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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821981/modifiable-factors-and-esophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-published-meta-analyses
#1
REVIEW
Clara Castro, Bárbara Peleteiro, Nuno Lunet
There are marked differences in the etiology of the major histological types of esophageal cancer (EC)-squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and adenocarcinomas (EAC). This study aimed to summarize the current scientific knowledge on modifiable risk factors for EC, by histological type, through a systematic review of meta-analyses referenced in PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge. We identified 100 meta-analyses on risk factors for ESCC (n = 54), EAC (n = 43), or EC (n = 51). ESCC risk significantly increased with alcohol and maté drinking, smoking, red and processed meat consumption and human papillomavirus infection, while it was negatively associated with body mass index and consumption of fruit, vegetables, white meat, folate, and some carotenoids...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820184/age-related-macular-degeneration-and-mortality-the-melbourne-collaborative-cohort-study
#2
M B McGuinness, R P Finger, A Karahalios, R H Guymer, D R English, E W Chong, A M Hodge, L D Robman, G G Giles, J A Simpson
AimsTo assess associations between features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and mortality.MethodsA total of 21 129 participants from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study aged 47-85 years (60% female) were assessed for AMD (2003-2007). Mortality data to December 31, 2012 were obtained through linkage with the National Death Index. Associations were assessed using Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, region of birth, education, physical activity, diet and alcohol.ResultsLate AMD was identified in 122 (0...
August 18, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818243/mental-health-problems-and-cancer-risk-factors-among-young-adults
#3
Greta M Massetti, Cheryll C Thomas, Jessica King, Kathleen Ragan, Natasha Buchanan Lunsford
INTRODUCTION: Chronic mental health problems often emerge in young adulthood, when adults begin to develop lifelong health behaviors and access preventive health services. The associations between mental health problems and modifiable cancer risk factors in young adulthood are not well understood. METHODS: In 2016, the authors analyzed 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on demographic characteristics, health service access and use, health status, and cancer risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol use, overweight or obesity, physical activity, and sleep) for 90,821 young adults aged 18-39 years with mental health problems (depressive disorder or frequent mental distress) compared to other young adults...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818241/prevalence-of-modifiable-cancer-risk-factors-among-u-s-adults-aged-18-44-years
#4
Mary C White, Meredith L Shoemaker, Sohyun Park, Linda J Neff, Susan A Carlson, David R Brown, Dafna Kanny
INTRODUCTION: Carcinogen exposure and unhealthy habits acquired in young adulthood can set the stage for the development of cancer at older ages. This study measured the current prevalence of several cancer risk factors among young adults to assess opportunities to intervene to change the prevalence of these risk factors and potentially reduce cancer incidence. METHODS: Using 2015 National Health Interview Survey data (analyzed in 2016), the prevalence of potential cancer risk factors was estimated among U...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817836/sitting-physical-activity-and-serum-oestrogen-metabolism-in-postmenopausal-women-the-women-s-health-initiative-observational-study
#5
Hannah Oh, Hannah Arem, Charles E Matthews, Nicolas Wentzensen, Kerryn W Reding, Louise A Brinton, Garnet L Anderson, Sally B Coburn, Jane A Cauley, Chu Chen, Deborah Goodman, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Roni T Falk, Xia Xu, Britton Trabert
BACKGROUND: Prolonged sitting and lower levels of physical activity have been associated with increased levels of parent oestrogens (oestrone and oestradiol), the key hormones in female cancers, in postmenopausal women. However, it is unknown whether sitting and physical activity are associated with circulating oestrogen metabolite levels. METHODS: Among 1804 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, 15 serum oestrogens/oestrogen metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
August 17, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814614/role-of-inactivity-in-chronic-diseases-evolutionary-insight-and-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Frank W Booth, Christian K Roberts, John P Thyfault, Gregory N Ruegsegger, Ryan G Toedebusch
This review proposes that physical inactivity could be considered a behavior selected by evolution for resting, and also selected to be reinforcing in life-threatening situations in which exercise would be dangerous. Underlying the notion are human twin studies and animal selective breeding studies, both of which provide indirect evidence for the existence of genes for physical inactivity. Approximately 86% of the 325 million in the United States (U.S.) population achieve less than the U.S. Government and World Health Organization guidelines for daily physical activity for health...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814378/mhealth-technologies-for-palliative-care-patients-at-the-interface-of-in-patient-to-outpatient-care-protocol-of-feasibility-study-aiming-to-early-predict-deterioration-of-patient-s-health-status
#7
Gudrun Theile, Vanessa Klaas, Gerhard Tröster, Matthias Guckenberger
BACKGROUND: Palliative care patients are a particularly vulnerable population and one of the critical phases in patients' trajectories is discharge from specialized in-patient palliative care into outpatient care, where availability of a palliative care infrastructure is highly variable. A relevant number of potentially avoidable readmissions and emergency visits of palliative patients is observed due to rapid exacerbation of symptoms indicating the need for a closer patient monitoring...
August 16, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814163/protease-activated-nanomaterials-for-targeted-cancer-theranostics
#8
Yung-Chieh Chan, Michael Hsiao
Cancer metastasis accompanies irreversible proteolysis. Malignant cells that abnormally express extracellular proteases usually lead to a poor outcome during cancer progression. The development of protease-activated drugs is an important goal. Moreover, the specific proteolytic mechanism can be used as a diagnostic strategy. Currently, nanotechnology for use in medication has been extensively developed to exploit the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles. For example, to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy drugs, targeted delivery has been attempted by combining a targeting ligand with a nanoparticle...
August 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808093/are-disagreements-in-caregiver-and-patient-assessment-of-patient-health-associated-with-increased-caregiver-burden-in-caregivers-of-older-adults-with-cancer
#9
Tina Hsu, Matthew Loscalzo, Rupal Ramani, Stephen Forman, Leslie Popplewell, Karen Clark, Vani Katheria, Rex Strowbridge, Redmond Rinehart, Dan Smith, Keith Matthews, Jeff Dillehunt, Tao Feng, David Smith, Canlan Sun, Arti Hurria
BACKGROUND: As patients age, caregivers increasingly provide essential support and patient information. We sought to determine if patient-caregiver assessments of patient health differ and if differences contribute to burden in caregivers of older adults with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients, aged ≥65, and their caregivers independently assessed patient function, comorbidity, nutrition, social activity, social support, and mental health. Caregivers completed the Caregiver Strain Index (CSI)...
August 14, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808043/allosteric-alterations-in-the-androgen-receptor-and-activity-in-prostate-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Takuma Uo, Stephen R Plymate, Cynthia C Sprenger
Organisms have evolved to generate biological complexity in their proteome and transcriptome from a limited number of genes. This concept holds true for the androgen receptor, which displays a diversity of inclusion/exclusion events in its structural motifs as a mechanism of resistance to the most forefront anti-androgen therapies. More than 20 androgen receptor variants that lack various portions of ligand-binding domain have been identified in human prostate cancer (PCa) samples. Most of the variants are inactive on their own, with a few exceptions displaying constitutive activity...
September 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806753/accelerometer-derived-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-by-cancer-type-in-the-united-states
#11
Keith M Thraen-Borowski, Keith P Gennuso, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram
The 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were among the first population-level studies to incorporate objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior, allowing for greater understanding of these behaviors. However, there has yet to be a comprehensive examination of these data in cancer survivors, including short- and long-term survivors of all cancer types. Therefore, the purpose of this analysis was to use these data to describe activity behaviors in short- and long-term cancer survivors of various types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806513/intraperitoneal-delivery-of-cisplatin-via-a-hyaluronan-based-nanogel-in-situ-crosslinkable-hydrogel-hybrid-system-for-peritoneal-dissemination-of-gastric-cancer
#12
Seiichi Ohta, Shota Hiramoto, Yuki Amano, Shigenobu Emoto, Hironori Yamaguchi, Hironori Ishigami, Joji Kitayama, Taichi Ito
Intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapeutics is expected for the treatment of peritoneally disseminated gastric cancer, because of poor migration of the drugs from the systemic circulation to the peritoneal cavity. In this study, for intraperitoneal delivery of cisplatin (CDDP), we developed a hyaluronan (HA)-based hybrid system in which CDDP-loaded HA nanogels were either physically encapsulated in or chemically conjugated to injectable HA hydrogels. Physical encapsulation enabled sustained release of HA nanogels from the HA hydrogel matrix for over a week...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805953/factors-associated-with-physical-activity-among-adolescent-and-young-adult-survivors-of-early-childhood-cancer-a-report-from-the-childhood-cancer-survivor-study-ccss
#13
Katie A Devine, Ann C Mertens, John A Whitton, Carmen L Wilson, Kirsten K Ness, Jordan Gilleland Marchak, Wendy Leisenring, Kevin C Oeffinger, Leslie L Robison, Gregory T Armstrong, Kevin R Krull
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate concurrent and longitudinal associations between psychosocial functioning and physical activity in adolescent and young adult survivors of early childhood cancer. METHODS: Adolescent survivors of early childhood cancer (diagnosed before age four) participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study completed the Coping Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE; n=303; mean age at survey 17.6 years). A subset of these survivors (n=248) completed a follow-up survey an average of 6...
August 14, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804509/lifetime-stress-exposure-and-health-a-review-of-contemporary-assessment-methods-and-biological-mechanisms
#14
Grant S Shields, George M Slavich
Life stress is a central construct in health research because it is associated with increased risk for a variety of serious mental and physical health problems, including anxiety disorders, depression, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disorders, Alzheimer's disease, certain cancers, and other diseases of aging. In this review, we examine how lifetime stress exposure contributes to elevated disease risk, and explore ongoing measurement and scientific issues related to this topic. To accomplish these goals, we first review existing instruments that have been developed for assessing perceived stress, self-reported life events, interviewer-assessed life stressors, and lifetime stress exposure...
August 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803675/the-yale-fitness-intervention-trial-in-female-cancer-survivors-cardiovascular-and-physiological-outcomes
#15
M Tish Knobf, Sangchoon Jeon, Barbara Smith, Lyndsay Harris, Siobhan Thompson, Mitchel R Stacy, Karl Insogna, Albert J Sinusas
BACKGROUND: Induced premature menopause and cardio-toxic therapy increase cardiovascular disease risk in female cancer survivors. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a 12 month aerobic-resistance fitness center intervention to home based physical activity on cardiovascular function and metabolic risk factors. METHODS: Subjects (N = 154) who had completed primary and/or adjuvant chemotherapy (past 3 years) were randomized to a fitness center intervention or a home based group...
August 10, 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803384/does-obesity-modify-the-relationship-between-physical-activity-and-breast-cancer-risk
#16
REVIEW
S E Neil-Sztramko, T Boyle, E Milosevic, S F Nugent, C C Gotay, K L Campbell
PURPOSE: With only 5-10% of breast cancer cases attributed to genetic inheritance, prevention efforts have focused on modifiable risk factors. Physical activity plays a role in reducing breast cancer risk; however, the interaction between physical activity and other modifiable risk factors, such as obesity, has received little attention. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining the relationship between physical activity and breast cancer and how it may be modified by body mass index (BMI)...
August 12, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802697/the-insertion-of-polybia-mp1-into-phospholipid-monolayers-is-regulated-by-its-anionic-nature-and-phase-state
#17
Dayane S Alvares, Natalia Wilke, João Ruggiero Neto, Maria Laura Fanani
Polybia-MP1 or simply MP1 (IDWKKLLDAAKQIL-NH2) is a peptide with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity and a strong inhibitory effect against cancer cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of biophysical properties such as membrane texture and film thickness on MP1 interaction with neutral and anionic lipid membranes. For this purpose, we first explored the peptide's surface behavior. MP1 showed high surface activity, adsorbing onto bare air/aqueous interfaces up to higher surface pressures than the collapse pressure of MP1 Langmuir films...
August 9, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798096/activation-of-tissue-plasminogen-activator-by-metastasis-inducing-s100p-protein
#18
Christopher Clarke, Stephane R Gross, Thamir M Ismail, Philip S Rudland, Morteta Al-Medhtiy, Michael Santangeli, Roger Barraclough
S100P protein in human breast cancer cells is associated with reduced patient survival and, in a model system of metastasis, it confers a metastatic phenotype upon benign mammary tumour cells. S100P protein possesses a C-terminal lysine residue. Using a multiwell in vitro assay, S100P is now shown for the first time to exhibit a strong, C-terminal-lysine-dependent activation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), but not of urokinase-catalysed plasminogen activation.  The presence of 10 mM calcium ions stimulates tPA activation of plasminogen 2-fold in an S100P-dependent manner...
August 10, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797867/preventing-early-postoperative-arm-swelling-and-lymphedema-manifestation-by-compression-sleeves-after-axillary-lymph-node-interventions-in-breast-cancer-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Katarzyna Ochalek, Tomasz Gradalski, Hugo Partsch
CONTEXT: Breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL) remains one of the major long-term complications after surgery. Many reports showed the effectiveness of compression in BCRL treatment but randomized controlled trials evaluating compression garments for postoperative prevention are lacking. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential role of light arm compression sleeves for reducing the incidence of early postoperative swelling and of breast cancer related arm lymphedema...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796161/comparison-of-liver-detargeting-strategies-for-systemic-therapy-with-oncolytic-adenovirus-serotype-5
#20
Tien V Nguyen, Mary E Barry, Mallory A Turner, Catherine M Crosby, Miguel A Trujillo, John C Morris, Michael A Barry
Oncolytic viruses would ideally be of use for systemic therapy to treat disseminated cancer. To do this safely, this may require multiple layers of cancer specificity. The pharmacology and specificity of oncolytic adenoviruses can be modified by (1) physical retargeting, (2) physical detargeting, (3) chemical shielding, or (4) by modifying the ability of viral early gene products to selectively activate in cancer versus normal cells. We explored the utility of these approaches with oncolytic adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) in immunocompetent Syrian hamsters bearing subcutaneous HaK tumors...
August 10, 2017: Biomedicines
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