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Non alcoholic steatohepatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452601/reactive-hyperemia-index-rhi-and-cognitive-performance-indexes-are-associated-with-histologic-markers-of-liver-disease-in-subjects-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-a-case-control-study
#1
Antonino Tuttolomondo, Salvatore Petta, Alessandra Casuccio, Carlo Maida, Vittoriano Della Corte, Mario Daidone, Domenico Di Raimondo, Rosaria Pecoraro, Roberto Fonte, Anna Cirrincione, Rita Zafonte, Daniela Cabibi, Calogero Cammà, Vito Di Marco, Anna Licata, Franco Magliozzo, Giulio Marchesini, Giovanni Merlino, Antonio Craxì, Antonio Pinto
BACKGROUND: No study evaluated vascular health markers in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through a combined analysis of reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) and arterial stiffness indexes. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to assess whether NAFLD and its histological severity are associated with impairment of arterial stiffness and RH-PAT indexes in a mixed cohort of patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Kleiner classification was used to grade NAFLD grade...
February 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448843/cenicriviroc-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#2
Frank Tacke
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has an increasing prevalence worldwide. At present, no specific pharmacotherapy is approved for NAFLD. Simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can progress to liver fibrosis that is associated with mortality in NAFLD. The recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and macrophages via chemokine receptor CCR2 as well as of lymphocytes and hepatic stellate cells via CCR5 promote the progression of NASH to fibrosis. Areas covered: I summarize preclinical and clinical data on the efficacy and safety of the dual CCR2/CCR5 inhibitor cenicriviroc (CVC, also TBR-652 or TAK-652) for the treatment of NASH and fibrosis...
February 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437870/cpt2-downregulation-adapts-hcc-to-lipid-rich-environment-and-promotes-carcinogenesis-via-acylcarnitine-accumulation-in-obesity
#3
Naoto Fujiwara, Hayato Nakagawa, Kenichiro Enooku, Yotaro Kudo, Yuki Hayata, Takuma Nakatsuka, Yasuo Tanaka, Ryosuke Tateishi, Yohko Hikiba, Kento Misumi, Mariko Tanaka, Akimasa Hayashi, Junji Shibahara, Masashi Fukayama, Junichi Arita, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Hadassa Hirschfield, Yujin Hoshida, Yoshihiro Hirata, Motoyuki Otsuka, Keisuke Tateishi, Kazuhiko Koike
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic reprogramming of tumour cells that allows for adaptation to their local environment is a hallmark of cancer. Interestingly, obesity-driven and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-driven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mouse models commonly exhibit strong steatosis in tumour cells as seen in human steatohepatitic HCC (SH-HCC), which may reflect a characteristic metabolic alteration. DESIGN: Non-tumour and HCC tissues obtained from diethylnitrosamine-injected mice fed either a normal or a high-fat diet (HFD) were subjected to comprehensive metabolome analysis, and the significance of obesity-mediated metabolic alteration in hepatocarcinogenesis was evaluated...
February 6, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435319/serum-magnesium-concentration-is-independently-associated-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#4
Ahad Eshraghian, Saman Nikeghbalian, Bita Geramizadeh, Seyed Ali Malek-Hosseini
Background: The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been well recognized yet. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between serum magnesium concentration and NAFLD. Methods: Study participants were healthy individuals who had undergone liver biopsies between January 2012 and August 2015 as a routine pre-transplant check-up before living donor liver transplantation. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated by an expert pathologist regarding presence of hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis...
February 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431526/the-potential-role-of-statins-in-treating-liver-disease
#5
Konstantinos P Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Michael Doumas, Anastasia Skalkou, Ioanna Zografou, Vasilios G Athyros
Statins are commonly use for the management of dyslipidemia, worldwide. Various studies have demonstrated that statins offer significant reduction in the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, this class of drugs has been implicated in potential liver toxicity, thus has been considered as a "forbidden-drug" in patients with increased liver enzymes. Areas covered: Studies have shown that statins might offer clinical benefits in the setting of viral hepatitis, progression of cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428719/combination-effects-of-alogliptin-and-pioglitazone-on-steatosis-and-hepatic-fibrosis-formation-in-a-mouse-model-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#6
Yuichiro Amano, Shuntarou Tsuchiya, Mayumi Imai, Kimio Tohyama, Jun Matsukawa, Osamu Isono, Hironobu Yasuno, Kazuaki Enya, Emiko Koumura, Hiroshi Nagabukuro
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of combination therapy with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, alogliptin, and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, pioglitazone, in a preclinical model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout mice fed a modified choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined diet. Monotherapy with either alogliptin (10-200 mg/kg) or pioglitazone (6-20 mg/kg) significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride content and fibrosis. The concomitant treatment of alogliptin (30 mg/kg), pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) also decreased hepatic triglyceride and hepatic collagen-I mRNA at greater extent compared to monotherapy...
February 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427497/diagnosis-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-why-liver-biopsy-is-essential
#7
REVIEW
Pierre Bedossa
The pattern of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is complex with an association of several lesions, each of them related to different pathophysiological mechanisms. Despite the progress in non-invasive tools, liver biopsy remains the only diagnostic procedure that can reliably assess these various patterns, their related severity and associations. The most important difficulties of liver biopsy can be avoided if this procedure is performed by an experienced hepatologist and read by a liver pathologist. However, for obvious reasons, biopsy should be restricted to selected patients, especially in the context of clinical trials...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427494/diagnosis-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-non-invasive-tests-are-enough
#8
REVIEW
Laurent Castera
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a major cause of liver disease worldwide and the most common liver disorder in Western countries, affecting around 25% of the general population. Fibrosis is the major long-term histological prognostic criteria of this disease. Liver biopsy cannot be realistically performed in such a huge population and, moreover, has well-known limitations (invasiveness, rare but potentially life-threatening complications and sampling variability). Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in alternative novel strategies for the non-invasive evaluation of fibrosis...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427492/future-therapy-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
REVIEW
Danny Issa, Vaishali Patel, Arun J Sanyal
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular cancer and end stage liver disease. It is also associated with increased cardiovascular and cancer related morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease includes metabolic stress to the liver associated with insulin resistance with downstream cell stress from reactive oxygen species and unfolded protein response with activation of inflammatory and fibrotic pathways...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427488/global-epidemiology-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-what-we-need-in-the-future
#10
REVIEW
Ana Ruth Araújo, Natalia Rosso, Giorgio Bedogni, Claudio Tiribelli, Stefano Bellentani
The estimated prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide is approximately 25%. However, the real prevalence of NAFLD and the associated disorders is unknown mainly because reliable and applicable diagnostic tests are lacking. This is further complicated by the lack of consensus on the terminology of different entities such as NAFLD or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although assessing fatty infiltration in the liver is simple by ultrasound, the gold standard for the assessment of fibrosis, the only marker of progression towards more severe liver disease is still liver biopsy...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427486/management-of-patients-with-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-in-real-life
#11
REVIEW
Lawrence Serfaty
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a prevalent condition that is associated with the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and with no approved treatment options except for lifestyle changes. Guidelines have been drafted for the management of NAFLD patients in this setting. Because of the lack of real-life cohort data, we will focus on practice surveys on the management of patients with NAFLD/NASH, which included primary care practitioners, gastroenterologists/hepatologists and other specialists from various countries...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427339/the-stearate-to-palmitate-ratio-modulates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-cell-apoptosis-in-non-b-non-c-hepatoma-cells
#12
Yasushi Shibasaki, Makoto Horikawa, Koji Ikegami, Ryota Kiuchi, Makoto Takeda, Takanori Hiraide, Yoshifumi Morita, Hiroyuki Konno, Hiroya Takeuchi, Mitsutoshi Setou, Takanori Sakaguchi
The increased prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without viral infection, namely, NHCC, is a major public health issue worldwide. NHCC is frequently derived from non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which exhibit dysregulated fatty acid (FA) metabolism. This raises a possibility that NHCC evolves intracellular machineries to adapt to dysregulated FA metabolism. We herein aim to identify NHCC-specifically altered FA and key molecules to achieve the adaptation. In order to analyze FA, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) was performed on fifteen HCC specimens...
February 10, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425759/expression-of-proteins-upregulated-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-alcoholic-hepatitis-ah-compared-to-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-an-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-candidate-proteins
#13
Jiajie George Lu, Luan Nguyen, Sara Samadzadeh, Maryam Masouminia, Alejandro Mendoza, Owen Sweeney, Brittany Tillman, Nikoo Afifyan, Timothy Morgan, Barbara A French, Samuel W French
Both non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and alcoholic hepatitis (AH) can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the rate of progression to cirrhosis and tumorigenesis in AH is greater than that in NASH. We asked whether there are differences between the two conditions in the expression levels of proteins involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. The proteins tested were presented at the 2017 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) Liver Meeting as overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma: KLF4, SCL19A1, FANCG, HRH-1, DNMT1, DNMT3B, TNFR2, DUSP4, EGFR, Integrin α6, HDACII, PDE3A, BCL-XL, and MTCO2...
February 6, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420066/cc-chemokine-receptor-2-promotes-recruitment-of-myeloid-cells-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Richard Parker, Christopher J Weston, Zhenhua Miao, Christopher Corbett, Matthew Armstrong, Linda Ertl, Karen Ebsworth, Matthew Walters, Trageen Baumart, Dale Newland, Jeff McMahon, Penglie Zhang, Rajinder Singh, James Campbell, Philip N Newsome, Israel Charo, Thomas Schall, David H Adams
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease, closely associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We investigated the presence of a subset of myeloid cells associated with metabolic disturbance in the liver of patients with NAFLD and a murine model of obesity-induced liver disease. Gene and protein expression in liver and serum was investigated with rt-PCR or ELISA and correlated to clinical disease. Liver-infiltrating immune cells were isolated from normal or diseased human liver for flow cytometric analysis...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414684/digoxin-suppresses-pyruvate-kinase-m2-promoted-hif-1%C3%AE-transactivation-in-steatohepatitis
#15
Xinshou Ouyang, Sheng-Na Han, Ji-Yuan Zhang, Balazs Tamas Nemeth, Pal Pacher, Dechun Feng, Ramon Bataller, Joaquin Cabezas, Peter Stärkel, Joan Caballeria, Rebecca LePine Pongratz, Shi-Ying Cai, Bernd Schnabl, Rafaz Hoque, Yonglin Chen, Wei-Hong Yang, Irma Garcia Martinez, Fu-Sheng Wang, Bin Gao, Natalie Julia Torok, Richard Glenn Kibbey, Wajahat Zafar Mehal
Sterile inflammation after tissue damage is a ubiquitous response, yet it has the highest amplitude in the liver. This has major clinical consequences, for alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH and NASH) account for the majority of liver disease in industrialized countries and both lack therapy. Requirements for sustained sterile inflammation include increased oxidative stress and activation of the HIF-1α signaling pathway. We demonstrate the ability of digoxin, a cardiac glycoside, to protect from liver inflammation and damage in ASH and NASH...
February 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413959/role-of-gut-microbiota-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-progression-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-to-hepatocarcinoma-current-and-innovative-therapeutic-approaches
#16
REVIEW
Antonella Borrelli, Patrizia Bonelli, Franca Maria Tuccillo, Ira D Goldfine, Joseph L Evans, Franco Maria Buonaguro, Aldo Mancini
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. NAFLD progresses through the inflammatory phase of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to fibrosis and cirrhosis, with some cases developing liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver biopsy remains the gold standard approach to a definitive diagnosis of NAFLD and the distinction between simple steatosis and NASH. The pathogenesis of NASH is still not clear. Several theories have been proposed ranging from the "Two Hit Theory" to the "Multiple Hit Theory"...
January 27, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404365/acute-right-ventricular-failure-after-orthotopic-liver-transplantation
#17
Rohan M Goswami, Rami N Khouzam
The interdependence between the heart and liver in maintaining hemodynamic stability during the perioperative period of either orthotopic heart (OHT) or liver (OLT) transplantation is important. The pre-transplant hemodynamic changes that occur in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) can include decreased systemic vascular resistance, poor ventricular response to stress and increased cardiac output (CO). Concomitant pulmonary disorders are often present in ESLD. Portopulmonary hypertension (PoPHTN) is an important marker for increased mortality in liver transplant patients...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402657/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-association-with-cardiovascular-disease
#18
Sivabal Vanjiappan, Abdoul Hamide, Ramesh Ananthakrishnan, Senthilkumar Gandhipuram Periyasamy, Vadivelan Mehalingam
INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a wide spectrum of liver disease that ranges from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Obesity and diabetes mellitus are the prime risk factors for NAFLD. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of NAFLD among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to detect the association of NAFLD with cardiovascular disease in them. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study...
January 31, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401451/broad-views-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Adil Mardinoglu, Mathias Uhlen, Jan Borén
Multi-omics multi-tissue data are used to interpret genome-wide association study results from mice to identify key driver genes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the accumulation of fat (steatosis) in the liver due to causes other than excessive alcohol consumption. The disease may progress to more severe forms of liver diseases, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this issue of Cell Systems, Krishnan et al. (2018) reveal mechanisms underlying NAFLD by generating multi-omics data using liver and adipose tissues obtained from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel, consisting of 113 mouse strains with various degrees of NAFLD...
January 24, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399274/preserved-liver-regeneration-capacity-after-partial-hepatectomy-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#20
David Haldrup, Sara Heebøll, Karen Louise Thomsen, Kasper Jarlhelt Andersen, Michelle Meier, Frank Viborg Mortensen, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Henning Grønbæk
AIM: To evaluate the liver regeneration capacity (LRC) after partial hepatectomy (PH) in experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Fifty-four female rats were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFCD, 65% fat, 1% cholesterol) or standard diet (STD) for 16 wk. A 70% PH was performed and the animals were euthanised before PH or 2 or 5 d post-PH. LRC was evaluated using: The total number of Ki-67 positive hepatocytes in the caudate lobe, N(Ki-67, lobe) evaluated in a stereology-based design, the regenerated protein ratio (RPR), prothrombin-proconvertin ratio (PP), and mRNA expression of genes related to regeneration...
January 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
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