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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110447/hemispheric-lateralization-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-ventral-striatum-an-exploratory-study
#1
Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Herta H Chao, Chiang-Shan R Li
Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is widely used to examine cerebral functional organization. The ventral striatum (VS) is critical to motivated behavior, with extant studies suggesting functional hemispheric asymmetry. The current work investigated differences in rsFC between the left (L) and right (R) VS and explored gender differences in the extent of functional lateralization. In 106 adults, we computed a laterality index (fcLI) to query whether a target region shows greater or less connectivity to the L vs R VS...
January 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104909/selective-neuronal-vulnerability-in-parkinson-disease
#2
D James Surmeier, José A Obeso, Glenda M Halliday
Intracellular α-synuclein (α-syn)-rich protein aggregates called Lewy pathology (LP) and neuronal death are commonly found in the brains of patients with clinical Parkinson disease (cPD). It is widely believed that LP appears early in the disease and spreads in synaptically coupled brain networks, driving neuronal dysfunction and death. However, post-mortem analysis of human brains and connectome-mapping studies show that the pattern of LP in cPD is not consistent with this simple model, arguing that, if LP propagates in cPD, it must be gated by cell- or region-autonomous mechanisms...
January 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104634/structural-connectivity-analysis-in-children-with-segmental-callosal-agenesis
#3
M Severino, D Tortora, B Toselli, S Uccella, M Traverso, G Morana, V Capra, E Veneselli, M M Fato, A Rossi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Segmental callosal agenesis is characterized by the absence of the intermediate callosal portion. We aimed to evaluate the structural connectivity of segmental callosal agenesis by using constrained spherical deconvolution tractography and connectome analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the clinical-radiologic features of 8 patients (5 males; mean age, 3.9 years). Spherical deconvolution and probabilistic tractography were performed on diffusion data...
January 19, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104411/brain-and-cognitive-reserve-translation-via-network-control-theory
#4
REVIEW
John Dominic Medaglia, Fabio Pasqualetti, Roy H Hamilton, Sharon L Thompson-Schill, Danielle S Bassett
Traditional approaches to understanding the brain's resilience to neuropathology have identified neurophysiological variables, often described as brain or cognitive "reserve," associated with better outcomes. However, mechanisms of function and resilience in large-scale brain networks remain poorly understood. Dynamic network theory may provide a basis for substantive advances in understanding functional resilience in the human brain. In this perspective, we describe recent theoretical approaches from network control theory as a framework for investigating network level mechanisms underlying cognitive function and the dynamics of neuroplasticity in the human brain...
January 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093358/mapping-the-functional-connectome-traits-of-levels-of-consciousness
#5
Enrico Amico, Daniele Marinazzo, Carol Di Perri, Lizette Heine, Jitka Annen, Charlotte Martial, Mario Dzemidzic, Murielle Kirsch, Vincent Bonhomme, Steven Laureys, Joaquín Goñi
Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may be altered in different conditions, and neurological disorders. This is particularly relevant for patients in disorders of consciousness (DOC) following severe acquired brain damage and coma, one of the most devastating conditions in modern medical care. We present a novel data-driven methodology, connICA, which implements Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the extraction of robust independent FC patterns (FC-traits) from a set of individual functional connectomes, without imposing any a priori data stratification into groups...
January 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090602/probabilistic-tractography-for-topographically-organized-connectomes
#6
Dogu Baran Aydogan, Yonggang Shi
While tractography is widely used in brain imaging research, its quantitative validation is highly difficult. Many fiber systems, however, have well-known topographic organization which can even be quantitatively mapped such as the retinotopy of visual pathway. Motivated by this previously untapped anatomical knowledge, we develop a novel tractography method that preserves both topographic and geometric regularity of fiber systems. For topographic preservation, we propose a novel likelihood function that tests the match between parallel curves and fiber orientation distributions...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076347/spatiotemporal-feedback-and-network-structure-drive-and-encode-caenorhabditis-elegans-locomotion
#7
James M Kunert, Joshua L Proctor, Steven L Brunton, J Nathan Kutz
Using a computational model of the Caenorhabditis elegans connectome dynamics, we show that proprioceptive feedback is necessary for sustained dynamic responses to external input. This is consistent with the lack of biophysical evidence for a central pattern generator, and recent experimental evidence that proprioception drives locomotion. The low-dimensional functional response of the Caenorhabditis elegans network of neurons to proprioception-like feedback is optimized by input of specific spatial wavelengths which correspond to the spatial scale of real body shape dynamics...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073023/functional-connectomics-how-maggots-make-up-their-minds
#8
William B Kristan
How Drosophila larvae select one behavior or a sequence of behaviors, and then persist in the final one, has been addressed by a powerful combination of electron-microscopy reconstruction of neuronal connections, genetic manipulations, electrophysiology, and neuronal modeling. Surprisingly, reciprocal inhibitory synaptic connections are major players in choosing, sequencing and maintaining behaviors.
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072380/network-functional-connectivity-and-whole-brain-functional-connectomics-to-investigate-cognitive-decline-in-neurodegenerative-conditions
#9
REVIEW
O Dipasquale, Mara Cercignani
Non-invasive mapping of brain functional connectivity (FC) has played a fundamental role in neuroscience, and numerous scientists have been fascinated by its ability to reveal the brain's intricate morphology and functional properties. In recent years, two different techniques have been developed that are able to explore FC in pathophysiological conditions and to provide simple and non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of disease onset, severity and progression. These techniques are independent component analysis, which allows a network-based functional exploration of the brain, and graph theory, which provides a quantitative characterization of the whole-brain FC...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060275/automated-analysis-of-c-elegans-swim-behavior-using-celest-software
#10
Carolina Ibáñez-Ventoso, Christopher Herrera, Esteban Chen, Douglas Motto, Monica Driscoll
Dissecting the neuronal and neuromuscular circuits that regulate behavior remains a major challenge in biology. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an invaluable model organism in helping to tackle this challenge, from inspiring technological approaches, building the human brain connectome, to actually shedding light on the specific molecular drivers of basic functional patterns. The bulk of the behavioral studies in C. elegans have been performed on solid substrates. In liquid, animals exhibit behavioral patterns that include movement at a range of speeds in 3D, as well as partial body movements, such as a posterior curl without anterior shape change, which introduce new challenges for quantitation...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056097/functionality-and-robustness-of-injured-connectomic-dynamics-in-c-elegans-linking-behavioral-deficits-to-neural-circuit-damage
#11
James M Kunert, Pedro D Maia, J Nathan Kutz
Using a model for the dynamics of the full somatic nervous system of the nematode C. elegans, we address how biological network architectures and their functionality are degraded in the presence of focal axonal swellings (FAS) arising from neurodegenerative disease and/or traumatic brain injury. Using biophysically measured FAS distributions and swelling sizes, we are able to simulate the effects of injuries on the neural dynamics of C. elegans, showing how damaging the network degrades its low-dimensional dynamical responses...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054634/within-brain-area-tractography-suggests-local-modularity-using-high-resolution-connectomics
#12
Peter N Taylor, Yujiang Wang, Marcus Kaiser
Previous structural brain connectivity studies have mainly focussed on the macroscopic scale of around 1,000 or fewer brain areas (network nodes). However, it has recently been demonstrated that high resolution structural connectomes of around 50,000 nodes can be generated reproducibly. In this study, we infer high resolution brain connectivity matrices using diffusion imaging data from the Human Connectome Project. With such high resolution we are able to analyse networks within brain areas in a single subject...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052450/correspondence-between-evoked-and-intrinsic-functional-brain-network-configurations
#13
Taylor Bolt, Jason S Nomi, Mikail Rubinov, Lucina Q Uddin
Much of the literature exploring differences between intrinsic and task-evoked brain architectures has examined changes in functional connectivity patterns between specific brain regions. While informative, this approach overlooks important overall functional changes in hub organization and network topology that may provide insights about differences in integration between intrinsic and task-evoked states. Examination of changes in overall network organization, such as a change in the concentration of hub nodes or a quantitative change in network organization, is important for understanding the underlying processes that differ between intrinsic and task-evoked brain architectures...
January 4, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039039/group-comparison-of-cortical-fiber-connectivity-map-an-application-between-post-stroke-patients-and-healthy-subjects
#14
Kai Liu, Teng Zhang, Winnie C W Chu, Vincent C T Mok, Defeng Wang, Lin Shi
Structural connectome measurement combined with diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography allows generation of a whole-brain connectome. However, current cortical structural connectivity (SC) measurements have not been well combined with the vertex-wise multi-subjects statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using group comparison vertex-wise analysis for cortical SC measurement. A fiber connectivity density (FiCD) method based on a combination of a diffusion fiber tracking technique and cortical surface-based analysis was used to measure the whole-brain cortical SC map (FiCD map)...
December 28, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034766/the-dynamic-functional-connectome-state-of-the-art-and-perspectives
#15
Maria Giulia Preti, Thomas Aw Bolton, Dimitri Van De Ville
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has highlighted the rich structure of brain activity in absence of a task or stimulus. A great effort has been dedicated in the last two decades to investigate functional connectivity (FC), i.e. the functional interplay between different regions of the brain, which was for a long time assumed to have stationary nature. Only recently was the dynamic behaviour of FC revealed, showing that on top of correlational patterns of spontaneous fMRI signal fluctuations, connectivity between different brain regions exhibits meaningful variations within a typical resting-state fMRI experiment...
December 26, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033531/synapse-biology-in-the-circuit-age-paths-toward-molecular-connectomics
#16
REVIEW
Dietmar Schreiner, Jeffrey N Savas, Etienne Herzog, Nils Brose, Joris de Wit
The neural connectome is a critical determinant of brain function. Circuits of precisely wired neurons, and the features of transmission at the synapses connecting them, are thought to dictate information processing in the brain. While recent technological advances now allow to define the anatomical and functional neural connectome at unprecedented resolution, the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that establish the precise patterns of connectivity and the functional characteristics of synapses has remained challenging...
December 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032370/modular-level-alterations-of-structure-function-coupling-in-schizophrenia-connectome
#17
Yu Sun, Zhongxiang Dai, Junhua Li, Simon L Collinson, Kang Sim
Convergent evidences have revealed that schizophrenia is associated with brain dysconnectivity, which leads to abnormal network organization. However, discrepancies were apparent between the structural connectivity (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) studies, and the relationship between structural and functional deficits in schizophrenia remains largely unknown. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural diffusion tensor imaging were performed in 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 matched healthy volunteers (patients/controls = 19/17 after head motion rejection)...
December 29, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031999/sleep-duration-and-resting-fmri-functional-connectivity-examination-of-short-sleepers-with-and-without-perceived-daytime-dysfunction
#18
Brian J Curtis, Paula G Williams, Christopher R Jones, Jeffrey S Anderson
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of the U.S. population reports recurrent short sleep; however, perceived sleep need varies widely among individuals. Some "habitual short sleepers" routinely sleep 4-6 hr/night without self-reported adverse consequences. Identifying neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in perceived sleep-related dysfunction has important implications for understanding associations between sleep duration and health. METHOD: This study utilized data from 839 subjects of the Human Connectome Project to examine resting functional connectivity associations with self-reported short sleep duration, as well as differences between short sleepers with versus without reported dysfunction...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030363/new-dimensions-of-connectomics-and-network-plasticity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Diego Guidolin, Manuela Marcoli, Guido Maura, Luigi F Agnati
Cellular network architecture plays a crucial role as the structural substrate for the brain functions. Therefore, it represents the main rationale for the emerging field of connectomics, defined as the comprehensive study of all aspects of central nervous system connectivity. Accordingly, in the present paper the main emphasis will be on the communication processes in the brain, namely wiring transmission (WT), i.e. the mapping of the communication channels made by cell components such as axons and synapses, and volume transmission (VT), i...
December 28, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011788/image-based-correction-of-continuous-and-discontinuous-non-planar-axial-distortion-in-serial-section-microscopy
#20
Philipp Hanslovsky, John Bogovic, Stephan Saalfeld
MOTIVATION: Serial section microscopy is an established method for detailed anatomy reconstruction of biological specimen. During the last decade, high resolution electron microscopy (EM) of serial sections has become the de-facto standard for reconstruction of neural connectivity at ever increasing scales (EM connectomics). In serial section microscopy, the axial dimension of the volume is sampled by physically removing thin sections from the embedded specimen and subsequently imaging either the block-face or the section series...
December 23, 2016: Bioinformatics
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