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Animal Allergy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238348/the-mannose-receptor-in-regulation-of-helminth-mediated-host-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Irma van Die, Richard D Cummings
Infection with parasitic helminths affects humanity and animal welfare. Parasitic helminths have the capacity to modulate host immune responses to promote their survival in infected hosts, often for a long time leading to chronic infections. In contrast to many infectious microbes, however, the helminths are able to induce immune responses that show positive bystander effects such as the protection to several immune disorders, including multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergies. They generally promote the generation of a tolerogenic immune microenvironment including the induction of type 2 (Th2) responses and a sub-population of alternatively activated macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228949/a-mathematical-model-for-histamine-synthesis-release-and-control-in-varicosities
#2
Janet Best, H F Nijhout, Srimal Samaranayake, Parastoo Hashemi, Michael Reed
BACKGROUND: Histamine (HA), a small molecule that is synthesized from the amino acid histidine, plays an important role in the immune system where it is associated with allergies, inflammation, and T-cell regulation. In the brain, histamine is stored in mast cells and other non-neuronal cells and also acts as a neurotransmitter. The histamine neuron cell bodies are in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus of the hypothalamus and these neurons send projections throughout the central nervous system (CNS), in particular to the cerebral cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, retina, and spinal cord...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217375/preliminary-aggregate-safety-and-immunogenicity-results-from-three-trials-of-a-purified-inactivated-zika-virus-vaccine-candidate-phase-1-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trials
#3
Kayvon Modjarrad, Leyi Lin, Sarah L George, Kathryn E Stephenson, Kenneth H Eckels, Rafael A De La Barrera, Richard G Jarman, Erica Sondergaard, Janice Tennant, Jessica L Ansel, Kristin Mills, Michael Koren, Merlin L Robb, Jill Barrett, Jason Thompson, Alison E Kosel, Peter Dawson, Andrew Hale, C Sabrina Tan, Stephen R Walsh, Keith E Meyer, James Brien, Trevor A Crowell, Azra Blazevic, Karla Mosby, Rafael A Larocca, Peter Abbink, Michael Boyd, Christine A Bricault, Michael S Seaman, Anne Basil, Melissa Walsh, Veronica Tonwe, Daniel F Hoft, Stephen J Thomas, Dan H Barouch, Nelson L Michael
BACKGROUND: A safe, effective, and rapidly scalable vaccine against Zika virus infection is needed. We developed a purified formalin-inactivated Zika virus vaccine (ZPIV) candidate that showed protection in mice and non-human primates against viraemia after Zika virus challenge. Here we present the preliminary results in human beings. METHODS: We did three phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of ZPIV with aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. In all three studies, healthy adults were randomly assigned by a computer-generated list to receive 5 μg ZPIV or saline placebo, in a ratio of 4:1 at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA, or of 5:1 at Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO, USA, and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA...
December 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174315/workshop-report-nucleic-acid-delivery-devices-for-hiv-vaccines-workshop-proceedings-national-institute-of-allergy-and-infectious-diseases-bethesda-maryland-usa-may-21-2015
#4
Bruce G Weniger, Ian E Anglin, Tina Tong, Michael Pensiero, Jeffrey K Pullen
On May 21st, 2015, the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened a workshop on delivery devices for nucleic acid (NA) as vaccines in order to review the landscape of past and future technologies for administering NA (e.g., DNA, RNA, etc.) as antigen into target tissues of animal models and humans. Its focus was on current and future applications for preventing and treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease, among other infectious-disease priorities...
November 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130802/oral-immunotherapy-using-polymeric-nanoparticles-loaded-with-peanut-proteins-in-a-murine-model-of-fatal-anaphylaxis
#5
Carlos Gamazo, Maddi García-Azpíroz, Juliana De Souza Rebouças, Gabriel Gastaminza, Marta Ferrer, Juan M Irache
BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy is the most common cause of anaphylaxis and food-related death. However, there is currently no approved immunotherapy treatment. Hence, this warrants the need for relevant and convenient animal models to test for adequate immunotherapies. MATERIALS & METHODS: In this study, we compared three mouse strains: CD1, BALB/c and C57, to select a model of peanut allergy. After that, we conducted then a therapeutic study using an immunogenic peanut extract encapsulated in nanoparticles made with polymer Gantrez(®) following the solvent displacement method...
November 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126025/metallurgical-residues-reused-as-filler-after-35years-and-their-natural-weathering-implications-in-a-mountain-area
#6
Leticia Gómez-Nubla, Julene Aramendia, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Juan Manuel Madariaga
The natural weathering of EAF (Electric Arc Furnace) and LF (Ladle Furnace) steel slag was evaluated through changes in the mineralogical and elemental composition. For that purpose, black steel slag and mixture of black and white steel slag were collected from two forest tracks, where they had been used as filler 19 and 35years ago respectively in a protected mountain area. Primary/original and secondary/degradation compounds were identified by spectroscopic techniques (Raman Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS))...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117468/zoonotic-helminth-exposure-and-risk-of-allergic-diseases-a-study-of-two-generations-in-norway
#7
Nils Oskar Jõgi, Cecilie Svanes, Silver Peeter Siiak, Erin Logan, John W Holloway, Jannicke Igland, Ane Johannessen, Michael Levin, Francisco Gomez Real, Vivi Schlunssen, William G C Horsnell, Randi J Bertelsen
BACKGROUND: Animal and human studies indicate that definitive host helminth infections may confer protection from allergies. However, zoonotic helminths, such as Toxocara species (spp.), have been associated with increased allergies. OBJECTIVE: We describe the prevalence of Toxocara spp. and Ascaris spp. seropositivity, and associations with allergic diseases and sensitisation, in two generations in Bergen, Norway. METHODS: Serum levels of total IgG4, anti-Toxocara spp...
November 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108604/global-issues-in-allergy-and-immunology-parasitic-infections-and-allergy
#8
REVIEW
Alvaro A Cruz, Philip J Cooper, Camila A Figueiredo, Neuza M Alcantara-Neves, Laura C Rodrigues, Mauricio L Barreto
Allergic diseases are on the increase globally in parallel with a decrease in parasitic infection. The inverse association between parasitic infections and allergy at an ecological level suggests a causal association. Studies in human subjects have generated a large knowledge base on the complexity of the interrelationship between parasitic infection and allergy. There is evidence for causal links, but the data from animal models are the most compelling: despite the strong type 2 immune responses they induce, helminth infections can suppress allergy through regulatory pathways...
November 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102311/environmental-and-molecular-study-of-fungal-flora-in-asthmatic-patients
#9
H Trablesi, I Hadrich, S Neji, N Fendri, D Ghorbel, F Makni, H Ayadi, S Kammoun, A Ayadi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiological and fungal environmental profile in asthmatic patients. We conducted a prospective study involving 49 patients with allergic asthma. One hundred and forty-five clinical samples and 289 environmental samples were performed. Only 30 patients accepted to participate to the environmental study at their home. For specific IgE antibodies, ELISA assay was conducted for 21 patients. Molecular ITS sequencing was performed for 37 isolates. The frequency of attacks was significantly associated with the seasonality, which was closely related to climate (P=0...
October 25, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097007/national-institute-of-allergy-and-infectious-diseases-workshop-report-chlamydia-vaccines-the-way-forward
#10
Guangming Zhong, Robert C Brunham, Luis M de la Maza, Toni Darville, Carolyn Deal
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), an intracellular pathogen, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection. In addition to acute cervicitis and urethritis, Ct can lead to serious sequelae of significant public health burden including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility. Ct control efforts have not resulted in desired outcomes such as reduced incidence and reinfection, and this highlights the need for the development of an effective Ct vaccine. To this end, NIAID organized a workshop to consider the current status of Ct vaccine research and address critical questions in Ct vaccine design and clinical testing...
October 30, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094355/th1-th2-immune-responses-and-oxidative-stress-in-caprine-flea-allergy-dermatitis
#11
Y Ajith, Umesh Dimri, A Gopalakrishnan, E Madhesh, Ricky Jhambh, Vivek Joshi, Devi Gopinath
Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) is the common, often neglected skin disease of goats caused mainly by Ctenocephalides felis. The present study aimed to evaluate the immuno-oxidative pathobiology of FAD in goats. Twelve goats from the same herd were divided into two groups of six animals each. The group I (FAD) included animals with natural flea infestation and severe dermatitis lesions. The group II (Healthy control) animals were free from any parasitic infestation. To assess the pathological changes, the markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity), and immune status (Tumour necrosis factor alpha, Interleukin 10, Transforming growth factor beta 1 and Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio) were evaluated from the blood and the serum samples...
November 2, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069535/emerging-roles-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-inflammatory-diseases-clinical-implications
#12
REVIEW
I Kortekaas Krohn, M M Shikhagaie, K Golebski, J H Bernink, C Breynaert, B Creyns, Z Diamant, W J Fokkens, P Gevaert, P Hellings, R W Hendriks, L Klimek, J Mjösberg, H Morita, G S Ogg, L O'Mahony, J Schwarze, S F Seys, M H Shamji, S M Bal
Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) represent a group of lymphocytes that lack specific antigen receptors and are relatively rare as compared to adaptive lymphocytes. ILCs play important roles in allergic and nonallergic inflammatory diseases due to their location at barrier surfaces within the airways, gut, and skin, and they respond to cytokines produced by activated cells in their local environment. Innate lymphoid cells contribute to the immune response by the release of cytokines and other mediators, forming a link between innate and adaptive immunity...
October 25, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068485/is-the-hygiene-hypothesis-relevant-for-the-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
M Wendel-Haga, E G Celius
The hygiene hypothesis, suggesting that low exposure to pathogens early in life can increase the risk for immune-mediated diseases, has been proposed as an explanation for the increase in incidence of allergy and autoimmune diseases in industrialized countries during the last decades. Several aspects of the hygiene hypothesis have been related to MS. Already in 1966, the risk of MS was suggested to be higher in individuals with high hygienic standard during childhood. Further, an episode of infectious mononucleosis is an independent risk factor for MS and can be regarded as an indicator of low exposure to pathogens early in life, as infection with Epstein-Barr virus often is asymptomatic when it occurs in young children...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065408/low-dose-allergen-specific-immunotherapy-induces-tolerance-in-a-murine-model-of-shrimp-allergy
#14
Nicki Yat Hin Leung, Christine Yee Yan Wai, Shang An Shu, Christopher C Chang, Ka Hou Chu, Patrick S C Leung
BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) are highly dose-dependent. METHODS: We investigated the dosage effects of AIT and the underlying mechanisms in a murine model of shrimp hypersensitivity. BALB/c mice were sensitized with recombinant shrimp allergen rMet e 1 and challenged orally with a high dose of rMet e 1 to elicit an allergic response. These sensitized mice were then treated with a low (0.01 mg), medium (0.05 mg), or high dosage (0...
2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056697/respiratory-allergens-from-furred-mammals-environmental-and-occupational-exposure
#15
REVIEW
Eva Zahradnik, Monika Raulf
Furry mammals kept as pets, farm and laboratory animals are important allergen sources. The prevalence of sensitization to furred mammals appears to be increasing worldwide. Several mammalian allergens from diverse species are well characterized with regard to their molecular structure and immunogenicity, and some are already available for component-resolved allergy diagnostics. The distribution of various mammalian allergens has been extensively studied during the past few decades. Animal allergens were found to be ubiquitous in the human environment, even in places where no animals reside, with concentrations differing considerably between locations and geographical regions...
August 4, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038838/respiratory-sensitization-toxicological-point-of-view-on-the-available-assays
#16
Aline Chary, Jennifer Hennen, Sebastian G Klein, Tommaso Serchi, Arno C Gutleb, Brunhilde Blömeke
Respiratory sensitization as a consequence of exposure to chemical products has increased over the last decades, leading to an increase of morbidity. The increased use of synthetic compounds resulted in an exponential growth of substances to which we are potentially exposed on a daily basis. Some of them are known to induce respiratory sensitization, meaning that they can trigger the development of allergies. In the past, animal studies provided useful results for the understanding of mechanisms involved in the development of respiratory allergies...
October 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028247/atopy-as-a-modifier-of-the-relationships-between-endotoxin-exposure-and-symptoms-among-laboratory-animal-workers
#17
Ashley N Newton, Meghan Davis, Kirsten Koehler, Wayne Shreffler, Sharon Ahluwalia, Nervana Metwali, Peter S Thorne, Beverly J Paigen, Elizabeth C Matsui
Background: Exposure to endotoxin is known to trigger airway inflammation and symptoms, and atopy may modify the relationship between endotoxin exposure and symptom development. Objective: To test the a priori hypothesis that atopic status modifies the relationship between endotoxin exposure and respiratory symptom development. Methods: A prospective study of laboratory workers at The Jackson Laboratories was conducted. Allergy skin testing was performed and population demographic and clinical information was obtained at baseline...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024520/allergen-immunotherapy-exploring-areas-for-further-inquiry
#18
Tam Ramsey, Wanda Lai, Peter F Svider, Houmehr Hojjat, Jean Anderson Eloy, Adam J Folbe
BACKGROUND: Allergy-related illness impacts millions of individuals worldwide. Our objectives were to characterize current trends of clinical trials research relating to allergen immunotherapy and to describe the landscape of allergen immunotherapy in National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported research inquiry. METHODS: On ClinicalTrials.gov, the following terms were searched: allergen immunotherapy OR allergy immunotherapy. Variables, including completion status, dates, design, study population, funder, location, and allergen were recorded...
October 12, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023853/antibiotics-gut-microbiome-and-obesity
#19
Karen S W Leong, José G B Derraik, Paul L Hofman, Wayne S Cutfield
Antibiotics have been hailed by many as 'miracle drugs' that have been effectively treating infectious diseases for over a century, leading to a marked reduction in morbidity and mortality. However, with the increasing use of antibiotics, we are now faced not only with the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, but also with a rising concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on human health, including the development of obesity. The obesity pandemic continues to increase, a problem that affects both adults and children alike...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993711/social-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-are-related-to-maternal-immune-history-profile
#20
S Patel, A Masi, R C Dale, A J O Whitehouse, I Pokorski, G A Alvares, I B Hickie, E Breen, A J Guastella
Maternal immune activation has been highlighted as a factor that might increase the risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. Preclinical animal evidence shows that immune activation in mothers during pregnancy causes ASD-like behavioural traits in offspring. To this point, there has been no investigation of whether immune system activation in human mothers during pregnancy is associated with more severe symptoms in children with ASD. In this study, data from an existing ASD cohort (N=220) were analysed to investigate whether immune conditions in the mother were associated with greater severity of autism-related symptoms...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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