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Testicular macrophages

A M Mahran, D A Elgamal, H H Ghafeer, S A Abdel-Maksoud, A A Farrag
The study aimed to compare the histological features of Leydig cells and macrophages in the testicular interstitium of obstructive versus nonobstructive azoospermia. Thirty-nine azoospermic men undergoing testicular sperm extraction during intracytoplasmic sperm injection were allocated into obstructive azoospermia group (GI) and nonobstructive azoospermia group (GII) which was subdivided into Sertoli cell-only syndrome (GIIA), germ cell arrest (GIIB) and hypospermatogenesis (GIIC) subgroups. Serum LH, FSH and testosterone levels were measured...
October 6, 2016: Andrologia
Britta Klein, Thomas Haggeney, Daniela Fietz, Sivanjah Indumathy, Kate L Loveland, Mark Hedger, Sabine Kliesch, Wolfgang Weidner, Martin Bergmann, Hans-Christian Schuppe
STUDY QUESTION: Which immune cells and cytokine profiles are characteristic for testicular germ cell neoplasia and what consequences does this have for the understanding of the related testicular immunopathology? SUMMARY ANSWER: The unique immune environment of testicular germ cell neoplasia comprises B cells and dendritic cells as well as high transcript levels of IL-6 and other B cell supporting or T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-driven cytokines and thus differs profoundly from normal testis or inflammatory lesions associated with hypospermatogenesis...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
I V Wagner, N Klöting, N Atanassova, I Savchuk, C Spröte, W Kiess, O Söder, K Svechnikov
Obesity is a global health problem and impacts negatively on levels of testosterone and quality of sperm production. At present little is known about mechanisms that attenuate testicular function in obese males. Our study characterized testicular steroidogenesis and explored levels of relevant paracrine and hormonal factors in rats with short- and long-term obesity. We have found that obesity state increased serum levels of estradiol and leptin in both groups of obese rats and inhibited the expression of StAR and Cyp11a1 associated with low levels of intratesticular testosterone in rats with long-term obesity...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sean Harris, Sara Pacheco Shubin, Susanna Wegner, Kirk Van Ness, Foad Green, Sung Woo Hong, Elaine M Faustman
Our 3-dimensional testis co-culture system (3D-TCS) represents a promising model of male reproductive toxicity which captures sensitive processes of male reproductive development and contains the main testes cell types (germ, Leydig and Sertoli cells). Macrophages are another cell type important for testicular function and help to modulate immuno-endocrine processes during testes development. Chemicals such as phthalate esters (PE's) affect macrophage function and testosterone production in the testes in vivo...
October 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Burak Kaptaner, Ertuğrul Kankaya, Abdulahad Dogan, Atilla Durmuş
Recent reports have demonstrated gonadal abnormalities in the Lake Van fish (Alburnus tarichi) from Lake Van caused by increasing pollution. In the present study, the fish was collected from an area of Lake Van receiving mainly sewage treatment plant effluent at prespawning period (April) and from a river (Karasu) which is close to the polluted area of the lake and where the fish migrates at spawning period (May). Collected specimens were examined for testicular alterations, gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (CF), and antioxidant defense system biomarkers based on comparison with a reference lake (Erçek) and a reference freshwater inlet (Memedik River)...
August 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sudhanshu Bhushan, Andreas Meinhardt
Testicular macrophages are the largest leukocyte population in the testis. Their environment is characterized by the seemingly contradictory needs for tolerance against the autoantigenic germ cells and the capacity to mount pro-inflammatory innate immune responses against invading pathogens. During the past years considerable progress has been made in our understanding how intracellular signaling events enable testicular macrophages to adequately respond to inflammatory stimuli with the capacity to clear pathogens, but avoid excessive tissue damage to maintain fertility...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Peter G Stanton, Caroline F H Foo, Adam Rainczuk, Andrew N Stephens, Mark Condina, Liza O'Donnell, Wolfgang Weidner, Tomomoto Ishikawa, Lyndsey Cruickshanks, Lee B Smith, Robert I McLachlan
Communication between the testicular somatic (Sertoli, Leydig, peritubular myoid, macrophage) and germ cell types is essential for sperm production (spermatogenesis), but the communicating factors are poorly understood. We reasoned that identification of proteins in the testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) that bathes these cells could provide a new means to explore spermatogenic function. The aim of this study was to map the proteome of TIF from normal adult rats. Low-abundance proteins in TIF were enriched using ProteoMiner beads and identified by MALDI-MS/MS, recognizing 276 proteins...
September 2016: Proteomics
Tomohiro Ishii, Ryuji Fukuzawa, Takeshi Sato, Koji Muroya, Masanori Adachi, Kenji Ihara, Junko Igaki, Yukihiro Hasegawa, Seiji Sato, Toshikatsu Mitsui, Tomonobu Hasegawa
OBJECTIVE: Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH) results in impairment of adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis caused by STAR mutations. Our previous study revealed upregulation of genes associated with inflammatory or immune response and macrophage infiltration in the adrenal cortex of Star-knockout mice. This study aimed at investigating macrophage infiltration in the gonads from human patients with lipoid CAH. DESIGN: This study includes seven patients with lipoid CAH who underwent gonadectomy: two XX women (age, 22 and 40 years) and five XY boys (1 year)...
August 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Jesse L Cox, Geoffrey A Talmon, Scott A Koepsell
Identification of choriocarcinoma within a germ cell tumor can have major implications for the subsequent staging and treatment of testicular neoplasms. Immunoperoxidase staining greatly enhances the speed and sensitivity of identifying occult, though clinically significant, tumor components. In mixed germ cell tumors, staining for beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) has been historically used to assess for the presence and burden of choriocarcinoma. However, current β-hCG stains produce variable, intense staining of trophoblastic elements and surrounding tissues, clouding the assessment of true-positive staining...
2016: Disease Markers
Kusum Jashnani, Heena Desai, Jyothi Shetty
Macrophages usually reside in the testicular interstitial tissues and are normally not found within the seminiferous tubules. However, in certain cases of male infertility, the macrophages are activated and can then be found within the tubules where they can ingest spermatozoa and are labeled as "spermiophages." FNAC was performed in a 36 year male with history of primary infertility. On microscopy, smears made from right testis were indicative of hypospermatogenesis. On the contrary, smears made from the left testis were very cellular showing Sertoli cells and the entire spectrum of normal spermatogenesis...
March 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
María Eugenia Matzkin, Johanna Gabriela Miquet, Yimin Fang, Cristal Monique Hill, Daniel Turyn, Ricardo Saúl Calandra, Andrzej Bartke, Mónica Beatriz Frungieri
Aged testes undergo profound histological and morphological alterations leading to a reduced functionality. Here, we investigated whether variations in longevity affect the development of local inflammatory processes, the oxidative state and the occurrence of apoptotic events in the testis. To this aim, well-established mouse models with delayed (growth hormone releasing hormone-knockout and Ames dwarf mice) or accelerated (growth hormone-transgenic mice) aging were used. We hereby show that the testes of short-lived mice show a significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 expression, PGD2 production, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes expression, local macrophages and TUNEL-positive germ cells numbers, and the levels of both pro-caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3...
January 2016: Aging
Estela Isabel Bini, Luciano D'Attilio, Brenda Marquina-Castillo, Dulce Mata-Espinosa, Ariana Díaz, Ricardo Marquez-Velasco, Octavio Ramos-Espinosa, Armando Gamboa-Domínguez, Maria Luisa Bay, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Oscar Bottasso
BACKGROUND: The chronic nature of tuberculosis and the protracted immuno-inflammatory reactions are implied in a series of metabolic and immune-endocrine changes accompanying the disease. We explored components from the hypothalamous-pituitary-gonadal axis and their relationship with cytokines involved in disease immunopathology, in male TB patients. METHODS: Plasma samples from 36 active untreated pulmonary TB male patients were used to determine TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, IL-6, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, progesterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by ELISA...
December 2015: Tuberculosis
Ana Cláudia Ferreira Souza, Sarah Cozzer Marchesi, Graziela Domingues de Almeida Lima, Rafael Penha Ferraz, Felipe Couto Santos, Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta, Mariana Machado-Neves
The main source of environmental arsenic exposure in most countries of the world is drinking water in which inorganic forms of arsenic predominate. The present study was aimed to test the impact of two different compounds of inorganic arsenic in histomorphometric and enzymatic parameters in the testes by oral exposition. Adult Wistar male rats were exposed to sodium arsenite and arsenate in drinking water, testing for each chemical form the concentrations of 0.01 and 10 mg/L per 56 days. The animals intoxicated with arsenic, mainly sodium arsenite, showed reduction in the percentage of seminiferous epithelium and in proportion and volume of Leydig cells...
June 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
L B Smith, P J O'Shaughnessy, D Rebourcet
Testicular development and function is the culmination of a complex process of autocrine, paracrine and endocrine interactions between multiple cell types. Dissecting this has classically involved the use of systemic treatments to perturb endocrine function, or more recently, transgenic models to knockout individual genes. However, targeting genes one at a time does not capture the more wide-ranging role of each cell type in its entirety. An often overlooked, but extremely powerful approach to elucidate cellular function is the use of cell ablation strategies, specifically removing one cellular population and examining the resultant impacts on development and function...
November 2015: Andrology
Shuichi Hirai, Munekazu Naito, Miyuki Kuramasu, Yuki Ogawa, Hayato Terayama, Ning Qu, Naoyuki Hatayama, Shogo Hayashi, Masahiro Itoh
Exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induces spermatogenic disturbance (SD) through oxidative stress, and affects the immune system by acting as an adjuvant. Recently, we reported that in mice, a low dose of DEHP, which did not affect spermatogenesis, was able to alter the testicular immune microenvironment. Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) can be induced by repeated immunization with testicular antigens, and its pathology is characterized by production of autoantibodies and SD. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a low-dose DEHP on the susceptibility of mice to EAO...
September 2015: Reproductive Biology
Nicolas Da Silva, Claire R Barton
Macrophages (MΦ) and dendritic cells (DCs) are heterogeneous families of functionally and developmentally related immune cells that play crucial roles in tissue homeostasis and the regulation of immune responses. During the past 5 years, immunologists have generated a considerable amount of data that challenge dogmas about the ontogeny and functions of these highly versatile cells. The male excurrent duct system plays a critical role in the establishment of fertility by allowing sperm maturation, transport and storage...
January 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Tiago Neves Ferreira, Hana Caroline Morais Higa, Ronaldo Garcia Rondina, Márcio Maia Lamy Miranda, Marcos Lyra Kaddoun, Maria Carmen Ferreira Lopes Silva Santos, Rodrigo Stênio Moll de Souza
Despite its infrequent occurrence, testicular schistosomiasis forming pseudo-tumors can be considered in the differential diagnosis of testicular tumors, especially in areas where the parasitic disease is endemic. In this report, we present a case of testicular schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni and mimicking a testicular neoplasm. We describe the patterns of a testicular nodule on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance images in a 46-year-old man. The nodule was removed after a pre-operative diagnosis of a non-malignant lesion...
July 2015: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Tony DeFalco, Sarah J Potter, Alyna V Williams, Brittain Waller, Matthew J Kan, Blanche Capel
The testis produces sperm throughout the male reproductive lifespan by balancing self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Part of the SSC niche is thought to lie outside the seminiferous tubules of the testis; however, specific interstitial components of the niche that regulate spermatogonial divisions and differentiation remain undefined. We identified distinct populations of testicular macrophages, one of which lies on the surface of seminiferous tubules, in close apposition to areas of tubules enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia...
August 18, 2015: Cell Reports
Chia-Sui Kao, Kristine M Cornejo, Thomas M Ulbright, Robert H Young
The clinical and pathologic features of 70 juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) of the testis are presented. The patients were from 30 weeks gestational age to 10 years old; 60 of 67 (90%) whose ages are known to us were 6 months old or younger. Sixty-two underwent gonadectomy, 6 wedge excision, and 2 only biopsy. Twenty-six tumors were left sided and 22 right sided. Six occurred in an undescended testis and 2 in dysgenetic gonads. The most common presentation was a testicular mass (65%), followed by an "enlarging testis" (25%)...
September 2015: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Sabrina Jarazo Dietrich, Mónica Irina Fass, Patricia Verónica Jacobo, Cristian Marcelo Alejandro Sobarzo, Livia Lustig, María Susana Theas
BACKGROUND: Although the testis is considered an immunoprivileged organ it can orchestrate immune responses against pathological insults such as infection and trauma. Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is a model of chronic inflammation whose main histopathological features it shares with human orchitis. In EAO an increased number of macrophages infiltrate the interstitium concomitantly with progressive germ cell degeneration and impaired steroidogenesis. Up-regulation of nitric oxide (NO)-NO synthase (NOS) system occurs, macrophages being the main producers of NO...
2015: PloS One
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