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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935937/let-s-not-waste-time-using-temporal-information-in-clustered-activity-estimation-with-spatial-adjacency-restrictions-caesar-for-parcellating-fmri-data
#1
Ronald J Janssen, Pasi Jylänki, Marcel A J van Gerven
We have proposed a Bayesian approach for functional parcellation of whole-brain FMRI measurements which we call Clustered Activity Estimation with Spatial Adjacency Restrictions (CAESAR). We use distance-dependent Chinese restaurant processes (dd-CRPs) to define a flexible prior which partitions the voxel measurements into clusters whose number and shapes are unknown a priori. With dd-CRPs we can conveniently implement spatial constraints to ensure that our parcellations remain spatially contiguous and thereby physiologically meaningful...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933531/using-baseline-transcriptional-connectomes-in-rat-to-identify-genetic-pathways-associated-with-predisposition-to-complex-traits
#2
Laura Saba, Paula Hoffman, Boris Tabakoff
Although rat is a critical model organism in preclinical medications development, its use in systems genetics studies remains sparse. The PhenoGen database and website contain detailed information on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the rat brain, liver, heart, and brown adipose transcriptome. This database has been generated using the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred panel and is being expanded to a hybrid rat diversity panel that includes many common inbred strains as well. By using such a panel, the PhenoGen project has created a renewable and cumulative resource for the rat genomics community...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930915/anatomical-dysconnectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-compared-with-schizophrenia-a-selective-review-of-structural-network-analyses-using-diffusion-mri
#3
REVIEW
Stefani O'Donoghue, Laurena Holleran, Dara M Cannon, Colm McDonald
BACKGROUND: The dysconnectivity hypothesis suggests that psychotic illnesses arise not from regionally specific focal pathophysiology, but rather from impaired neuroanatomical integration across networks of brain regions. Decreased white matter organization has been hypothesized to be a feature of psychotic illnesses in general, which is supported by meta-analyses of DTI studies in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although many diffusion MRI studies investigate bipolar disorder and schizophrenia alone, relatively few studies directly compare structural features in these psychotic illnesses...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924867/constraints-and-spandrels-of-interareal-connectomes
#4
Mikail Rubinov
Interareal connectomes are whole-brain wiring diagrams of white-matter pathways. Recent studies have identified modules, hubs, module hierarchies and rich clubs as structural hallmarks of these wiring diagrams. An influential current theory postulates that connectome modules are adequately explained by evolutionary pressures for wiring economy, but that the other hallmarks are not explained by such pressures and are therefore less trivial. Here, we use constraint network models to test these postulates in current gold-standard vertebrate and invertebrate interareal-connectome reconstructions...
December 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924721/structural-brain-connectome-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-disease
#5
Sebastiano Galantucci, Federica Agosta, Elka Stefanova, Silvia Basaia, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Tanja Stojković, Elisa Canu, Iva Stanković, Vladana Spica, Massimiliano Copetti, Delia Gagliardi, Vladimir S Kostić, Massimo Filippi
Purpose To investigate the structural brain connectome in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and in patients with PD without MCI. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committees, and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects prior to enrollment. The individual structural brain connectome of 170 patients with PD (54 with MCI, 116 without MCI) and 41 healthy control subjects was obtained by using deterministic diffusion-tensor tractography...
December 7, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921996/the-cns-connectome-of-a-tadpole-larva-of-ciona-intestinalis-l-highlights-sidedness-in-the-brain-of-a-chordate-sibling
#6
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiyuan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Left-right asymmetries in brains are usually minor or cryptic. We report brain asymmetries in the tiny, dorsal tubular nervous system of the ascidian tadpole larva, Ciona intestinalis. Chordate in body plan and development, the larva provides an outstanding example of brain asymmetry. Although early neural development is well studied, detailed cellular organization of the swimming larva's CNS remains unreported. Using serial-section EM we document the synaptic connectome of the larva's 177 CNS neurons. These formed 6618 synapses including 1772 neuromuscular junctions, augmented by 1206 gap junctions...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920976/resting-state-theta-band-connectivity-and-graph-analysis-in-generalized-social-anxiety-disorder
#7
Mengqi Xing, Reza Tadayonnejad, Annmarie MacNamara, Olusola Ajilore, Julia DiGangi, K Luan Phan, Alex Leow, Heide Klumpp
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state studies show generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD) is associated with disturbances in networks involved in emotion regulation, emotion processing, and perceptual functions, suggesting a network framework is integral to elucidating the pathophysiology of gSAD. However, fMRI does not measure the fast dynamic interconnections of functional networks. Therefore, we examined whole-brain functional connectomics with electroencephalogram (EEG) during resting-state...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919750/mapping-the-functional-connectome-in-traumatic-brain-injury-what-can-graph-metrics-tell-us
#8
Karen Caeyenberghs, Helena Verhelst, Adam Clemente, Peter H Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with cognitive and motor deficits, and poses a significant personal, societal, and economic burden. One mechanism by which TBI is thought to affect cognition and behaviour is through changes in functional connectivity. Graph theory is a powerful framework for quantifying topological features of neuroimaging-derived functional networks. The objective of this paper is to review studies examining functional connectivity in TBI with an emphasis on graph theoretical analysis that is proving to be valuable in uncovering network abnormalities in this condition...
December 2, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918539/rapidly-evolving-homing-crispr-barcodes
#9
Reza Kalhor, Prashant Mali, George M Church
We present an approach for engineering evolving DNA barcodes in living cells. A homing guide RNA (hgRNA) scaffold directs the Cas9-hgRNA complex to the DNA locus of the hgRNA itself. We show that this homing CRISPR-Cas9 system acts as an expressed genetic barcode that diversifies its sequence and that the rate of diversification can be controlled in cultured cells. We further evaluate these barcodes in cell populations and show that they can be used to record lineage history and that the barcode RNA can be amplified in situ, a prerequisite for in situ sequencing...
December 5, 2016: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917958/functional-complexity-emerging-from-anatomical-constraints-in-the-brain-the-significance-of-network-modularity-and-rich-clubs
#10
Gorka Zamora-López, Yuhan Chen, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Changsong Zhou
The large-scale structural ingredients of the brain and neural connectomes have been identified in recent years. These are, similar to the features found in many other real networks: the arrangement of brain regions into modules and the presence of highly connected regions (hubs) forming rich-clubs. Here, we examine how modules and hubs shape the collective dynamics on networks and we find that both ingredients lead to the emergence of complex dynamics. Comparing the connectomes of C. elegans, cats, macaques and humans to surrogate networks in which either modules or hubs are destroyed, we find that functional complexity always decreases in the perturbed networks...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917138/neural-elements-for-predictive-coding
#11
REVIEW
Stewart Shipp
Predictive coding theories of sensory brain function interpret the hierarchical construction of the cerebral cortex as a Bayesian, generative model capable of predicting the sensory data consistent with any given percept. Predictions are fed backward in the hierarchy and reciprocated by prediction error in the forward direction, acting to modify the representation of the outside world at increasing levels of abstraction, and so to optimize the nature of perception over a series of iterations. This accounts for many 'illusory' instances of perception where what is seen (heard, etc...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916985/the-obese-brain-as-a-heritable-phenotype-a-combined-morphometry-and-twin-study
#12
C M Weise, P Piaggi, M Reinhardt, K Chen, C R Savage, J Krakoff, B Pleger
BACKGROUND: Body weight and adiposity are heritable traits. To date it remains unknown whether obesity-associated brain structural alterations are under a similar level of genetic control. METHODS: For this study we utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from the Human Connectome Project. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate associations between body mass index (BMI) and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in a sample of 875 young adults with a wide BMI range (386m/489f; age 28...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916665/task-modulations-and-clinical-manifestations-in-the-brain-functional-connectome-in-1615-fmri-datasets
#13
Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Christine Lycke Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Karolina Kauppi, Francesco Bettella, Trine V Lagerberg, Akiah O Berg, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid S Melle, Torill Ueland, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
OBJECTIVE: An abundance of experimental studies have motivated a range of models concerning the cognitive underpinnings of severe mental disorders, yet the conception that cognitive and brain dysfunction is confined to specific cognitive domains and contexts has limited ecological validity. Schizophrenia and bipolar spectrum disorders have been conceptualized as disorders of brain connectivity; yet little is known about the pervasiveness across cognitive tasks. METHOD: To address this outstanding issue of context specificity, we estimated functional network connectivity from fMRI data obtained during five cognitive tasks (0-back, 2-back, go/no-go, recognition of positive faces, negative faces) in 90 patients with schizophrenia, 97 patients with bipolar spectrum disorder, and 136 healthy controls, including 1615 fMRI datasets in total...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911739/toward-whole-body-connectomics
#14
Chung-Chuan Lo, Ann-Shyn Chiang
Recent advances in neuro-technologies have revolutionized knowledge of brain structure and functions. Governments and private organizations worldwide have initiated several large-scale brain connectome projects, to further understand how the brain works at the systems levels. Most recent projects focus on only brain neurons, with the exception of an early effort to reconstruct the 302 neurons that comprise the whole body of the small worm, Caenorhabditis elegans However, to fully elucidate the neural circuitry of complex behavior, it is crucial to understand brain interactions with the whole body, which can be achieved only by mapping the whole-body connectome...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911289/the-brain-s-structural-connectome-mediates-the-relationship-between-regional-neuroimaging-biomarkers-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Sneha Pandya, Amy Kuceyeski, Ashish Raj
Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the most common causes of dementia in adults, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder exhibiting well-defined neuropathological hallmarks. It is known that disease pathology involves misfolded amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau proteins, and exhibits a relatively stereotyped progression over decades. The relationship between AD neuropathological hallmarks (Aβ, hypometabolism, and tau proteins) and imaging biomarkers (MRI, AV-45/FDG-PET) is not fully understood. In addition, biomarker pathologies are oftentimes discordant, wherein it may show varying levels of abnormality across brain regions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896314/graph-theoretic-and-motif-analyses-of-the-hippocampal-neuron-type-potential-connectome
#16
Christopher L Rees, Diek W Wheeler, David J Hamilton, Charise M White, Alexander O Komendantov, Giorgio A Ascoli
We computed the potential connectivity map of all known neuron types in the rodent hippocampal formation by supplementing scantly available synaptic data with spatial distributions of axons and dendrites from the open-access knowledge base Hippocampome.org. The network that results from this endeavor, the broadest and most complete for a mammalian cortical region at the neuron-type level to date, contains more than 3200 connections among 122 neuron types across six subregions. Analyses of these data using graph theory metrics unveil the fundamental architectural principles of the hippocampal circuit...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894889/tradeoffs-in-pushing-the-spatial-resolution-of-fmri-for-the-7t-human-connectome-project
#17
An Thanh Vu, Keith Jamison, Matthew F Glasser, Stephen M Smith, Timothy Coalson, Steen Moeller, Edward J Auerbach, Kamil Ugurbil, Essa Yacoub
Whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in conjunction with multiband acceleration, has played an important role in mapping the functional connectivity throughout the entire brain with both high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultrahigh magnetic field strengths (7T and above) allow functional imaging with even higher functional contrast-to-noise ratios for improved spatial resolution and specificity compared to traditional field strengths (1.5T and 3T). High-resolution 7T fMRI, however, has primarily been constrained to smaller brain regions given the amount of time it takes to acquire the number of slices necessary for high resolution whole brain imaging...
November 25, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892543/functional-and-structural-signatures-of-the-anterior-insula-are-associated-with-risk-taking-tendency-of-analgesic-decision-making
#18
Chia-Shu Lin, Hsiao-Han Lin, Shih-Yun Wu
In a medical context, decision-making is associated with complicated assessment of gains, losses and uncertainty of outcomes. We here provide novel evidence about the brain mechanisms underlying decision-making of analgesic treatment. Thirty-six healthy participants were recruited and completed the Analgesic Decision-making Task (ADT), which quantified individual tendency of risk-taking (RPI), as the frequency of choosing a riskier option to relieve pain. All the participants received resting-state (rs) functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and structural MRI...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885635/astroglia-glutamatergic-transmission-and-psychiatric-diseases
#19
Alexei Verkhratsky, Luca Steardo, Liang Peng, Vladimir Parpura
Astrocytes are primary homeostatic cells of the central nervous system. They regulate glutamatergic transmission through the removal of glutamate from the extracellular space and by supplying neurons with glutamine. Glutamatergic transmission is generally believed to be significantly impaired in the contexts of all major neuropsychiatric diseases. In most of these neuropsychiatric diseases, astrocytes show signs of degeneration and atrophy, which is likely to be translated into reduced homeostatic capabilities...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882295/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-childhood-apraxia-of-speech-a-connectomic-approach
#20
Simona Fiori, Andrea Guzzetta, Jhimli Mitra, Kerstin Pannek, Rosa Pasquariello, Paola Cipriani, Michela Tosetti, Giovanni Cioni, Stephen E Rose, Anna Chilosi
Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a paediatric speech sound disorder in which precision and consistency of speech movements are impaired. Most children with idiopathic CAS have normal structural brain MRI. We hypothesize that children with CAS have altered structural connectivity in speech/language networks compared to controls and that these altered connections are related to functional speech/language measures. Whole brain probabilistic tractography, using constrained spherical deconvolution, was performed for connectome generation in 17 children with CAS and 10 age-matched controls...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
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