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Mirror neurons swallowing

Stefan T Schwarz, Mohammed Afzal, Paul S Morgan, Nin Bajaj, Penny A Gowland, Dorothee P Auer
There is no well-established in vivo marker of nigral degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). An ideal imaging marker would directly mirror the loss of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurones, which is most prominent in sub-regions called nigrosomes. High-resolution, iron-sensitive, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7T allows direct nigrosome-1 visualisation in healthy people but not in PD. Here, we investigated the feasibility of nigrosome-1 detection using 3T - susceptibility-weighted (SWI) MRI and the diagnostic accuracy that can be achieved for diagnosing PD in a clinical population...
2014: PloS One
Takashi Ushioda, Yutaka Watanabe, Yusuke Sanjo, Gen-Yuki Yamane, Shinichi Abe, Yusuke Tsuji, Atushi Ishiyama
In the present study, we evaluated activated areas of the cerebral cortex with regard to the mirror neuron system during swallowing. To identify the activated areas, we used magnetoencephalography. Subjects were ten consenting volunteers. Swallowing-related stimuli comprised an animated image of the left profile of a person swallowing water with laryngeal elevation as a visual swallowing trigger stimulus and a swallowing sound as an auditory swallowing trigger stimulus. As control stimuli, a still frame image of the left profile without an additional trigger was shown, and an artificial sound as a false auditory trigger was provided...
December 2012: Dysphagia
Takeshi Kawai, Yutaka Watanabe, Morio Tonogi, Gen-yuki Yamane, Shinichi Abe, Yoshiaki Yamada, Akiko Callan
We focused on brain areas activated by audiovisual stimuli related to swallowing motions. In this study, three kinds of stimuli related to human swallowing movement (auditory stimuli alone, visual stimuli alone, or audiovisual stimuli) were presented to the subjects, and activated brain areas were measured using fMRI and analyzed. When auditory stimuli alone were presented, the supplementary motor area was activated. When visual stimuli alone were presented, the premotor and primary motor areas of the left and right hemispheres and prefrontal area of the left hemisphere were activated...
2009: Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College
M Arundell, B A Patel, V Straub, M C Allen, C Janse, D O'Hare, K Parker, P R Gard, M S Yeoman
This study used behavioral and electrophysiological techniques to examine age-related changes in the feeding behavior and chemosensory processing in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Increasing age was associated with a 50% decrease in long-term food consumption. Analysis of short-term sucrose-evoked feeding bouts showed an age-related increase in the number of animals that failed to respond to the stimulus. Of the animals that did respond increasing age was associated with a decrease in the number of sucrose-evoked bites and a increase in the duration of the swallow phase...
December 2006: Neurobiology of Aging
Y Morita, T E Finger
The primary gustatory sensory nuclei in catfish are grossly divisible into a vagal lobe and a facial lobe. In this study, the reflex connections of each gustatory lobe were determined with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing methods. In addition, in order to determine the loci and morphology of the other brainstem cranial nerve nuclei, HRP was applied to the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, or vagus nerve. The sensory fibers of the facial nerve terminate in the facial lobe. The facial lobe projects bilaterally to the posterior thalamic nucleus, superior secondary gustatory nucleus, and medial reticular formation of the rostral medulla...
January 22, 1985: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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