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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899019/antibiotic-resistance-in-severe-orofacial-infections
#1
Min Kyoung Kim, Sung-Kiang Chuang, Meredith August
PURPOSE: This study assessed the antibiotic resistance profile in patients with severe orofacial infections treated at a single institution from 2009 through 2014. Factors contributing to resistance were studied. The resistance profile was compared with that of a cohort of similar patients treated a decade previously to identify changes in antibiotic resistance. In addition, the effect of antibiotic resistance on in-hospital course was studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a 5-year retrospective cohort study...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885814/trends-microbiology-and-outcomes-of-infective-endocarditis-in-children-during-2000-2010-in-the-united-states
#2
Shipra Gupta, Ankit Sakhuja, Eric McGrath, Basim Asmar
BACKGROUND: We studied the incidence, trend, underlying conditions, microbiology, and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) in children during 11 years using Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. This is the largest all-payer inpatient care database in the United States containing data for more than 8 million hospital stays from over 1000 hospitals. METHODS: NIS data from 2000 to 2010 of primary discharge diagnosis of IE in children aged ≤19 years old were studied...
November 25, 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884664/bacterial-contamination-of-saline-used-for-epidural-procedures-in-an-obstetric-setting-a-randomised-comparison-of-two-drawing-up-techniques
#3
M Onofrei, M Y Wee, B Parker, N Wee, S Hill
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence to inform practice regarding the optimum aseptic technique of drawing up saline for epidural insertion. Our regional practice is to draw up saline from a non-sterile packaged plastic ampoule, therefore introducing the risk of bacterial contamination. Usually, the anaesthetist draws up saline directly from the vial held by an assistant using a needle (needle technique). Alternatively, the saline vial is emptied onto a sterile tray by an assistant and then drawn up by the anaesthetist (tray technique)...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862152/cutaneous-polyarteritis-nodosa-localized-to-a-region-of-lymphedema-secondary-to-streptococcus-viridans-cellulitis-and-multiple-surgeries
#4
Andrew Matsumoto, Rami N Al-Rohil, Marina Bravin, Lori Anderson, Danielle Wroblewski, J Andrew Carlson
Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPAN) is a chronic, indolent, single organ arteritis that generally presents with lower extremity nodules and/or livedo racemosa, accompanied by malaise and arthralgias. CPAN is often triggered by infection, commonly Group A streptococcal species, and is considered an autoimmune reaction. Scarring from surgery and obliterative lymphangiitis from bacterial cellulitis are causes of lymphedema. Lymphedematous skin is predisposed to autoimmune disorders. Herein we report a 53yo woman who developed CPAN restricted to a localized area of the right upper arm-shoulder that had undergone multiple surgeries, complicated by episodes of Streptococcus viridans cellulitis...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835845/pronounced-heterogeneity-observed-in-high-level-daptomycin-resistant-viridans-group-streptococci
#5
Ronda L Akins, Katie E Barber, Kelli L Palmer
Viridans group streptococci (VGS) have demonstrated high-level daptomycin resistance (HLDR) upon daptomycin exposure. This study evaluated the extent of heterogeneity and whether dose escalation or combination therapy could prevent resistance development. Five VGS strains (daptomycin MICs 0.25-2mg/L) were evaluated. In vitro models utilised simulated daptomycin dosages of 4, 6, 8 and 12mg/kg with estimated fCmax of 4.1, 6.6, 8.6 and 12.9mg/L, respectively. Time-kill studies included fCmax simulations of daptomycin alone or combined with ceftriaxone, gentamicin, linezolid, rifampicin or vancomycin...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816682/acute-meningitis-of-piglets-and-mice-caused-by-co-infected-with-streptococcus-suis-and-aerococcus-viridans
#6
Zihao Pan, Ye Ma, Jiale Ma, Wenyang Dong, Huochun Yao
The two opportunistic pathogens, Streptococcus suis (S. suis) and Aerococcus. viridans (A. viridans) were isolated from the brains of piglets suffered bacterial meningitis in a farm of China. The murine model has been established to evaluate the pathogenicity and symbiotic relationship of S. suis and A. viridans simultaneously infection. Our results demonstrated the ability of new serotype S. suis to cause the classical bacterial meningitis and death were greatly enhanced during co-infection with A. viridans in mice at a proportion...
November 2, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795476/a-decennium-of-etiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-in-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-at-a-university-hospital-thailand
#7
Chotirat Nakaranurack, Chankit Puttilerpong, Gompol Suwanpimolkul
Infective endocarditis is an infection with a high mortality rate. Antimicrobial therapy is important in treatment but data on antimicrobial susceptibilities are limited. This retrospective study analyzed the data of causative microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in patients with infective endocarditis who were aged 18 years or older and received inpatient care between 2006 and 2015 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. A total of 213 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Streptococcus spp...
October 31, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771837/bacteremia-during-neutropenic-episodes-in-children-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-ciprofloxacin-and-penicillin-prophylaxis
#8
Worawut Choeyprasert, Suradej Hongeng, Usanarat Anurathapan, Samart Pakakasama
Bacteremia during neutropenic episodes is a cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We have used oral ciprofloxacin and penicillin V, from the start of the conditioning regimen until engraftment, for the prophylaxis of bacterial infection. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of and risk factors for breakthrough bacteremia during neutropenic episodes in autologous and allogeneic HSCT patients. There were 215 patients enrolled, with a median age of 8...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737290/glenohumeral-joint-sepsis-caused-by-streptococcus-mitis-a-case-report
#9
Oren I Feder, Konrad I Gruson
Septic arthritis of the shoulder girdle remains relatively uncommon, with Staphylococcus aureus and β-hemolytic streptococci the typical offending organisms in adult patients. Rare cases of Streptococcus viridans, an oral bacterium with low virulence, have been reported in the setting of septic arthritis, mostly involving the knee joint or the sternoclavicular joint. In this article, we report a case of Streptococcus mitis infection of the glenohumeral joint that likely resulted from hematogenous spread after oral trauma in a patient with poor underlying dentition...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736784/antibodies-targeting-hsa-and-pada-prevent-platelet-aggregation-and-protect-rats-against-experimental-endocarditis-induced-by-streptococcus-gordonii
#10
Stefano Mancini, Carmen Menzi, Frank Oechslin, Philippe Moreillon, José Manuel Entenza
Streptococcus gordonii and related species of oral viridans group streptococci (VGS) are common etiological agents of infective endocarditis (IE). We explored vaccination as a strategy to prevent VGS- IE, using a novel antigen presenting system based on non-genetically modified Lactococcus lactis displaying vaccinogens on its surface.Hsa and PadA are surface-located S. gordonii proteins implicated in platelet adhesion and aggregation, which are key steps in the pathogenesis of IE. This function makes them ideal targets for vaccination against VGS- IE...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684062/genotyping-oral-commensal-bacteria-to-predict-social-contact-and-structure
#11
Stephen Starko Francis, Mateusz M Plucinski, Amelia D Wallace, Lee W Riley
Social network structure is a fundamental determinant of human health, from infectious to chronic diseases. However, quantitative and unbiased approaches to measuring social network structure are lacking. We hypothesized that genetic relatedness of oral commensal bacteria could be used to infer social contact between humans, just as genetic relatedness of pathogens can be used to determine transmission chains of pathogens. We used a traditional, questionnaire survey-based method to characterize the contact network of the School of Public Health at a large research university...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668898/antimicrobial-susceptibility-against-penicillin-ampicillin-and-vancomycin-of-viridans-group-streptococcus-in-oral-microbiota-of-patients-at-risk-of-infective-endocarditis
#12
Serap Süzük, Banu Kaşkatepe, Mustafa Çetin
The viridans group Streptococci (VGS) are most abundant in the mouth; in some instances they might emerge as pathogens particularly in infective endocarditis (IE). In this study, we aimed to define and determine the susceptibility against antibiotics of VGS that are members of the oral microbiota of patients exhibiting a risk of developing IE. Forty-nine patients at risk of infective endocarditis were included in the study. Identification of the bacteria was performed using API STREP (bioMérieux, France). Gradient test strips (E-Test, France) were used to determine MIC of the bacteria against penicillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629895/comparison-of-pcr-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-with-16s-rrna-pcr-and-amplicon-sequencing-for-detection-of-bacteria-in-excised-heart-valves
#13
Bart Peeters, Paul Herijgers, Kurt Beuselinck, Willy E Peetermans, Marie-Christin Herregods, Stefanie Desmet, Katrien Lagrou
Identification of the causative pathogen of infective endocarditis is crucial for adequate management and therapy. A broad range PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) technique was compared with broad-spectrum 16S rRNA PCR and amplicon sequencing (16S rRNA PCR) for detecting bacterial pathogens in 40 heart valves obtained from 34 definite infective endocarditis patients according to the modified Duke Criteria and six non-endocarditis patients. Concordance between both molecular techniques was 98% for being positive or negative, 97% for concordant identification up to genus level and 77% for concordant identification up to species level...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583858/occurrence-of-infective-endocarditis-following-endoscopic-variceal-ligation-therapy-a-case-report
#14
Xuan Zhang, Xiaoli Liu, Meifang Yang, Huihui Dong, Lichen Xv, Lanjuan Li
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) is the endoscopic treatment of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage, however, prophylaxis antibiotic during EVL is controversial. METHODS: We reported a 60-year-old man with diabetes, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma who received EVL for esophageal variceal haemorrhage. RESULTS: On the second day after EVL, the patient developed fever and chills. A week after EVL, the blood cultures were viridans streptococcus positive, and echocardiogram showed a vegetation on the cardiac valve...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569711/oral-microflora-and-selection-of-resistance-after-a-single-dose-of%C3%A2-amoxicillin
#15
D Khalil, M Hultin, M U Rashid, B Lund
The study aimed to determine the effects of a single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis on normal oral microflora. A single dose of 2 g amoxicillin was given to 29 healthy volunteers. Saliva was collected before antibiotic administration (day 1), and again on days 2, 5, 10, 17 and 24 and subjected to culturing and antibiotic sensitivity analysis. Twenty-one per cent (6/29) of the individuals carried penicillin-V- and amoxicillin-resistant viridans streptococci before antibiotic administration. After a single dose of amoxicillin there was a significant reduction in Streptococcus salivarius on days 2 and 5, a significant reduction in other viridans streptococci on day 2 and the proportion of viridans streptococci with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin was significantly increased on days 2 and 5...
November 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529967/-a-patient-with-a-wedge-shaped-pulmonary-lesion-associated-with-streptococcus-parasanguinis
#16
Hiroya Miyamoto, Harumi Gomi, Haruhiko Ishioka, Taijiro Shirokawa
An 84-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with bloody sputum. He was found to have a right lower lobe wedge-shaped nodular lesion with chest X-ray and computed tomography of the chest. Ceftriaxone and minocycline were started empirically based on a working diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. Streptococcus parasanguinis was isolated with sputum cultures obtained on three consecutive days and was identified based on its biochemical properties. S. parasanguinis is a member of the sanguinis group of viridans Streptococci...
May 2016: Kansenshōgaku Zasshi. the Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456595/association-of-oral-flora-with-orbital-complications-of-acute-sinusitis
#17
Juliette O Flam, Michael P Platt, Rachel Sobel, Anand K Devaiah, Christopher D Brook
BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic sinusitis in children and adults can spread to the orbit. Oral flora has been seen in orbital infections, but the extent of synergy between pathogens in such infections remains unknown. METHODS: A retrospective case series of patients with complicated sinusitis that involved the orbit from acute sinusitis who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital from January 2000 to December 2014 and who had surgical cultures obtained. Patients were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code for periorbital cellulitis, subperiosteal abscess, or orbital abscess...
July 2016: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441100/selected-antimicrobial-activity-of-topical-ophthalmic-anesthetics
#18
Margaret M Reynolds, Kerryl E Greenwood-Quaintance, Robin Patel, Jose S Pulido
PURPOSE: Endophthalmitis is a rare complication of intravitreal injection (IVI). It is recommended that povidone-iodine be the last agent applied before IVI. Patients have reported povidone-iodine application to be the most bothersome part of IVIs. Topical anesthetics have been demonstrated to have antibacterial effects. This study compared the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of topical anesthetic eye drops (proparacaine 0.5%, tetracaine 0.5%, lidocaine 2.0%) and the antiseptic, 5...
July 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391898/evaluation-of-an-automated-system-for-reading-and-interpreting-disk-diffusion-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-fastidious-bacteria
#19
Evgeny A Idelevich, Karsten Becker, Janne Schmitz, Dennis Knaack, Georg Peters, Robin Köck
Results of disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing depend on individual visual reading of inhibition zone diameters. Therefore, automated reading using camera systems might represent a useful tool for standardization. In this study, the ADAGIO automated system (Bio-Rad) was evaluated for reading disk diffusion tests of fastidious bacteria. 144 clinical isolates (68 β-haemolytic streptococci, 28 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 18 viridans group streptococci, 13 Haemophilus influenzae, 7 Moraxella catarrhalis, and 10 Campylobacter jejuni) were tested on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood and 20 mg/L β-NAD (MH-F, Oxoid) according to EUCAST...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352729/in-vitro-spectrum-of-pexiganan-activity-bactericidal-action-and-resistance-selection-tested-against-pathogens-with-elevated-mic-values-to-topical-agents
#20
Robert K Flamm, Paul R Rhomberg, David J Farrell, Ronald N Jones
Pexiganan, in Phase 3 clinical development for topical use, exhibited bactericidal activity in vitro against Gram-positive and -negative isolates and was also shown to have a low potential for resistance development in broth serial passage experiments. Susceptibility studies were performed against bacterial isolates (110 total from 2004 to 2013; primarily from skin and soft tissue infections) selected for elevated MIC values (non-wildtype [WT] distributions) to bacitracin, polymyxin B, neomycin, mupirocin, retapamulin, fusidic acid, or gentamicin...
September 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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