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streptococcus viridans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651552/prevention-of-high-level-daptomycin-resistance-emergence-in-vitro-in-streptococcus-mitis-oralis-by-using-combination-antimicrobial-strategies
#1
Brianne Zapata, Danya N Alvarez, Sabrina Farah, Cristina Garcia-de-la-Maria, Jose M Miro, George Sakoulas, Arnold S Bayer, Nagendra N Mishra
Among the viridans group streptococci, S. mitis-oralis strains are frequently resistant to multiple β-lactams and tolerant to vancomycin (VAN). This scenario has led to the proposed clinical use of newer agents, like daptomycin (DAP) for such S. mitis-oralis strains. However, recent recognition of the rapid and durable emergence of high-level DAP-resistance (DAP-R; DAP MICs > 256 µg/ml) induced by DAP exposures in vitro and in vivo has dampened enthusiasm for such approaches. In this study, we evaluated a broad range of DAP combination regimens in vitro for their capacity to prevent emergence of high-level DAP-R in a prototype S...
April 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617499/mortality-predictors-in-the-surgical-treatment-of-active-infective-endocarditis
#2
Jenny Lourdes Rivas de Oliveira, Magaly Arrais Dos Santos, Renato Tambellini Arnoni, Auristela Ramos, Dorival Della Togna, Samira Kaissar Ghorayeb, Roberto Tadeu Magro Kroll, Luiz Carlos Bento de Souza
INTRODUCTION: Active infective endocarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Surgery is indicated in high-risk conditions, and the main determinants of mortality in surgical treatment should be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To identify mortality predictors in the surgical treatment of active infective endocarditis in a long-term follow-up. METHODS: This prospective observational study involved 88 consecutive patients diagnosed with active infective endocarditis, who underwent surgery between January 2005 and December 2015...
January 2018: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592995/a-rare-case-of-pyogenic-pericarditis-secondary-to-streptococcus-constellatus
#3
Sehem Ghazala, Todd Rabkin Golden, Sumaya Farran, Tirdad T Zangeneh
We report an extremely rare case of purulent pericarditis caused by the normally commensal oral flora, Streptococcus constellatus, a viridans Streptococcal species and member of the S. anginosus group (previously also known by the eponymous ' S. milleri', for American Willoughby Dayton Miller). This case is a previously healthy 71-year-old immunocompetent woman from Arizona who presented with a 5-day history of progressive shortness of breath and chest tightness, and subjective fever and chills, but without history of nausea, vomiting, night sweats, recent travel, autoimmune disease or sick contacts...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567126/distribution-of-streptococcal-groups-causing-infective-endocarditis-a-descriptive-study
#4
So Lim Kim, Steven M Gordon, Nabin K Shrestha
The purpose of this study was to describe the distribution of streptococci causing infective endocarditis (IE). A total of 296 patients with definite IE admitted from July 2007 to December 2014 were identified, with microbial identification done by a combination of blood culture, valve culture, and valve polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall distribution of streptococci was 76% viridans (n = 224), 17% pyogenic (50), 6% nutritionally variant (17), and 2% anaerobic (5). Sixty-three (21%) viridans group streptococci were not identified further...
February 24, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566581/investigation-of-bacteremia-after-debonding-procedures
#5
Yasin Akbulut, Merve Goymen, Yasemin Zer, Ayse Buyuktas Manay
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of debonding procedures after completion of orthodontic treatments on bacteremia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients who were treated with fixed orthodontic treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry's Department of Orthodontics at Gaziantep University and who had an indication of debonding were selected for this study, and blood samples were taken from these patients at different times and examined for bacteremia...
March 23, 2018: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563488/pyogenic-ventriculitis-and-meningitis-caused-by-streptococcus-acidominimus-in-humans-a-case-report
#6
Gaurang S Shah
BACKGROUND Streptococcus acidominimus, which belongs to the viridans streptococci group, is rarely considered pathogenic in humans. However, over the past 10 years, this bacterium has been reported to cause serious infections in humans, particularly among the critically ill. This article is the first case report of pyogenic ventriculitis (PV) and meningitis caused by S. acidominimus in North America. CASE REPORT A 49-year-old Asian male presented to the emergency department with complaints of a headache, fever greater than 37...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525758/atrial-myxoma-presenting-as-infective-endocarditis
#7
Gerald Paul Fitzgerald, John Joseph Coughlan, Zahir Satti, Samer Arnous
A 23-year-old Asian student presented to our service with a 1-month history of fever, weight loss of 10 kg, night sweats, fatigue and general malaise. He was previously well with no significant medical or family history. He had a low-grade pyrexia and cardiac auscultation revealed a diastolic murmur consistent with 'tumour plop'. He had no sequelae of endocarditis. He had low-grade pyrexia of 37.7°C, and ECG showed sinus tachycardia at 130 bpm. He had raised inflammatory markers and was started on broad spectrum antibiotics...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518552/early-blood-stream-infection-after-bmt-is-associated-with-cytokine-dysregulation-and-poor-overall-survival
#8
Elizabeth M Catchpoole, Caitlin E Thirunavukarasu, Antiopi Varelias, Sanmarié Schlebusch, Stuart Olver, Nienke Zomerdijk, Emma Osland, Glen A Kennedy, Siok-Keen Tey, Geoffrey R Hill, Kate A Markey
The key complications of allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) remain graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and opportunistic infection. We have analyzed the blood stream infections (BSI) occurring between day -7 and day 100 in a cohort of 184 adult patients undergoing allogeneic BMT in our center. 167 of the 184 patients (91%) had blood cultures collected, and 69 (38%) patients had a confirmed BSI. Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and viridans Streptococcus spp. were the most commonly isolated organisms...
March 5, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518512/septic-carotid-endarterectomy-patch-as-a-result-of-pre-operative-tooth-extraction
#9
K C Fok, Y C Chan, Y Law, S W Cheng
Infected carotid patch are rare. We present a gentleman who had an elective carotid endarterectomy with Dacron patch closure for symptomatic carotid stenosis under regional anaesthesia, and presented one month later with a discharging sinus at the lower aspect of the neck wound. CT scan showed a rim enhancing collection next to the carotid bifurcation. He subsequently underwent patch excision and repair with autologous saphenous vein graft, with good recovery. Of significance was that he had dental extraction for a loose tooth one day before the index operation as advised by the anesthestist...
March 5, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491241/surgically-treated-community-acquired-brain-abscess
#10
Heui Seung Lee, Jeong Hoon Kim, Young-Hoon Kim, Seungjoo Lee
Community-acquired brain abscess is still encountered in clinical practice and causes considerable complications, despite improvements in hygiene in modernised societies. This study aimed to identify potential risk factors pertaining to predisposing infections and microorganisms to facilitate effective treatment of the brain abscess.Of 121 surgically treated patients with brain abscess the most frequent predisposing condition was odontogenic infections (49/121 patients, 40.5%) followed by sinusitis (14/121, 11...
February 28, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460538/detection-of-endocarditis-bacteria-in-tonsillar-mucosa-of-afghan-population
#11
F Ruggiero, D Carbone, R Mugavero, A Palmieri, D Lauritano, L Baggi, M Nardone, F Carinci, M Martinelli
Endocarditis is a cardiovascular disease caused by the inflammation of the inner tissues of the heart, the endocardium, usually of the valves. Bacteraemia is essential in the development of endocarditis, and there are some findings that the main pathogens of endocarditis are viridans group streptococci: Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Enterococcus faecalis. There is strong evidence that endocarditis bacteria are present in the tonsillar microbiota, so that tonsillar infection is associated with an increased risk of endocarditis...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460534/focus-on-periodontal-disease-and-development-of-endocarditis
#12
F Carinci, M Martinelli, M Contaldo, R Santoro, F Pezzetti, D Lauritano, V Candotto, D Mucchi, A Palmieri, A Tagliabue, L Tettamanti
Infective endocarditis is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. The link to oral bacteria has been known for many decades and has caused ongoing concern for dentists, patients and cardiologists. The microbiota of the mouth is extremely diverse and more than 700 bacterial species have been detected. Half of them are uncultivable so far. Oral microbiota is not uniform, specific sites exist in the mouth such as tongue, palate, cheek, teeth and periodontal pockets that have their own microbiota...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410368/surveillance-of-tigecycline-activity-tested-against-clinical-isolates-from-a-global-north-america-europe-latin-america-and-asia-pacific-collection-2016
#13
Michael A Pfaller, Michael D Huband, Jennifer Streit, Robert K Flamm, Helio S Sader
Tigecycline and comparators were tested by reference broth microdilution method against 33,348 non-duplicate bacterial isolates collected prospectively in 2016 from medical centers in Asia-Pacific (3,443 isolates), Europe (13,530 isolates), Latin America (3,327 isolates), and United States (13,048 isolates). Among 7,098 Staphylococcus aureus isolates tested, >99.9% were inhibited by ≤0.5 mg/L of tigecycline (MIC50/90 , 0.06/0.12 mg/L), including >99.9% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and 100.0% of methicillin-susceptible S...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378719/surveillance-of-omadacycline-activity-tested-against-clinical-isolates-from-the-united-states-and-europe-report-from-the-sentry-antimicrobial-surveillance-program-2016
#14
Michael A Pfaller, Michael D Huband, Dee Shortridge, Robert K Flamm
Omadacycline was tested against 21,000 bacterial isolates collected prospectively from medical centers in Europe and the United States during 2016. Omadacycline was active against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25 mg/L) including MRSA; streptococci (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 mg/L) including Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans group streptococci, and β-hemolytic streptococci; Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli (MIC50/90, 0.5/2 mg/L); Haemophilus influenzae (MIC50/90, 1/1 mg/L); and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC50/90, 0...
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322242/utility-of-fosfomycin-as-antibacterial-prophylaxis-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#15
Tanya Zapolskaya, Sarah Perreault, Dayna McManus, Jeffrey E Topal
PURPOSE: Prolonged and profound neutropenia is common among hematology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients as a result of chemotherapy. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) currently recommend antibacterial prophylaxis in patients who are deemed at intermediate or high risk for infection. Specifically, fluoroquinolone prophylaxis should be considered for high-risk neutropenic patients. However, with prolonged and frequent exposure to fluoroquinolones, these high-risk patients may develop resistance to these agents...
January 10, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279791/pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-infection-in-an-infant-a-silent-and-coincidental-finding
#16
Vishal Naik, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, William Gershan, Andrew A Colin, Nadir Demirel
An 11-month-old healthy infant girl was noted to have left lower lobe (LLL) opacities on chest X-ray (CXR) after developing desaturations during an elective cochlear implant surgery. Repeat CXR 10 days later revealed hyperexpansion of the left lung and persistent LLL opacity. Chest computerized tomography revealed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, left mainstem bronchial obstruction, and nodular opacities. Bronchoscopic biopsy of the endobronchial tissue revealed multiple necrotizing granulomas and grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare , Streptococcus viridans , and Actinomyces odontolyticus ...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260105/invasive-streptococcus-viridans-sphenoethmoiditis-leading-to-an-orbital-apex-syndrome
#17
Lance Bodily, Jenny Yu, Dante Sorrentino, Barton Branstetter
Purpose: Orbital apex syndrome due to spread of infectious sinusitis is a serious disease, often with an insidious presentation with few ophthalmic signs and symptoms. Failure to recognize and treat infectious orbital apex syndrome early portends a grave prognosis, including profound, permanent visual loss and potentially death. Herein we describe a representative case and discuss the relevant aspects of prompt diagnosis and treatment. Observations: An unusual case of infectious orbital apex syndrome due to contiguous spread of Streptococcus viridans sphenoethmoiditis in a hospitalized, immunosuppressed patient with acute myelogenous leukemia is presented...
December 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191537/risk-factors-and-microbiology-of-meningitis-and-or-bacteremia-after-transsphenoidal-surgery-for-pituitary-adenoma
#18
Yu Jin, Xiaohai Liu, Lu Gao, Xiaopeng Guo, Qiang Wang, Xinjie Bao, Kan Deng, Yong Yao, Ming Feng, Wei Lian, Renzhi Wang, Qiwen Yang, Yao Wang, Bing Xing
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence, bacteriologic features, and risk factors of posttranssphenoidal surgery (post-TSS) meningitis and/or bacteremia. METHODS: This retrospective study included 3242 patients who underwent TSS for pituitary adenoma at the Department of Neurosurgery of Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2012 and December 2016. Clinical data for patients with and without post-TSS meningitis and/or bacteremia were compared and analyzed...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178882/characterization-and-susceptibility-of-streptococci-and-enterococci-isolated-from-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-showing-septicaemia-in-aquaculture-and-wild-sites-in-egypt
#19
Kamelia M Osman, Khalid S Al-Maary, Aymen S Mubarak, Turki M Dawoud, Ihab M I Moussa, Mai D S Ibrahim, Ashgan M Hessain, Ahmed Orabi, Nehal M Fawzy
BACKGROUND: The present investigation was an endeavor into the elucidation of the disease-causing pathogen of streptococcosis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Egypt affecting adult fish cultured and wild fish in the Nile river. Fish were obtained from commercial fishermen, collected as part of their routine fishing activities. The researchers observed the routine fishing process and selected fish for use in the study, at the point of purchase from the fisherman. RESULTS: Diseased fish showed exophthalmia with accumulation of purulent and haemorrhagic fluid around eyes, and ventral petechial haemorrhages...
November 25, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148386/human-case-of-streptococcus-suis-disease-ontario-canada
#20
Jeisa Gomez-Torres, Asim Nimir, James Cluett, Anita Aggarwal, Sameer Elsayed, Deirdre Soares, Sarah Teatero, Yan Chen, Marcelo Gottschalk, Nahuel Fittipaldi
We report a case of Streptococcus suis human disease in Ontario, Canada, caused by a serotype 2 strain genotypically similar to those commonly isolated from pigs in North America. Initially, the isolate was misidentified as a viridans group Streptococcus. Human S. suis infections may be underdiagnosed in North America.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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