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Leydig cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343557/dicer1-and-associated-conditions-%C3%A2-identification-of-at-risk-individuals-and-recommended-surveillance-strategies
#1
Kris Ann P Schultz, Gretchen M Williams, Junne Kamihara, Douglas R Stewart, Anne K Harris, Andrew J Bauer, Joyce Turner, Rachana Shah, Katherine Schneider, Kami Wolfe Schneider, Ann Garrity Carr, Laura A Harney, Shari Baldinger, A Lindsay Frazier, Daniel Orbach, Dominik T Schneider, David Malkin, Louis P Dehner, Yoav H Messinger, Ashley Hill
Pathogenic germline DICER1 variants cause a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome with a variety of manifestations. In addition to conferring increased cancer risks for pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) and ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, particularly Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, individuals with pathogenic germline DICER1 variants may also develop lung cysts, cystic nephroma, renal sarcoma and Wilms tumor, nodular hyperplasia of the thyroid, nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma, ciliary body medulloepithelioma, genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and brain tumors including pineoblastoma and pituitary blastoma...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334315/interplay-between-p53-and-ink4c-in-spermatogenesis-and-fertility
#2
Hassan Zalzali, Wisam Rabeh, Omar Najjar, Rami Abi Ammar, Mohamad Harajly, Raya Saab
The tumor suppressor p53, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Ink4c, have been both implicated in spermatogenesis control. Both p53-/- and Ink4c-/- single knockout male mice are fertile, despite testicular hypertrophy, Leydig cell differentiation defect, and increased sperm count in Ink4c-/- males. To investigate their collaborative roles, we studied p53-/- Ink4c-/- dual knockout animals, and found that male p53-/- Ink4c-/- mice have profoundly reduced fertility. Dual knockout male mice show a marked decrease in sperm count, abnormal sperm morphology and motility, prolongation of spermatozoa proliferation and delay of meiosis entry, and accumulation of DNA damage...
January 15, 2018: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330226/mitotane-treatment-in-patients-with-metastatic-testicular-leydig-cell-tutor-associated-with-severe-androgen-excess
#3
Vasileios Chortis, Nicholas J Johal, Irina Bancos, Matthew Evans, Kassiani Skordilis, Peter Guest, Michael H Cullen, Emilio Porfiri, Wiebke Arlt
Mitotane (o,p'DDD) is established in the adjuvant and advanced stage treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma and counteracts both tumour growth and tumour-related steroid production. Both the adrenal glands and the gonads are steroidogenically active organs and share a common embryogenic origin. Here we describe the effects of mitotane in two patients with metastatic Leydig cell tumour (LCT) of the testes and associated severe androgen excess (serum testosterone 93 and 88 nmol/l, respectively; male reference range 7-27 nmol/L)...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326135/isolation-of-human-testicular-cells-and-co-culture-with-embryonic-stem-cells
#4
Meenakshi Gaur, Cyril Ramathal, Renee A Reijo Pera, Paul J Turek, Constance M John
Our overall goal is to create a three-dimensional human cell-based testicular model for toxicological and spermatogenesis studies. Methods to purify the major somatic testicular cells, namely Leydig cells (LCs), peritubular myoid cells (PCs) and Sertoli cells (SCs), from rats, mice and guinea pigs have been reported. In humans, the isolation of populations enriched for primary LCs, PCs or SCs also have described. One objective of this study was to determine if populations of cells enriched for all three of these cell types can be isolated from testes of single human donors, and we were successful in doing so from testes of three donors...
February 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325824/in-utero-combined-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-and-diethyl-phthalate-exposure-cumulatively-impairs-rat-fetal-leydig-cell-development
#5
Guoxin Hu, Junwei Li, Yuanyuan Shan, Xiaoheng Li, Qiqi Zhu, Huitao Li, Yiyan Wang, Xiaofang Chen, Qingquan Lian, Ren-Shan Ge
Phthalate diesters, including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP), are chemicals to which humans are ubiquitously exposed. Humans are exposed simultaneously to multiple environmental chemicals, including DEHP and DEP. There is little information available about how each chemical may interact to each other if they were exposed at same time. The present study investigated effects of the combinational exposure of rats to DEP and DEHP on fetal Leydig cell development. The results showed that the gestational (GD12-20) exposure of DEP + DEHP resulted in synergistic and/or dose-additive effects on the development of fetal Leydig cell...
January 8, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325604/implications-of-body-condition-and-seasonality-on-morphological-and-functional-parameters-of-testes-of-myotis-nigricans-chiroptera-vespertilionidae
#6
Marcelo Ferreira, Aline Soldati, Sirlene S S Rodrigues, Laércio Dos Anjos Benjamin
The insectivorous bat Myotis nigricans is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics, including Brazil, and has a reproductive biology that is affected by climate and food availability. To evaluate the reproductive capacity of this species, morphofunctional parameters of the testes were correlated with environmental variables and the body condition of individuals captured. After bats had been killed, their testes were removed, fixed in Karnovsky's fluid for 24h and embedded in resin for evaluation by light microscopy...
January 12, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324782/mafb-is-dispensable-for-the-fetal-testis-morphogenesis-and-the-maintenance-of-spermatogenesis-in-adult-mice
#7
Hossam H Shawki, Hisashi Oishi, Toshiaki Usui, Yu Kitadate, Walaa A Basha, Ahmed M Abdellatif, Kazunori Hasegawa, Risa Okada, Keiji Mochida, Hany A El-Shemy, Masafumi Muratani, Atsuo Ogura, Shosei Yoshida, Satoru Takahashi
The transcription factor MAFB is an important regulator of the development and differentiation of various organs and tissues. Previous studies have shown that MAFB is expressed in embryonic and adult mouse testes and is expected to act as the downstream target of retinoic acid (RA) to initiate spermatogenesis. However, its exact localization and function remain unclear. Here, we localized MAFB expression in embryonic and adult testes and analyzed its gene function using Mafb-deficient mice. We found that MAFB and c-MAF are the only large MAF transcription factors expressed in testes, while MAFA and NRL are not...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311296/ibuprofen-alters-human-testicular-physiology-to-produce-a-state-of-compensated-hypogonadism
#8
David Møbjerg Kristensen, Christèle Desdoits-Lethimonier, Abigail L Mackey, Marlene Danner Dalgaard, Federico De Masi, Cecilie Hurup Munkbøl, Bjarne Styrishave, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Bruno Le Bizec, Christian Platel, Anders Hay-Schmidt, Tina Kold Jensen, Laurianne Lesné, Séverine Mazaud-Guittot, Karsten Kristiansen, Søren Brunak, Michael Kjaer, Anders Juul, Bernard Jégou
Concern has been raised over increased male reproductive disorders in the Western world, and the disruption of male endocrinology has been suggested to play a central role. Several studies have shown that mild analgesics exposure during fetal life is associated with antiandrogenic effects and congenital malformations, but the effects on the adult man remain largely unknown. Through a clinical trial with young men exposed to ibuprofen, we show that the analgesic resulted in the clinical condition named "compensated hypogonadism," a condition prevalent among elderly men and associated with reproductive and physical disorders...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305568/novel-compound-heterozygous-variants-in-the-lhcgr-gene-identified-in-a-subject-with-leydig-cell-hypoplasia-type-1
#9
Yufei Xu, Yulin Chen, Niu Li, Xuyun Hu, Guoqiang Li, Yu Ding, Juan Li, Yiping Shen, Xiumin Wang, Jian Wang
BACKGROUND: Leydig cell hypoplasia (LCH) is a rare disease and one of the causes of male disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD). Inactivating mutations in the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) gene account for the underlying LCH pathogenicity. This study aimed to analyze the clinical presentation and diagnosis as well as highlight the molecular characteristics of a subject with LCH type 1. CASE PRESENTATION: Clinical data were collected from the subject and analyzed...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304256/dynamics-ultrastructure-and-gene-expression-of-human-in-vitro-organized-testis-cells-from-testicular-sperm-extraction-biopsies
#10
Kathrein von Kopylow, Wolfgang Schulze, Andrea Salzbrunn, Matthias Schaks, Elke Schäfer, Beate Roth, Stefan Schlatt, Andrej-Nikolai Spiess
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to induce in-vitro reorganization of primary human testis cells from testicular sperm extraction (TESE) biopsies, maintain their long-term cultivation in a 2D system and identify cellular compositions? SUMMARY ANSWER: In-vitro reorganization of primary human testis cells from TESE biopsies and their long-term cultivation on uncoated cell culture dishes is feasible and the cellular compositions can be uncovered through gene expression and microscopic analyses...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304246/lipophagy-contributes-to-testosterone-biosynthesis-in-male-rat-leydig-cells
#11
Yi Ma, Yan Zhou, Yin-Ci Zhu, Si-Qi Wang, Ping Ping, Xiang-Feng Chen
In recent years, autophagy was found to regulate lipid metabolism through a process termed lipophagy. Lipophagy modulates the degradation of cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol (FC), which is the substrate of testosterone biosynthesis. However, the role of lipophagy in testosterone production is unknown. To investigate this, primary rat Leydig cells and varicocele rat models were administered to inhibit or promote autophagy, and testosterone, lipid droplets (LDs), total cholesterol (TC) and FC were evaluated...
January 2, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301683/autophagy-involved-in-the-activation-of-the-nrf2-antioxidant-system-in-testes-of-heat-exposed-mice
#12
Zhaojian Li, Yansen Li, Xin Zhou, Pengyuan Dai, Chunmei Li
Hyperthermia causes oxidative stress in testes, which triggers antioxidant signals including autophagy and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). However, their relationship in testes under oxidative stress is unclear. In this study, we conducted testes injection for autophagy alteration and heat exposure to reveal the interaction between autophagy and the Nrf2-antioxidant system. Male mice were injected once with normal saline as control (Cont group), autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA group) or autophagy inducer rapamycin (Rapa group)...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300865/crispr-cas9-mediated-tspo-gene-mutations-lead-to-reduced-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-and-steroid-formation-in-ma-10-mouse-tumor-leydig-cells
#13
Jinjiang Fan, Kevin Wang, Barry Zirkin, Vassilios Papadopoulos
The outer mitochondrial membrane translocator protein (TSPO) binds cholesterol with high affinity and is involved in mediating its delivery into mitochondria, the rate-limiting step in hormone-induced steroidogenesis. Specific ligand binding to TSPO has been shown to initiate steroid formation. However, recent studies of the genetic deletion of Tspo have provided conflicting results. Here we address and extend previous studies by examining the effects of Tspo - specific mutations on steroid formation in the hormone- and cAMP-responsive MA-10 cells, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system...
December 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299971/the-role-of-the-fas-fasl-signaling-pathway-in-environmental-toxicant-induced-testicular-cell-apoptosis-an-update
#14
Mei Wang, Ping Su
The Fas/FasL signaling pathway is one of the major pathways that regulate apoptosis. Increasing studies have shown that the activation of the Fas/FasL signaling pathway is closely associated with testicular cell apoptosis. However, the mechanism involved is still unclear. We discuss recent findings regarding the molecular mechanisms by which environmental toxicants induce testicular pathology via Fas/FasL signaling. These findings suggest that Fas/FasL signaling is employed to impact the sensitivity (a response to external factors) of germ cells, disrupt steroidogenic hormone and cytokine metabolism mediated by Sertoli cells, and elicit the activation of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) in Leydig cell apoptosis...
January 4, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299195/squid-ink-polysaccharide-prevents-autophagy-and-oxidative-stress-affected-by-cyclophosphamide-in-leydig-cells-of-mice-a-pilot-study
#15
Yi-Peng Gu, Xiao-Mei Yang, Zhen-Hua Duan, Jiang-Hua Shang, Ping Luo, Wei Xiao, Da-Yan Zhang, Hua-Zhong Liu
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of Squid ink polysaccharide (SIP) on prevention of autophagy and oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in Leydig cells of mice. Materials and Methods: Examination of reproductive organ exponents, abnormal sperm rate, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), and histological structure were performed to detect the optimal dose of SIP against oxidative stress damage in vivo, and autophagy-associated protein LC3 and Beclin-1 were examined by immunofluorescence, and their expression was detected by Western blot analysis...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299171/melatonin-up-regulates-the-expression-of-the-gata-4-transcription-factor-and-increases-testosterone-secretion-from-leydig-cells-through-ror%C3%AE-signaling-in-an-in-vitro-goat-spermatogonial-stem-cell-differentiation-culture-system
#16
Shou-Long Deng, Yan Zhang, Kun Yu, Xiu-Xia Wang, Su-Ren Chen, De-Ping Han, C Yan Cheng, Zheng-Xing Lian, Yi-Xun Liu
Because androgen function is regulated by its receptors, androgen-androgen receptor signaling is crucial for regulating spermatogenesis. Androgen is mainly testosterone secreted by testis. Based on the results of early studies in goats, the administration of melatonin over an extended period of time increases steroid production, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report the expression of the melatonin membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 and the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-alpha (RORα) in the goat testis...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295490/1950mhz-radio-frequency-electromagnetic-radiation-inhibits-testosterone-secretion-of-mouse-leydig-cells
#17
Yan-Yun Lin, Tao Wu, Jun-Ye Liu, Peng Gao, Kang-Chu Li, Qi-Yan Guo, Meng Yuan, Hai-Yang Lang, Li-Hua Zeng, Guo-Zhen Guo
More studies that are focused on the bioeffects of radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation that is generated from the communication devices, but there were few reports with confirmed results about the bioeffects of RF radiation on reproductive cells. To explore the effects of 1950 MHz RF electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on mouse Leydig (TM3) cells. TM3 cells were irradiated or sham-irradiated continuously for 24 h by the specific absorption rate (SAR) 3 W/kg radiation. At 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after irradiation, cell proliferation was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method, cell cycle distribution, percentage of apoptosis, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined by flow cytometry, Testosterone level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450scc in TM3 cells was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288959/ivermectin-acute-administration-impaired-the-spermatogenesis-and-spermiogenesis-of-adult-rats
#18
Flora Cordeiro, Vagner Gonçalves, Natalia Moreira, João Iosif Slobodticov, Nathalia de Andrade Galvão, Helenice de Souza Spinosa, Leoni Villano Bonamin, Eduardo Fernandes Bondan, Claudia Helena Pastor Ciscato, Cláudia Maria Barbosa, Maria Martha Bernardi
Ivermectin (IVM) is an antiparasitic agent widely used in agricultural, domestic animals and in human clinical practice. In the present study, the temporal effects of therapeutic doses of IVM in the morphometric and histological assessment of testis were studied to verify if IVM acute administration impaired the spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis of adult rats, if these effects are reversible. The testosterone levels and the plasmatic IVM levels were assessed. The results show: 1) IVM acute exposure, mainly in the higher dose, reduced the testicular volume, the tubular diameter and the germinal epithelium height; 2) no interferences on Leydig cells frequency; 3) histological studies show that tubular sections containing several histological changes indicative of spermatogenesis interruption, such as disorganization of germinal epithelium, vacuolar degeneration of the germ cells and sloughing of cells into the tubular lumen; 4) no differences in testosterone levels; 5) The IVM plasmatic levels were significantly reduced at 72h after the 0...
December 18, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275930/ovarian-sex-cord-stromal-tumours-an-update-in-recent-molecular-advances
#19
REVIEW
Diana Lim, Esther Oliva
Sex cord-stromal tumours (SCSTs) consist of a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with diverse clinicopathological features and biological behaviour. They often present as a diagnostic challenge as they have varied and occasionally overlapping histomorphology and some may even mimic non-SCSTs. An accurate diagnosis is important for therapeutic and prognostic purposes. The use of a panel of immunohistochemical markers which are sensitive and specific for sex cord-stromal differentiation such as α-inhibin, calretinin, SF-1 and FOXL2, may be helpful in confirming the cellular lineage of these tumours, but is of limited utility in distinguishing between the different tumour types within this category...
December 21, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275192/detection-of-aristaless-related-homeobox-protein-in-ovarian-sex-cord-stromal-tumors
#20
Tamara Knific, Snježana Frković Grazio, Tea Lanišnik Rižner
OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential of ARX as a novel biomarker of ovarian endometriosis and other ovarian pathologies. METHODS: The mRNA level of ARX in ovarian endometriosis and normal endometrium samples was determined by real-time PCR, while the protein level was determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on nearly 200 tissue samples of different ovarian pathologies. GraphPad Prism was used for statistical analysis...
December 21, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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