interest in early screening and intervention for young children with, or at risk of, autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This has generated a debate about the potential harms versus benefits of early identification and treatment. This review aims to identify the evidence base for early intervention in ASD. METHODS: A systematic review searching for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for children up to 6 years of age with, or at risk of, ASD was undertaken...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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