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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105558/immunology-of-bee-venom
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Farzaneh Shafaghat, Ricardo D Zwiener
Bee venom is a blend of biochemicals ranging from small peptides and enzymes to biogenic amines. It is capable of triggering severe immunologic reactions owing to its allergenic fraction. Venom components are presented to the T cells by antigen-presenting cells within the skin. These Th2 type T cells then release IL-4 and IL-13 which subsequently direct B cells to class switch to production of IgE. Generating venom-specific IgE and crosslinking FcεR1(s) on the surface of mast cells complete the sensitizing stage in allergic individuals who are most likely to experience severe and even fatal allergic reactions after being stung...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094875/neuroendocrinology-of-mast-cells-challenges-and-controversies
#2
REVIEW
Theoharis C Theoharides
Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and uterus where their action is not well understood. Mast cells have historically been associated with allergies because of their rich content of histamine and tryptase, but more recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation due their synthesis and release of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Mast cells are located perivascularly and express numerous receptors for diverse ligands such as allergens, pathogens, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones including acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), corticosteroids, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, epinephrine, 17β-estradiol, gonadotrophins, hemokinin-A (HKA), leptin, melatonin, neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance P (SP) and vasoactive instestinal peptide (VIP)...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080988/medical-mycology-and-fungal-immunology-new-research-perspectives-addressing-a-major-world-health-challenge
#3
REVIEW
Neil A R Gow, Mihai G Netea
Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049206/novel-mechanisms-underlying-the-therapeutic-effect-of-glycomacropeptide-on-allergy-change-in-gut-microbiota-upregulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-and-inhibition-of-mast-cells
#4
Mariela Jiménez, Daniel Cervantes-García, Yualli Haydee Muñoz, Alejandra García, Luis Miguel Haro, Eva Salinas
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of allergic diseases is globally increasing. We have previously described that glycomacropeptide (GMP), a bioactive milk peptide, has therapeutic value in experimental models of skin hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, and asthma, as it prevents an excessive T helper type 2 cell immune response. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of GMP on key elements directly involved in the development or control of allergy, in order to improve the precise knowledge about its mechanism of action...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038886/current-challenges-in-photoprotection
#5
Henry W Lim, Maria-Ivonne Arellano-Mendoza, Fernando Stengel
Electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared ranges all produce biologic effects. Ultraviolet filters are the most well-studied photoprotective measure for the adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation. Because of the reported endocrinologic effects of oxybenzone in animal studies, its effects on coral reefs, and its photocontact allergy potential, its use has been minimized in many countries worldwide. New developments in topical antioxidants and oral and subcutaneous agents (eg, Polypodium leucotomos extract, afamelanotide, nicotinamide) with photoprotective and antiphotocarcinogenic properties could potentially provide addition modalities for protection against the effects of visible light and infrared radiation...
December 23, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034659/toxins-and-pharmacologically-active-compounds-from-species-of-the-family-bufonidae-amphibia-anura
#6
REVIEW
Candelario Rodríguez, Louise Rollins-Smith, Roberto Ibáñez, Armando A Durant-Archibold, Marcelino Gutiérrez
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Among amphibians, 15 of the 47 species reported to be used in traditional medicines belong to the family Bufonidae, which demonstrates their potential in pharmacological and natural products research. For example, Asian and American tribes use the skin and the parotoid gland secretions of some common toads in the treatment of hemorrhages, bites and stings from venomous animals, skin and stomach disorders, as well as several types of cancers. OVERARCHING OBJECTIVE: In addition to reviewing the occurrence of chemical constituents present in the family Bufonidae, the cytotoxic and biomedical potential of the active compounds produced by different taxa are presented...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029082/probiotics-in-curing-allergic-and-inflammatory-conditions-research-progress-and-futuristic-vision
#7
Kuldeep Dhama, Shyma K Latheef, Ashok Kumar Munjal, Rekha Khandia, Hari Abdul Samad, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Sunil K Joshi
BACKGROUND: Probiotics constitute the viable and beneficial microbes, which offer a dietary means to sustain the balance of gastro-intestinal (GI) microflora. Owing to their multiple health benefits, these have recently gained wide attention among researchers for exploring their potential in safeguarding the health of humans and animals. Probiotics could also modulate host-immune responses, thereby help in counteracting the immunological dysfunctions. Probiotics can inhibit the systemic invasion of pathogens entering through the GI mucosa/ oral cavity and have been found to possess effective prophylactic and therapeutic utilities against various infectious pathogens as well as non-infectious diseases and disorders...
December 26, 2016: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998193/update-on-dietary-therapy-for-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-children-and-adults
#8
Javier Molina-Infante, Pedro Luis Gonzalez-Cordero, Angel Arias, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory esophageal disease triggered predominantly, but not excusively, by food antigens. Elimination diet thus remains the only therapy targeting the cause of the disease. Importantly, EoE is a unique form of non-IgE mediated food allergy, largely dependant upon delayed, cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of literature to summarize and update the most relevant advances on dietary therapy for pediatric and adult EoE patients is conducted...
December 23, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987146/generation-and-evaluation-of-prophylactic-mrna-vaccines-against-allergy
#9
Richard Weiss, Sandra Scheiblhofer, Josef Thalhamer
Due to the worldwide increase in allergies and a limited efficacy of therapeutic interventions, the need for prophylactic vaccination against allergies has been recognized. mRNA and DNA vaccines have demonstrated their high potential for preventing allergic sensitization by inducing an immunological bias that prevents TH2 sensitization. However, only mRNA vaccines fulfill the stringent safety requirements for vaccination of healthy children. In this chapter, we describe the generation of conventional as well as self-replicating mRNA vaccines and methods to test their prophylactic efficacy in animal models...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981776/lyme-disease-why-the-controversy
#10
M H Beaman
Some Australians have become convinced of the existence of locally acquired Lyme disease (LD). The history of LD, since its recognition in the early 1970s, is reviewed as a model for investigative approaches to unknown syndromes. Australian Management Guidelines for LD include the requirement for diagnostic testing by National Association of Testing Authorities-accredited laboratories using Therapeutic Goods Administration-licensed tests, which result in the efficient diagnosis of LD in overseas travellers...
December 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959627/humanized-mouse-models-of-clinical-disease
#11
Nicole C Walsh, Laurie L Kenney, Sonal Jangalwe, Ken-Edwin Aryee, Dale L Greiner, Michael A Brehm, Leonard D Shultz
Immunodeficient mice engrafted with functional human cells and tissues, that is, humanized mice have become increasingly important as small, preclinical animal models for the study of human diseases. Since the description of immunodeficient mice bearing mutations in the IL2 receptor common gamma chain (IL2rg(null)) in the early 2000s, investigators have been able to engraft murine recipients with human hematopoietic stem cells that develop into functional human immune systems. These mice can also be engrafted with human tissues such as islets, liver, skin, and most solid and hematologic cancers...
December 5, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956908/analysis-of-feline-and-canine-allergen-components-in-patients-sensitized-to-pets
#12
Natalia Ukleja-Sokołowska, Ewa Gawrońska-Ukleja, Magdalena Żbikowska-Gotz, Ewa Socha, Kinga Lis, Łukasz Sokołowski, Andrzej Kuźmiński, Zbigniew Bartuzi
BACKGROUND: Component resolved allergen diagnosis allows for a precise evaluation of the sensitization profiles of patients sensitized to felines and canines. An accurate interpretation of these results allows better insight into the evolution of a given patients sensitizations, and allows for a more precise evaluation of their prognoses. METHODS: 70 patients (42 women and 28 men, aged 18-65, with the average of 35.5) with a positive feline or canine allergy diagnosis were included in the research group...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929430/biological-activities-of-extracts-from-loquat-eriobotrya-japonica-lindl-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Yilong Liu, Wenna Zhang, Changjie Xu, Xian Li
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical fruit tree with high medicinal value native to China. Different organs of loquat have been used historically as folk medicines and this has been recorded in Chinese history for thousands of years. Research shows that loquat extracts contain many antioxidants, and different extracts exhibit bioactivity capable of counteracting inflammation, diabetes, cancer, bacterial infection, aging, pain, allergy and other health issues. Bioactive compounds such as phenolics and terpenoids have been isolated and characterized to provide a better understanding of the chemical mechanisms underlying the biological activities of loquat extracts...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927014/genetic-modification-of-the-lung-directed-toward-treatment-of-human-disease
#14
Dolan Sondhi, Katie M Stiles, Bishnu P De, Ronald G Crystal
Genetic modification therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for many diseases of the lung intractable to other treatments. Lung gene therapy has been the subject of numerous preclinical animal experiments and human clinical trials, for targets including genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and α1-antitrypsin deficiency, complex disorders such as asthma, allergy, and lung cancer, infections such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Pseudomonas, as well as pulmonary arterial hypertension, transplant rejection, and lung injury...
January 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914909/benefits-pitfalls-and-risks-of-phytotherapy-in-clinical-practice-in-otorhinolaryngology
#15
O Laccourreye, A Werner, L Laccourreye, P Bonfils
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the benefits, pitfalls and risks of phytotherapy in the clinical practice of otorhinolaryngology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched using the following keywords: phytotherapy, phytomedicine, herbs, otology, rhinology, laryngology, otitis, rhinitis, laryngitis and otorhinolaryngology. Seventy-two articles (18 prospective randomized studies, 4 Cochrane analyses, 4 meta-analysis and 15 reviews of the literature) devoted to clinical studies were analyzed...
November 30, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909820/genomic-analysis-reveals-the-presence-of-a-class-d-beta-lactamase-with-broad-substrate-specificity-in-animal-bite-associated-capnocytophaga-species
#16
S Zangenah, A F Andersson, V Özenci, P Bergman
Capnocytophga canimorsus and Capnocytophga cynodegmi can be transmitted from cats and dogs to humans, and can cause a wide range of infections including wound infections, sepsis, or endocarditis. We and others recently discovered two new Capnocytophaga species, C. canis and C. stomatis, mainly associated with wound infections. The first-line treatment of animal bite related infections is penicillin, and in case of allergy, doxycycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, there is a lack of antibiotic susceptibility patterns for animal bite associated Capnocytophaga species...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888134/perilla-frutescens-leaves-extract-ameliorates-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-extracellular-matrix-damage-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts-and-hairless-mice-skin
#17
Jung-Soo Bae, Mira Han, Hee Soon Shin, Min-Kyoung Kim, Chang-Yup Shin, Dong Hun Lee, Jin Ho Chung
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional herb that is consumed in East Asian countries as a traditional medicine. This traditional herb has been documented for centuries to treat various diseases such as depression, allergies, inflammation and asthma. However, the effect of Perilla frutescens on skin has not been characterized well. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Perilla frutescens leaves extract (PLE) on ultraviolet radiation-induced extracellular matrix damage in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice skin...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878468/the-risk-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcome-after-first-trimester-exposure-to-h1-antihistamines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Fatma Etwel, Lauren H Faught, Michael J Rieder, Gideon Koren
INTRODUCTION: H1 antihistamines are used for the treatment of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy as well as the symptomatic relief of asthma, urticaria, allergy, and the common cold. Although they are overall felt to be safe during pregnancy, recently several studies have challenged this assumption, as millions of women are exposed to them in the first trimester. METHODS: Following the guidelines of PRISMA, a systematic review was performed to retrieve all published articles involving H1-antihistamine exposure during pregnancy...
November 22, 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865545/anti-cgrp-antibodies-block-cgrp-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#19
Eric A Kaiser, Brandon J Rea, Adisa Kuburas, Brian R Kovacevich, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Ana Recober, Andrew F Russo
The multifunctional neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have shown that CGRP has roles in intestinal motility, water secretion, and inflammation. Furthermore, animal studies have demonstrated CGRP involvement in diarrhea secondary to C. difficile and food allergies. Diarrhea thus provides a convenient bioassay of CGRP activity in the GI system. In this proof of principle study, we report that prophylactic administration of an anti-CGRP antibody is able to block CGRP-induced diarrhea in mice...
November 14, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853717/amiata-donkey-milk-chain-animal-health-evaluation-and-milk-quality
#20
Giuseppe Ragona, Franco Corrias, Martina Benedetti, Maria Paladini, Federica Salari, Lolanda Altomonte, Mina Martini
This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp.) and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1)...
June 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
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