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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453535/toxicity-of-metal-oxide-nanoparticles
#1
Koyeli Girigoswami
In the recent times, nanomaterials are used in many sectors of science, medicine and industry, without revealing its toxic effects. Thus, it is in urgent need for exploring the toxicity along with the application of such useful nanomaterials. Nanomaterials are categorized with a particle size of 1-100 nm. They have gained increasing attention because of their novel properties, including a large specific surface area and high reaction activity. The various fundamental and practical applications of nanomaterials include drug delivery, cell imaging, and cancer therapy...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453315/autophagic-flux-is-regulated-by-interaction-between-the-c-terminal-domain-of-patched1-and-atg101
#2
Lucy X Chen, Cintli C Morales-Alcala, Natalia A Riobo-Del Galdo
The Hedgehog (Hh) receptor Patched1 (PTCH1) is a well-known tumor suppressor that in its active form represses Smoothened (SMO) activity, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis. The cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (CTD) regulates PTCH1 turnover and nucleates a pro-apoptotic complex. In this study, it was mechanistically determined that Autophagy Related 10 (ATG101), essential for mammalian autophagy, physically interacts with the CTD of PTCH1 and connects it to the ULK complex, which stimulates the autophagy machinery in response to changes in nutrient availability...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452599/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-pre-operative-physical-activity-to-improve-patient-outcomes-after-major-cancer-surgery-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial-pepa-trial
#3
Daniel Steffens, Jane Young, Paula R Beckenkamp, James Ratcliffe, Freya Rubie, Nabila Ansari, Neil Pillinger, Michael Solomon
BACKGROUND: There is a need for evidence of the effectiveness of pre-operative exercise for patients undergoing major cancer surgery; however, recruitment to such trials can be challenging. The PrE-operative Physical Activity (PEPA) Trial will establish the feasibility and acceptability of a pre-operative exercise programme aimed to improve patient outcomes after cytoreductive surgery and pelvic exenteration. The secondary aim is to obtain pilot data on the likely difference in key outcomes (post-operative complications, length of hospital stay, post-operative functional capacity and quality of life) to inform the sample size calculation for the substantive randomised clinical trial...
February 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451662/what-clinical-functional-and-psychological-factors-before-treatment-are-predictors-of-poor-quality-of-life-in-cancer-patients-at-the-end-of-chemotherapy
#4
Ariella Sebastião Mangia, Nara Lisiane de Oliveira Coqueiro, Fernanda Cabral Azevedo, Hiago Tomaz da Silva Araujo, Elizandra de Oliveira Amorim, Cibelli Navarro Rodrigues Alves, Calvino Camargo, Allex Jardim da Fonseca
OBJECTIVE: To correlate physical activity level (PAL), functional capacity and psychological state with quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT). METHOD: Observational cohort study. Patients (n=121) with any primary cancer site with indications of chemotherapy with palliative or curative intent were evaluated at three moments: 1) patient admission (week 0), before chemotherapy; 2) week 8; 3) end of CT. Data were collected regarding QoL, PAL, clinical data, functional capacity (short walking distance test, sitting-rising test, isometric manual gripping force), and anxiety and depression tests...
November 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451333/urban-rural-differences-in-aerobic-physical-activity-muscle-strengthening-exercise-and-screen-time-sedentary-behavior
#5
Michael C Robertson, Jaejoon Song, Wendell C Taylor, Casey P Durand, Karen M Basen-Engquist
PURPOSE: Compared to their urban counterparts, US residents in rural settings face an increased risk of premature mortality and health problems that have been linked to insufficient physical activity (PA) levels. There is limited literature regarding urban-rural differences in adherence to national guidelines for all 3 PA-related behaviors. METHODS: We investigated urban-rural differences in aerobic PA, leisure-time muscle strengthening PA, and leisure screen-time sedentary behavior in a combined data set of the 2011-2014 waves (N = 14,188) of the nationally representative National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450107/macrogenomic-engineering-via-modulation-of-the-scaling-of-chromatin-packing-density
#6
Luay M Almassalha, Greta M Bauer, Wenli Wu, Lusik Cherkezyan, Di Zhang, Alexis Kendra, Scott Gladstein, John E Chandler, David VanDerway, Brandon-Luke L Seagle, Andrey Ugolkov, Daniel D Billadeau, Thomas V O'Halloran, Andrew P Mazar, Hemant K Roy, Igal Szleifer, Shohreh Shahabi, Vadim Backman
Many human diseases result from the dysregulation of the complex interactions between tens to thousands of genes. However, approaches for the transcriptional modulation of many genes simultaneously in a predictive manner are lacking. Here, through the combination of simulations, systems modelling and in vitro experiments, we provide a physical regulatory framework based on chromatin packing-density heterogeneity for modulating the genomic information space. Because transcriptional interactions are essentially chemical reactions, they depend largely on the local physical nanoenvironment...
November 2017: Nature Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449694/interaction-between-stat3-and-gli1-tgli1-oncogenic-transcription-factors-promotes-the-aggressiveness-of-triple-negative-breast-cancers-and-her2-enriched-breast-cancer
#7
Sherona R Sirkisoon, Richard L Carpenter, Tadas Rimkus, Ashley Anderson, Alexandria Harrison, Allison M Lange, Guangxu Jin, Kounosuke Watabe, Hui-Wen Lo
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), glioma oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1), and truncated GLI1 (tGLI1) are oncogenic transcription factors playing important roles in breast cancer. tGLI1 is a gain-of-function GLI1 isoform. Whether STAT3 physically and/or functionally interacts with GLI1/tGLI1 has not been explored. To address this knowledge gap, we analyzed 47 node-positive breast cancer specimens using immunohistochemical staining and found that phosphorylated-STAT3 (Y705), GLI1, and tGLI1 are co-overexpressed in the majority of triple-negative breast carcinomas (64%) and HER2-enriched (68%) breast carcinomas, and in lymph node metastases (65%)...
February 16, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448000/bone-marrow-derived-fibrocytes-promote-stem-cell-like-properties-of-lung-cancer-cells
#8
Atsuro Saijo, Hisatsugu Goto, Mayuri Nakano, Atsushi Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori Aono, Masaki Hanibuchi, Hirohisa Ogawa, Hisanori Uehara, Kazuya Kondo, Yasuhiko Nishioka
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a minor population that have clonal tumor initiation and self-renewal capacity and are responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. CSCs reside in niches, which are composed of diverse types of stromal cells and extracellular matrix components. These stromal cells regulate CSC-like properties by providing secreted factors or by physical contact. Fibrocytes are differentiated from bone marrow-derived CD14 + monocytes and have features of both macrophages and fibroblasts...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446719/dna-double-strand-breaks-repair-inhibitors-relevance-as-potential-new-anticancer-therapeutics
#9
Paulina Kopa, Anna Macieja, Grzegorz Galita, Zbigniew J Witczak, Tomasz Poplawski
DNA Double-strand breaks are considered one of the most lethal form of DNA damage. Many effective anticancer therapeutic approaches used chemical and physical methods to generate DNA double-strand breaks in the cancer cells. They include: IR and drugs which mimetic its action, topoisomerase poisons, some alkylating agents or drugs which affected DNA replication process. On the other hand, cancer cells are mostly characterized by highly effective systems of DNA damage repair. There are two main DNA repair pathways used to fix double-strand breaks: NHEJ and HRR...
February 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446325/behaviour-change-techniques-in-physical-activity-interventions-for-men-with-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review
#10
Laura Hallward, Nisha Patel, Lindsay R Duncan
Physical activity interventions can improve prostate cancer survivors' health. Determining the behaviour change techniques used in physical activity interventions can help elucidate the mechanisms by which an intervention successfully changes behaviour. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate behaviour change techniques in physical activity interventions for prostate cancer survivors. A total of 7 databases were searched and 15 studies were retained. The studies included a mean 6...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444652/physical-activity-and-risk-of-testicular-cancer-a-systematic-review
#11
Stephanie Huang, Virginia Signal, Diana Sarfati, Caroline Shaw, James Stanley, Katherine McGlynn, Jason Gurney
BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been implicated as a risk factor in the development of testicular cancer (TC), but the relationship remains controversial. This systematic review pooled available evidence regarding this association. METHODS: Using Boolean search terms and following PRISMA guidelines, we examined the risk of TC across three categories of exposure: intensity (i.e. comparison of risk between those previously exposed to high, moderate and low levels of physical activity); dose-response (i...
February 14, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442457/dietary-patterns-and-breast-or-lung-cancer-risk-a-pooled-analysis-of-2-case-control-studies-in-north-eastern-poland
#12
Beata Krusińska, Iwona Hawrysz, Małgorzata A Słowińska, Lidia Wądołowska, Maciej Biernacki, Anna Czerwińska, Janusz J Gołota
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer in women and lung cancer in men are the most prevalent cancers in Poland and worldwide. Evidence of the impact of food groups and nutrients on the risk of breast and lung cancer is limited and lacking conclusions. Studies on food consumption and breast or lung cancer are limited. OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the association between dietary patterns and the prevalence of breast and lung cancers in adult Poles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved a pooled analysis of 2 case-control studies on 320 subjects aged 50-70 years from north-eastern Poland (160 women, 160 men)...
December 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438474/lifestyle-factors-and-risk-of-sporadic-colorectal-cancer-by-microsatellite-instability-status-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#13
P R Carr, E Alwers, S Bienert, J Weberpals, M Kloor, H Brenner, M Hoffmeister
Introduction: The association of lifestyle factors with molecular pathological subtypes of colorectal cancer (CRC), such as microsatellite instability (MSI), could provide further knowledge about the colorectal carcinogenic process. The aim of this review was to evaluate possible associations between lifestyle factors and risk of sporadic CRC by MSI status. Methods: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for studies investigating the association between alcohol, body mass index (BMI), dietary fiber, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), physical activity, red meat, smoking, or statin use, with MSI-high (MSI-H) and microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437202/lymphedema-in-ovarian-cancer-survivors-assessing-diagnostic-methods-and-the-effects-of-physical-activity
#14
Neel S Iyer, Brenda Cartmel, Louis Friedman, Fangyong Li, Yang Zhou, Elizabeth Ercolano, Maura Harrigan, Linda Gottlieb, Ruth McCorkle, Peter E Schwartz, Melinda L Irwin
BACKGROUND: Lymphedema is a poorly understood side effect of gynecologic cancer treatment. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of lower limb lymphedema (LLL) in a sample of ovarian cancer survivors via 3 different diagnostic methods and to assess the effect of a randomized exercise intervention. METHODS: Physically inactive ovarian cancer survivors (n = 95) were enrolled in a 6-month randomized trial of exercise (primarily brisk walking) versus attention control...
February 13, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436694/lrig1-negatively-regulates-ret-mutants-and-is-downregulated-in-thyroid-cancer
#15
David Lindquist, Fernando C Alsina, Carl Herdenberg, Catharina Larsson, Jo Höppener, Na Wang, Gustavo Paratcha, Miklós Tarján, Tibor Tot, Roger Henriksson, Håkan Hedman
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are characterized by genomic rearrangements and point mutations in the proto-oncogene RET. Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is a suppressor of various receptor tyrosine kinases, including RET. LRIG1 expression levels are associated with patient survival in many cancer types. In the present study, we investigated whether the oncogenic RET mutants RET2A (C634R) and RET2B (M918T) were regulated by LRIG1, and the possible effects of LRIG1 expression in thyroid cancer were investigated in three different clinical cohorts and in a RET2B-driven mouse model of MTC...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436473/high-erythrocyte-levels-of-the-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-linoleic-acid-are-associated-with-lower-risk-of-subsequent-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-a-southern-european-nested-case-control-study
#16
Paola de Pablo, Dora Romaguera, Helena L Fisk, Philip C Calder, Anne-Marie Quirke, Alison J Cartwright, Salvatore Panico, Amalia Mattiello, Diana Gavrila, Carman Navarro, Carlotta Sacerdote, Paolo Vineis, Rosario Tumino, William E Ollier, Dominique S Michaud, Elio Riboli, Patrick J Venables, Benjamin A Fisher
OBJECTIVES: Findings relating to dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mixed. Erythrocyte membrane PUFA is an accurate objective biomarker of PUFA status; however, there are little data on erythrocyte membrane PUFA and risk of RA. The objective was therefore to compare erythrocyte membrane PUFA between pre-RA individuals and matched controls from a population-based sample, and specifically to test the hypothesis that higher levels of longer chain n-3 PUFA are associated with lower risk of RA...
February 7, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434658/healthy-living-and-cancer-evidence-from-uk-biobank
#17
Peter C Elwood, Alex Whitmarsh, John Gallacher, Anthony Bayer, Richard Adams, Luke Heslop, Janet Pickering, Gareth Morgan, Julieta Galante, Sunil Dolwani, Marcus Longley, Zoe E Roberts
Context: UK Biobank is a prospective study of half a million subjects, almost all aged 40-69 years, identified in 22 centres across the UK during 2006-2010. Objective: A healthy lifestyle has been described as 'better than any pill, and no side effects [5]. We therefore examined the relationships between healthy behaviours: low alcohol intake, non-smoking, healthy BMI, physical activity and a healthy diet, and the risk of all cancers, colon, breast and prostate cancers in a large dataset...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434016/increasing-physical-activity-amongst-overweight-and-obese-cancer-survivors-using-an-alexa-based-intelligent-agent-for-patient-coaching-protocol-for-the-physical-activity-by-technology-help-path-trial
#18
Ahmed Hassoon, Jennifer Schrack, Daniel Naiman, Dina Lansey, Yasmin Baig, Vered Stearns, David Celentano, Seth Martin, Lawrence Appel
BACKGROUND: Physical activity has established health benefits, but motivation and adherence remain challenging. OBJECTIVE: We designed and launched a three-arm randomized trial to test artificial intelligence technology solutions to increase daily physical activity in cancer survivors. METHODS: A single-center, three-arm randomized clinical trial with an allocation ration of 1:1:1: (A) control, in which participants are provided written materials about the benefits of physical activity; (B) text intervention, where participants receive daily motivation from a fully automated, data-driven algorithmic text message via mobile phone (Coachtext); and (C) Voice Assist intervention, where participants are provided with an in-home on demand autonomous Intelligent Agent using data driven Interactive Digital Voice Assist on the Amazon Alexa/Echo (MyCoach)...
February 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433474/real-life-feasibility-of-home-based-pulmonary-rehabilitation-in-chemotherapy-treated-patients-with-thoracic-cancers-a-pilot-study
#19
Cecile Olivier, Jean-Marie Grosbois, Alexis B Cortot, Sophie Peres, Christophe Heron, Julie Delourme, Marianne Gierczynski, Anne Hoorelbeke, Arnaud Scherpereel, Olivier Le Rouzic
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced lung cancer (LC) or malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) exhibit limitation of exercise capacities and alteration of quality of life (QoL) induced by cancer and its treatment. Few studies assessed pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in these chemotherapy-treated patients, and none evaluated a home-based PR program. METHODS: In this prospective uncontrolled observational pilot study, patients treated by chemotherapy for LC or MPM were screened for a home-based PR program combining exercise training with global cares including therapeutic education and psychosocial management...
February 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432426/single-cell-on-chip-whole-genome-amplification-via-micropillar-arrays-for-reduced-amplification-bias
#20
Harvey C Tian, Jaime J Benitez, Harold G Craighead
Single cell whole genome amplification is susceptible to amplification biases that impact the accuracy of single cell sequencing data. To address this, we have developed a microfluidic device for the isolation and purification of genomic DNA from individual cells. The device uses a micropillar array to physically capture single cells and its chromosomal DNA upon extraction. The extracted DNA is immobilized within the micropillar array in a way that allows isothermal amplification. In this system, whole genome amplification of the single cell is carried out under a continual fluid flow within the microfluidic channel...
2018: PloS One
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