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Non alcoholic steatohepatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045180/quantitative-liver-mri-biopsy-correlation-in-pediatric-and-young-adult-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-can-one-be-used-to-predict-the-other
#1
Jonathan R Dillman, Andrew T Trout, Emma N Costello, Suraj D Serai, Kristin S Bramlage, Rohit Kohli, Stavra A Xanthakos
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationships between quantitative liver MRI measurements and liver biopsy findings in pediatric and young adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from a registry that prospectively enrolls pediatric and young adult patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD at our tertiary medical center with parent or guardian and subject informed consent, as appropriate...
October 18, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038503/gastric-acid-suppression-promotes-alcoholic-liver-disease-by-inducing-overgrowth-of-intestinal-enterococcus
#2
Cristina Llorente, Peter Jepsen, Tatsuo Inamine, Lirui Wang, Sena Bluemel, Hui J Wang, Rohit Loomba, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Mitchell L Schubert, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet, Jun Xu, Tatiana Kisseleva, Samuel B Ho, Jessica DePew, Xin Du, Henrik T Sørensen, Hendrik Vilstrup, Karen E Nelson, David A Brenner, Derrick E Fouts, Bernd Schnabl
Chronic liver disease is rising in western countries and liver cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death worldwide. Simultaneously, use of gastric acid suppressive medications is increasing. Here, we show that proton pump inhibitors promote progression of alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice by increasing numbers of intestinal Enterococcus spp. Translocating enterococci lead to hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte death. Expansion of intestinal Enterococcus faecalis is sufficient to exacerbate ethanol-induced liver disease in mice...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034439/low-grade-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-is-common-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-on-quantitative-jejunal-aspirate-culture
#3
Uday C Ghoshal, Chalamalasetty Sreenivasa Baba, Ujjala Ghoshal, George Alexander, Asha Misra, Vivek A Saraswat, Gourdas Choudhuri
BACKGROUND: Though pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unclear, association with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth [SIBO] and fecal dysbiosis is suggested. We evaluated SIBO in NASH using quantitative jejunal aspirate culture (conventional criteria: ≥ 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU)/mL and newer cutoff ≥ 10(3) CFU/mL) and glucose hydrogen breath test. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with NASH (age 37.5 years, range 20-54, 9, 24% female), diagnosed by ultrasonography, alanine aminotransferase >1...
October 16, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028281/usefulness-of-the-index-of-nash-ion-for-the-diagnosis-of-steatohepatitis-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-an-external-validation-study
#4
Ramy Younes, Chiara Rosso, Salvatore Petta, Monica Cucco, Milena Marietti, Gian Paolo Caviglia, Alessia Ciancio, Maria Lorena Abate, Carlo Cammà, Antonina Smedile, Antonio Craxì, Giorgio Maria Saracco, Elisabetta Bugianesi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The non-invasive identification of steatohepatitis (NASH) in patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is an unmet need in clinical practice. Index of NASH (ION) is a new tool for the prediction of NASH. We aimed to externally validate ION and to compare it with CK-18. Since necroinflammation precedes fibrosis, we also tested ION in combination with non-invasive tools for fibrosis. METHODS: We analyzed data from 292 Italian patients (169 Southern cohort, and 123 Northern cohort) with an histological diagnosis of NAFLD...
October 13, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023819/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-impairs-expression-of-the-type-ii-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptor
#5
Tanaporn Khamphaya, Natsasi Chukijrungroat, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan, Kisha A Mitchell-Richards, Marie E Robert, Albert Mennone, Michael H Nathanson, Jittima Weerachayaphorn
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease worldwide. It may result in several types of liver problems including impaired liver regeneration, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Because liver regeneration depends on calcium signaling, we examined the effects of NAFLD on expression of the type II inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR2), the principle calcium release channel in hepatocytes. ITPR2 promoter activity was measured in Huh7 and HepG2 cells. ITPR2 and c-Jun protein levels were evaluated in Huh7 cells, in liver tissue from a rat model of NAFLD and in liver biopsy specimens of patients with simple steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
October 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022011/placental-extract-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-by-exerting-protective-effects-on-endothelial-cells
#6
Akihiro Yamauchi, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Teruhide Koyama, Nobuyoshi Iinuma, Shumpei Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Miyazaki, Eiichi Hirano, Taiichi Kaku, Takayuki Shindo
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of fatty liver disease that is defined by the presence of inflammation and fibrosis, ultimately leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment with human placental extract (HPE) reportedly ameliorates the hepatic injury. We evaluated the effect of HPE treatment in a mouse model of NASH. In the methione- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced liver injury model, fibrosis started from regions adjacent to the sinusoids. We administered the MCD diet with high-salt loading (8% NaCl in the drinking water) to mice deficient in the vasoprotective molecule RAMP2 for 5 weeks, with or without HPE...
September 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017855/role-of-neuromedin-u-in-accelerating-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#7
Hitoshi Teranishi, Masafumi Hayashi, Ryoko Higa, Kenji Mori, Takashi Miyazawa, Jun Hino, Yuichiro Amano, Ryuichi Tozawa, Takanori Ida, Toshikatsu Hanada, Mikiya Miyazato, Reiko Hanada, Kenji Kangawa, Kazuwa Nakao
Neuromedin U (NMU), a neuropeptide originally isolated from porcine spinal cord, has multiple physiological functions and is involved in obesity and inflammation. Excessive fat accumulation in the liver leads to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is closely associated with obesity. NAFLD and NASH develop and progress via complex pathophysiological processes, and it remains unclear to what extend the NMU system contributes to the risk of obesity-related disorders such as NAFLD and NASH...
October 7, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994372/-clarifying-the-role-of-ripk3-and-necroptosis-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#8
Jérémie Gautheron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989700/toxicological-implications-of-mitochondrial-localization-of-cyp2e1
#9
Jessica H Hartman, Grover P Miller, Joel N Meyer
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) metabolizes an extensive array of pollutants, drugs, and other small molecules, often resulting in bioactivation to reactive metabolites. Therefore, it is unsurprising that it has been the subject of decades of research publications and reviews. However, while CYP2E1 has historically been studied in the endoplasmic reticulum (erCYP2E1), active CYP2E1 is also present in mitochondria (mtCYP2E1). Relatively few studies have specifically focused on mtCYP2E1, but there is growing interest in this form of the enzyme as a driver in toxicological mechanisms given its activity and location...
2017: Toxicology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988798/differential-carbonylation-of-proteins-in-end-stage-human-fatty-and-nonfatty-nash
#10
Colin T Shearn, Laura M Saba, James R Roede, David J Orlicky, Alisabeth H Shearn, Dennis R Petersen
OBJECTIVE: In the liver, a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is oxidative stress leading to the accumulation of highly reactive electrophilic α/β unsaturated aldehydes. The objective of this study was to determine if significant differences were evident when evaluating carbonylation in human end-stage fatty nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (fNASH) compared to end-stage nonfatty NASH (nfNASH). METHODS: Using hepatic tissue obtained from healthy humans and patients diagnosed with end stage nfNASH or fNASH, overall carbonylation was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and LC-MS/MS followed by bioinformatics...
October 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987386/autophagy-in-the-inflammation-carcinogenesis-pathway-of-liver-and-hcc-immunotherapy
#11
Sizhe Yu, Yu Wang, Li Jing, F X Claret, Qing Li, Tao Tian, Xuan Liang, Zhiping Ruan, Lili Jiang, Yu Yao, Kejun Nan, Yi Lv, Hui Guo
Autophagy plays a dual role in many types of cancer, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Autophagy seems to be inhibited and functions as a tumor-suppression mechanism in the "inflammation-carcinogenesis" pathway of the liver, including hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, alcoholic steatohepatitis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis related HCC. However, in established tumors, autophagy plays a tumor-promoting role. Because of the varied function of autophagy in HCC, we hypothesized p62 as a marker to evaluate the autophagic level...
October 5, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986720/the-role-of-metabolic-surgery-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-improvement
#12
REVIEW
Pedro Paulo Caravatto, Ricardo Cohen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequently associated with obesity and overweight. It has a broad spectrum of clinical and histological presentations, such as steatosis, inflammation (known as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or NASH), fibrosis, and cirrhosis. There is increasing evidence that marked weight loss following bariatric surgery is associated with NASH resolution; however, little is known about the mechanisms that may lead to this beneficial condition and if it is due to weight loss alone...
October 7, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983453/remote-sensing-between-liver-and-intestine-importance-of-microbial-metabolites
#13
Zidong Donna Fu, Julia Yue Cui
Recent technological advancements including metagenomics sequencing and metabolomics have allowed the discovery of critical functions of gut microbiota in obesity, malnutrition, neurological disorders, asthma, and xenobiotic metabolism. Classification of the human gut microbiome into distinct "enterotypes" has been proposed to serve as a new paradigm for understanding the interplay between microbial variation and human disease phenotypes, as many organs are affected by gut microbiota modifications during the pathogenesis of diseases...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983452/role-of-fxr-in-liver-inflammation-during-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#14
Laura E Armstrong, Grace L Guo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: About 15-25% of patients with simple steatosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease progresses to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and the underlying mechanism for this progression has not been elucidated. NASH ultimately could progress to cirrhosis, an irreversible condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been studied for its role in modulating inflammation, and the expression of FXR is down-regulated during NASH development...
April 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981243/-treatments-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#15
T Gustot
Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases are highly prevalent in Western countries and associated with insulin resitance and metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by lobular inflammation and hepatocellular ballooning, and may be associated with liver fibrosis leading to cirrhosis and its complications as hepatocarcinoma. The presence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus or increased liver enzymes in patients with metabolic syndrome should prompt non-invasive screening (liver ultrasound, serum markers and/or transient elastography) to predict steatosis, NASH and fibrosis...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975533/association-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-at-pnpla3-with-fatty-liver-steatohepatitis-and-cirrhosis-of-liver
#16
Shahinul Alam, Mohammad Shaiful Islam, Saiful Islam, Golam Mustafa, Ahmed Abu Saleh, Nooruddin Ahmad
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) at I148 with histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Patients were selected for the study if they had histological evidence of NAFLD and clinical evidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatits (NASH) cirrhosis. We included 50 NASH cirrhosis, 99 patients of NAFLD including 36 non-NASH fatty liver (NNFL) along with 63 NASH and 75 healthy controls...
October 4, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972878/role-of-nutrition-gene-polymorphism-and-gut-microbiota-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
Lingbo Kong, Yu Lu, Siyu Zhang, Yuemin Nan, Liang Qiao
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world. The nutrients play important roles in the development and progression of NAFLD. High-calorie diet, especially the diet rich in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, as well as sugary drinks with high fructose content, induces hepatic steatosis and triggers progression of steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Disordered micronutrient status and gut microbiota are also involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD...
September 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972485/peculiarities-of-the-clinical-course-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-against-the-background-of-the-chronic-kidney-disease-of-the-i-iii-stage-with-secondary-arterial-hypertension
#18
O Hukhlina, A Antoniv, I Dudka, T Dudka, O Mandryk
The article addresses the theoretical generalization of the clinical study of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis peculiarities in comorbidity with obesity and chronic kidney disease of the І-ІІІ stage, characterized by higher frequency and intensity of clinical and biochemical syndromes, the manifestation of which is likely to increase the occurrence of secondary arterial hypertension (portal hypertension syndromes, cholestasis, mesenchymal inflammation). Comorbid course of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with chronic kidney disease is characterized by higher degree of liver steatosis compared to the patients with only non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (p<0...
September 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971098/the-nutraceutic-silybin-counteracts-excess-lipid-accumulation-and-ongoing-oxidative-stress-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression
#19
Giulia Vecchione, Elena Grasselli, Federica Cioffi, Francesca Baldini, Paulo J Oliveira, Vilma A Sardão, Katia Cortese, Antonia Lanni, Adriana Voci, Piero Portincasa, Laura Vergani
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), are major consequences of hepatic lipid overload, which can contribute to progression of NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Also, mitochondria are involved in the NAFLD pathogenesis for their role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Definitive treatments for NAFLD/NASH are lacking so far. Silybin, the extract of the milk thistle seeds, has previously shown beneficial effects in NAFLD...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970836/fructose-a-dietary-sugar-in-crosstalk-with-microbiota-contributing-to-the-development-and-progression-of-non-alcoholic-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Jessica Lambertz, Sabine Weiskirchen, Silvano Landert, Ralf Weiskirchen
Fructose is one of the key dietary catalysts in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD comprises a complex disease spectrum, including steatosis (fatty liver), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocyte injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. It is also the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, which covers abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Commensal bacteria modulate the host immune system, protect against exogenous pathogens, and are gatekeepers in intestinal barrier function and maturation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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