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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087330/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-a-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-kr%C3%A3-yer-1838-heme-peroxidase-with-a-potential-role-in-extracellular-matrixes
#1
Aina-Cathrine Øvergård, Christiane Eichner, Frank Nilsen, Sussie Dalvin
Heme peroxidases are the most abundant type of peroxidase catalyzing a H2O2-dependent oxidation of a wide variety of substrates. They are involved in numerous processes like the innate immune response, hormone and prostaglandin synthesis and crosslinking of proteins within extracellular matrixes (ECM) as well as molecules within the cuticle and chorion of arthropods and nematodes. In the present study, a Lepeophtheirus salmonis heme peroxidase (LsHPX) 1 was characterized. Amino acids in the active site of heme peroxidases were conserved, and the predicted protein sequence showed the highest similarity to genes annotated as chorion peroxidases and genes suggested to be involved in cuticle hardening or adhesion...
January 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086956/differential-expression-of-e-type-prostanoid-receptors-2-and-4-in-microglia-stimulated-with-lipopolysaccharide
#2
Ester Bonfill-Teixidor, Amaia Otxoa-de-Amezaga, Miriam Font-Nieves, M Glòria Sans-Fons, Anna M Planas
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced under inflammatory conditions, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the products of COX activity. PGE2 has pleiotropic actions depending on the activation of specific E-type prostanoid EP1-4 receptors. We investigated the involvement of PGE2 and EP receptors in glial activation in response to an inflammatory challenge induced by LPS. METHODS: Cultures of mouse microglia or astroglia cells were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of COX-2 inhibitors, and the production of PGE2 was measured by ELISA...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086912/wwl70-attenuates-pge2-production-derived-from-2-arachidonoylglycerol-in-microglia-by-abhd6-independent-mechanism
#3
Mikiei Tanaka, Sean Moran, Jie Wen, Kwame Affram, Tinghua Chen, Aviva J Symes, Yumin Zhang
BACKGROUND: α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is one of the major enzymes for endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) hydrolysis in microglia cells. Our recent studies have shown that a selective ABHD6 inhibitor WWL70 has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in animal models of traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis. However, the role of ABHD6 in the neuroinflammatory response and the mechanisms by which WWL70 suppresses inflammation has not yet been elucidated in reactive microglia...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086859/cheongsangbangpung-tang-ameliorated-the-acute-inflammatory-response-via-the-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-mapk-phosphorylation
#4
Seon Young Kim, Sang Mi Park, Min Hwangbo, Jong Rok Lee, Sung Hui Byun, Sae Kwang Ku, Il Je Cho, Sang Chan Kim, Seon Young Jee, Sook Jahr Park
BACKGROUND: Cheongsangbangpung-tang (CBT) is a traditional herbal formula used in Eastern Asia to treat heat-related diseases and swellings in the skin. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of cheongsangbangpung-tang extract (CBTE) both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The in vitro effects of CBTE on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammation-related proteins were examined in RAW 264.7 cells. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) were measured with the Griess reagent...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077357/triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-lipolysis-products-increase-blood-brain-barrier-transfer-coefficient-and-induce-astrocyte-lipid-droplets-and-cell-stress
#5
Linda L Lee, Hnin Hnin Aung, Dennis W Wilson, Steven E Anderson, John C Rutledge, Jennifer M Rutkowsky
Elevation of blood triglycerides, primarily as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL), has been linked to cerebrovascular inflammation, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes, two cell components of the neurovascular unit, participate in controlling blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and regulating neurovascular unit homeostasis. Our studies showed that infusion of high physiological concentrations of TGRL lipolysis products (TGRL + lipoprotein lipase) activate and injure brain endothelial cells and transiently increases the BBB transfer coefficient (Ki=permeability x surface area/volume) in vivo...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076854/open-angle-glaucoma-drug-development-pipeline-during-the-last-20-years-1995-2015
#6
André Vicente, Sylvie Prud'homme, Joana Ferreira, Luís Abegão Pinto, Ingeborg Stalmans
OBJECTIVES: To analyse drug development for open-angle glaucoma during the last 20 years. METHODS: Research was performed by referring to clinical trials registered at the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). A search for the condition "open-angle glaucoma" with the intervention "drug" was performed. We included trials registered from 01/01/1995 to 01/01/2015, only involving studies in phases 1, 2, and 3. Only studies resorting to novel treatment strategies (either novel drugs or yet-untested fixed associations of approved medication) were considered...
January 12, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076575/selective-laser-trabeculoplasty-as-an-initial-treatment-option-for-open-angle-glaucoma
#7
Ana Lúcia Freitas, Michele Ushida, Izabela Almeida, Diego T Dias, Syril Dorairaj, Fábio Nishimura Kanadani, Tiago Santos Prata
Although eye drops are frequently used as an initial treatment option for open angle glaucoma (OAG), side effects, and poor adherence, among others, may compromise treatment efficacy. In this scenario, laser trabeculoplasty is an interesting therapeutic option for open angle glaucoma cases. Commonly used for many years as a last alternative prior to glaucoma incisional surgery, laser trabeculoplasty has been changing its indication after the advent of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT). In the current review, we critically evaluated the published data regarding the use of laser trabeculoplasty as a first treatment option for open angle glaucoma patients...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075380/splenic-immune-response-is-down-regulated-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-enriched-high-fat-diet
#8
Nikul K Soni, Alastair B Ross, Nathalie Scheers, Otto I Savolainen, Intawat Nookaew, Britt G Gabrielsson, Ann-Sofie Sandberg
Dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with reduction of inflammation, although the mechanisms are poorly understood, especially how the spleen, as a secondary lymphoid organ, is involved. To investigate the effects of EPA and DHA on spleen gene expression, male C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diets (HFD) differing in fatty acid composition, either based on corn oil (HFD-CO), or CO enriched with 2 g/100 g EPA and DHA (HFD-ED), for eight weeks. Spleen tissue was analyzed using transcriptomics and for fatty acids profiling...
January 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074397/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-secondary-metabolites-isolated-from-the-marine-derived-fungal-strain-penicillium-sp-sf-5629
#9
Nguyen Thi Thanh Ngan, Tran Hong Quang, Kwan-Woo Kim, Hye Jin Kim, Jae Hak Sohn, Dae Gill Kang, Ho Sub Lee, Youn-Chul Kim, Hyuncheol Oh
After the chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium sp. SF-5629, the isolation and structural elucidation of eight secondary metabolites, including (3R,4S)-6,8-dihydroxy-3,4,7-trimethylisocoumarin (1), (3S,4S)-sclerotinin A (2), penicitrinone A (3), citrinin H1 (4), emodin (5), ω-hydroxyemodin (6), 8-hydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (7), and 3,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (8) were carried out. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of these metabolites showed that 4 inhibited nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia, with IC50 values of 8...
January 10, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073488/plasma-mitochondrial-dna-levels-were-independently-associated-with-lung-injury-in-elderly-hip-fracture-patients
#10
Jian-Zheng Zhang, Juan Wang, Wen-Chun Qu, Xiao-Wei Wang, Zhi Liu, Ji-Xin Ren, Li Han, Tian-Sheng Sun
INTRODUCTION: Hip fracture in the elderly can induce systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) and lung injury which increases the risk of lung infection and death. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) plays a role in SIRS and lung injury in patients with multi-trauma, and also in patients with hip fractures. This study evaluated the potential value of plasma mtDNA in the early prognosis of lung injury in elderly fracture patients. METHODS: This study enrolled 156 elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture...
January 4, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068953/pregnant-human-peripheral-leukocyte-migration-during-several-late-pregnancy-clinical-conditions-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#11
Jun Takeda, Xin Fang, David M Olson
BACKGROUND: Parturition at term and preterm is characterized by sterile inflammatory processes occurring in the absence of infection whereby peripheral leukocytes infiltrate gestational tissues in response to chemotactic signals. In response to a homing signal, recruited leukocytes undergo diapedesis and extravasate through capillaries, migrating into stromal tissue. There they interact with resident immune and stromal cells to produce a mixture of matrix metalloproteinases, prostaglandins and cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 that in turn transform the uterus from pregnancy to parturition...
January 10, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068545/design-preparation-and-characterization-of-ph-responsive-prodrug-micelles-with-hydrolyzable-anhydride-linkages-for-controlled-drug-delivery
#12
Girija Seetharaman, Adarsh R Kallar, Vineeth M Vijayan, Jayabalan Muthu, Shivaram Selvam
We report a new prodrug micelle-based approach in which a model hydrophobic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), ibuprofen (Ibu), is tethered to amphiphilic methoxy polyethylene glycol-polypropylene fumarate (mPEG-PPF) diblock copolymer via hydrolytic anhydride linkages for potential controlled release applications of NSAIDs. Synthesized mPEG-PPF-Ibu polymer drug conjugates (PDCs) demonstrated high drug conjugation efficiency (∼90%) and self-assembled to form micellar nanostructures in aqueous medium with critical micelle concentrations ranging between 16 and 30μg/mL...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068076/bioavailability-and-kidney-responses-to-diclofenac-in-the-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#13
Lisa K Bickley, Ronny van Aerle, Andrew Ross Brown, Adam Hargreaves, Russell Huby, Victoria Cammack, Richard Jackson, Eduarda M Santos, Charles R Tyler
Diclofenac is one of the most widely prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs worldwide. It is frequently detected in surface waters; however, whether this pharmaceutical poses a risk to aquatic organisms is debated. Here we quantified the uptake of diclofenac by the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) following aqueous exposure (0.2 to 25.0 µg L(-1)) for 21 days, and evaluated the tissue and biomolecular responses in the kidney. Diclofenac accumulated in a concentration- and time- dependent manner in the plasma of exposed fish...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067837/kaempferol-and-chrysin-synergies-to-improve-septic-mice-survival
#14
Omar A Harasstani, Chau Ling Tham, Daud A Israf
Previously, we reported the role of synergy between two flavonoids-namely, chrysin and kaempferol-in inhibiting the secretion of a few major proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), and nitric oxide (NO) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of this combination on a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Severe sepsis was induced in male ICR mice (n = 7) via the CLP procedure...
January 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065729/n-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing-acid-amidase-and-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-inhibition-differentially-affect-n-acylethanolamine-levels-and-macrophage-activation
#15
Mireille Alhouayek, Pauline Bottemanne, Alexandros Makriyannis, Giulio G Muccioli
N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) such as N-palmitoylethanolamine and anandamide are endogenous bioactive lipids having numerous functions, including the control of inflammation. Their levels and therefore actions can be controlled by modulating the activity of two hydrolytic enzymes, N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). As macrophages are key to inflammatory processes, we used lipopolysaccharide-activated J774 macrophages, as well as primary mouse alveolar macrophages, to study the effect of FAAH and NAAA inhibition, using PF-3845 and AM9053 respectively, on macrophage activation and NAE levels measured by HPLC-MS...
January 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063500/cellular-assays-for-evaluating-calcium-dependent-translocation-of-cpla2%C3%AE-to-membrane
#16
B Yun, C C Leslie
The group IVA phospholipase A2, commonly called cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α), is a widely expressed enzyme that hydrolyzes membrane phospholipid to produce arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids, which are precursors for a number of bioactive lipid mediators. Arachidonic acid is metabolized through the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways for production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes that regulate normal physiological processes and contribute to disease pathogenesis. cPLA2α is composed of an N-terminal C2 domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain that contains the Ser-Asp catalytic dyad...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062696/prostaglandin-e2-inhibition-of-il-27-production-in-murine-dendritic-cells-a-novel-mechanism-that-involves-irf1
#17
Kirsten M Hooper, Jui-Hung Yen, Weimin Kong, Kate M Rahbari, Ping-Chang Kuo, Ana M Gamero, Doina Ganea
IL-27, a multifunctional cytokine produced by APCs, antagonizes inflammation by affecting conventional dendritic cells (cDC), inducing IL-10, and promoting development of regulatory Tr1 cells. Although the mechanisms involved in IL-27 induction are well studied, much less is known about the factors that negatively impact IL-27 expression. PGE2, a major immunomodulatory prostanoid, acts as a proinflammatory agent in several models of inflammatory/autoimmune disease, promoting primarily Th17 development and function...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061966/new-treatments-for-hair-loss
#18
S Vañó-Galván, F Camacho
The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy...
January 3, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061767/the-effect-of-induction-method-in-twin-pregnancies-a-secondary-analysis-for-the-twin-birth-study
#19
Elad Mei-Dan, Elizabeth V Asztalos, Andrew R Willan, Jon F R Barrett
BACKGROUND: This secondary analysis for the Twin Birth Study, an international, multicenter trial, aimed to compare the cesarean section rates and safety between methods of induction of labor in twin pregnancies. METHODS: Women with twin pregnancies where the first twin was in a cephalic presentation and who presented for labor induction, were non-randomly assigned to receive prostaglandin or amniotomy and/or oxytocin. Main outcome measures were the rates of unplanned cesarean section and neonatal and maternal mortality or serious morbidity...
January 6, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058946/evaluation-of-eicosanoid-concentrations-in-stored-units-of-canine-packed-red-blood-cells
#20
Rachel R Blake, Jung Hwa Lee, Matt K Ross, Todd M Archer, Robert W Wills, Andrew J Mackin, John M Thomason
OBJECTIVE To evaluate eicosanoid concentrations in freshly prepared canine packed RBCs (PRBCs) and to assess changes in eicosanoid concentrations in PRBC units over time during storage and under transfusion conditions. DESIGN Prospective study. SAMPLE 25 plasma samples from 14 healthy Greyhounds. PROCEDURES Plasma samples were obtained during PRBC preparation (donation samples), and the PRBC units were then stored at 4°C until used for transfusion (≤ 21 days later; n = 17) or mock transfusion if expired (22 to 24 days later; 8)...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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