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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445719/kat-independent-gene-regulation-by-tip60-promotes-esc-self-renewal-but-not-pluripotency
#1
Diwash Acharya, Sarah J Hainer, Yeonsoo Yoon, Feng Wang, Ingolf Bach, Jaime A Rivera-Pérez, Thomas G Fazzio
Although histone-modifying enzymes are generally assumed to function in a manner dependent on their enzymatic activities, this assumption remains untested for many factors. Here, we show that the Tip60 (Kat5) lysine acetyltransferase (KAT), which is essential for embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and pre-implantation development, performs these functions independently of its KAT activity. Unlike ESCs depleted of Tip60, KAT-deficient ESCs exhibited minimal alterations in gene expression, chromatin accessibility at Tip60 binding sites, and self-renewal, thus demonstrating a critical KAT-independent role of Tip60 in ESC maintenance...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444142/regulatory-states-in-the-developmental-control-of-gene-expression
#2
Isabelle S Peter
A growing body of evidence shows that gene expression in multicellular organisms is controlled by the combinatorial function of multiple transcription factors. This indicates that not the individual transcription factors or signaling molecules, but the combination of expressed regulatory molecules, the regulatory state, should be viewed as the functional unit in gene regulation. Here, I discuss the concept of the regulatory state and its proposed role in the genome-wide control of gene expression. Recent analyses of regulatory gene expression in sea urchin embryos have been instrumental for solving the genomic control of cell fate specification in this system...
April 24, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439606/cemento-ossifying-fibroma-of-the-mandible-a-clinicopathological-report
#3
Tapas K Bala, Sarmeshta Soni, Prakriti Dayal, Indrajeet Ghosh
Cemento-ossifying fibromas are rare fibro-osseous benign neoplasms that affect the jaws. They are included in the group of mesodermal odontogenic tumors and commonly present as a progressively growing lesion that might attain enormous size with resultant deformity, if left untreated. A confusion prevails on the terminology, which can only be confirmed by histopathologic evaluation. A case of cemento-ossifying fibroma involving the right mandible is described in a 30 year-old female patient. The clinical, radiographic, histologic features are presented and the various differential diagnosis are discussed...
May 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439006/murine-model-indicates-22q11-2-signaling-adaptor-crkl-is-a-dosage-sensitive-regulator-of-genitourinary-development
#4
Meade Haller, Qianxing Mo, Akira Imamoto, Dolores J Lamb
The spectrum of congenital anomalies affecting either the upper tract (kidneys and ureters) or lower tract (reproductive organs) of the genitourinary (GU) system are fundamentally linked by the developmental origin of multiple GU tissues, including the kidneys, gonads, and reproductive ductal systems: the intermediate mesoderm. Although ∼31% of DiGeorge/del22q11.2 syndrome patients exhibit GU defects, little focus has been placed on the molecular etiology of GU defects in this syndrome. Among del22q11.2 patients exhibiting GU anomalies, we have mapped the smallest relevant region to only five genes, including CRKLCRKL encodes a src-homology adaptor protein implicated in mediating tyrosine kinase signaling, and is expressed in the developing GU-tract in mice and humans...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437187/synergy-between-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells-conditioned-medium-and-knockout-serum-replacement-converts-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-to-dopamine-secreting-neurons
#5
Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Mossa Gardaneh, Mehrnoosh Hasan Shahriari, Abbas Aliaghaei, Sanaz Hasani
Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) have great capacity to differentiate into mesodermal origins as well as non-mesodermal lineages including neural cells. This valuable feature paves the way for the therapeutic application of hADSCs for neurodegenerative maladies such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We tested the capacity of Choroid Plexus epithelial cells-conditioned medium (CPEC-CM) alone or cocktailed with knock-out serum (KS) to induce dopaminergic differentiation of hADSCs. To this end, hADSCs from lipoaspirate were phenotypically characterized and shown to maintain mesodermal multipotency so selected media easily differentiated them into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes...
March 2, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436965/a-three-dimensional-model-of-human-lung-development-and-disease-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
Ya-Wen Chen, Sarah Xuelian Huang, Ana Luisa Rodrigues Toste de Carvalho, Siu-Hong Ho, Mohammad Naimul Islam, Stefano Volpi, Luigi D Notarangelo, Michael Ciancanelli, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jahar Bhattacharya, Alice F Liang, Laura M Palermo, Matteo Porotto, Anne Moscona, Hans-Willem Snoeck
Recapitulation of lung development from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in three dimensions (3D) would allow deeper insight into human development, as well as the development of innovative strategies for disease modelling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine. We report here the generation from hPSCs of lung bud organoids (LBOs) that contain mesoderm and pulmonary endoderm and develop into branching airway and early alveolar structures after xenotransplantation and in Matrigel 3D culture. Expression analysis and structural features indicated that the branching structures reached the second trimester of human gestation...
April 24, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435074/ultrastructure-of-male-accessory-glands-in-the-scorpionfly-sinopanorpa-tincta-nav%C3%A3-s-1931-mecoptera-panorpidae
#7
Qi-Hui Lyu, Bao-Zhen Hua
The ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands was investigated in the scorpionfly Sinopanorpa tincta (Navás, 1931) (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) using light and transmission electron microscopy. The male accessory glands comprise one pair of mesodermal glands (mesadenia) and six pairs of ectodermal glands (ectadenia). The former opens into the vasa deferentia and the latter into the ejaculatory sac. The mesadenia consist of a mono-layered elongated columnar epithelium, the cells of which are highly microvillated and extrude secretory granules by means of merocrine mechanisms...
April 20, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434863/spatiotemporally-controlled-mechanical-cues-drive-progenitor-mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition-enabling-proper-heart-formation-and-function
#8
Timothy R Jackson, Hye Young Kim, Uma L Balakrishnan, Carsten Stuckenholz, Lance A Davidson
During early cardiogenesis, bilateral fields of mesenchymal heart progenitor cells (HPCs) move from the anterior lateral plate mesoderm to the ventral midline, undergoing a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) en route to forming a single epithelial sheet. Through tracking of tissue-level deformations in the heart-forming region (HFR) as well as movement trajectories and traction generation of individual HPCs, we find that the onset of MET correlates with a peak in mechanical stress within the HFR and changes in HPC migratory behaviors...
April 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432834/molecular-control-of-gut-formation-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#9
Natália Martins Feitosa, Matthias Pechmann, Evelyn E Schwager, Vitória Tobias-Santos, Alistair P McGregor, Wim G M Damen, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca
The development of a digestive system is an essential feature of bilaterians. Studies of the molecular control of gut formation in arthropods have been studied in detail in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, little is known in other arthropods, especially in noninsect arthropods. To better understand the evolution of arthropod alimentary system, we investigate the molecular control of gut development in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Pt), the primary chelicerate model species for developmental studies...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432217/rar%C3%AE-2-is-required-for-vertebrate-somitogenesis
#10
Amanda Janesick, Weiyi Tang, Tuyen T L Nguyen, Bruce Blumberg
During vertebrate somitogenesis, retinoic acid is known to establish the position of the determination wavefront, controlling where new somites are permitted to form along the anteroposterior body axis. Less is understood about how RAR regulates somite patterning, rostral-caudal boundary setting, specialization of myotome subdivisions, or the specific RAR subtype that is required for somite patterning. Characterizing the function of RARβ has been challenging due to the absence of embryonic phenotypes in murine loss-of-function studies...
April 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432215/actomyosin-based-tissue-folding-requires-a-multicellular-myosin-gradient
#11
Natalie C Heer, Pearson W Miller, Soline Chanet, Norbert Stoop, Jörn Dunkel, Adam C Martin
Tissue folding promotes three-dimensional (3D) form during development. In many cases, folding is associated with myosin accumulation at the apical surface of epithelial cells, as seen in the vertebrate neural tube and the Drosophila ventral furrow. This type of folding is characterized by constriction of apical cell surfaces, and the resulting cell shape change is thought to cause tissue folding. Here, we use quantitative microscopy to measure the pattern of transcription, signaling, myosin activation, and cell shape in the Drosophila mesoderm...
April 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428068/comparative-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-for-several-migrating-cell-types-identifies-cell-migration-regulators
#12
Young-Kyung Bae, Frank Macabenta, Heather Leigh Curtis, Angelike Stathopoulos
Cell migration is an instrumental process that ensures cells are properly positioned to support the specification of distinct tissue types during development. To provide insight, we used fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate two migrating cell types from the Drosophila embryo: caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) cells, precursors of longitudinal muscles of the gut, and hemocytes (HCs), the Drosophila equivalent of blood cells. ~350 genes were identified from each of the sorted samples using RNA-seq, and in situ hybridization was used to confirm expression within each cell type or, alternatively, within other interacting, co-sorted cell types...
April 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426095/models-of-global-gene-expression-define-major-domains-of-cell-type-and-tissue-identity
#13
Andrew P Hutchins, Zhongzhou Yang, Yuhao Li, Fangfang He, Xiuling Fu, Xiaoshan Wang, Dongwei Li, Kairong Liu, Jiangping He, Yong Wang, Jiekai Chen, Miguel A Esteban, Duanqing Pei
The current classification of cells in an organism is largely based on their anatomic and developmental origin. Cells types and tissues are traditionally classified into those that arise from the three embryonic germ layers, the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, but this model does not take into account the organization of cell type-specific patterns of gene expression. Here, we present computational models for cell type and tissue specification derived from a collection of 921 RNA-sequencing samples from 272 distinct mouse cell types or tissues...
March 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422173/critical-involvement-of-zeb2-in-collagen-fibrillogenesis-the-molecular-similarity-between-mowat-wilson-syndrome-and-ehlers-danlos-syndrome
#14
Mika Teraishi, Mikiro Takaishi, Kimiko Nakajima, Mitsunori Ikeda, Yujiro Higashi, Shinji Shimoda, Yoshinobu Asada, Atsushi Hijikata, Osamu Ohara, Yoko Hiraki, Seiji Mizuno, Toshiyuki Fukada, Takahisa Furukawa, Nobuaki Wakamatsu, Shigetoshi Sano
Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MOWS) is a congenital disease caused by de novo heterozygous loss of function mutations or deletions of the ZEB2 gene. MOWS patients show multiple anomalies including intellectual disability, a distinctive facial appearance, microcephaly, congenital heart defects and Hirschsprung disease. However, the skin manifestation(s) of patients with MOWS has not been documented in detail. Here, we recognized that MOWS patients exhibit many Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS)-like symptoms, such as skin hyperextensibility, atrophic scars and joint hypermobility...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419336/ip3r-mediated-ca2-signals-govern-hematopoietic-and-cardiac-divergence-of-flk1-cells-via-the-calcineurin-nfatc3-etv2-pathway
#15
Yi-Jie Wang, Jijun Huang, Wenqiang Liu, Xiaochen Kou, Huayuan Tang, Hong Wang, Xiujian Yu, Shaorong Gao, Kunfu Ouyang, Huang-Tian Yang
Ca2+ signals participate in various cellular processes with spatial and temporal dynamics, among which, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs)-mediated Ca2+ signals are essential for early development. However, the underlying mechanisms of IP3R-regulated cell fate decision remain largely unknown. Here we report that IP3Rs are required for the hematopoietic and cardiac fate divergence of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Deletion of IP3Rs (IP3R-tKO) reduced Flk1+/PDGFRα- hematopoietic mesoderm, c-Kit+/CD41+ hematopoietic progenitor cell population, and the colony-forming unit activity, but increased cardiac progenitor markers as well as cardiomyocytes...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409347/origin-and-function-of-the-renal-stroma-in-health-and-disease
#16
Christopher J Rowan, Sepideh Sheybani-Deloui, Norman D Rosenblum
The renal stroma is defined as a heterogeneous population of cells that serve both as a supportive framework and as a source of specialized cells in the renal capsule, glomerulus, vasculature, and interstitium. In this chapter, we review published evidence defining what, where, and why stromal cells are important. We describe the functions of the renal stroma andhow stromal derivatives are crucial for normal kidney function. Next, we review the specification of stromal cells from the Osr1+ intermediate mesoderm and T+ presomitic mesoderm during embryogenesis and stromal cell differentiation...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409341/zebrafish-pronephros-development
#17
Richard W Naylor, Sarah S Qubisi, Alan J Davidson
The pronephros is the first kidney type to form in vertebrate embryos. The first step of pronephrogenesis in the zebrafish is the formation of the intermediate mesoderm during gastrulation, which occurs in response to secreted morphogens such as BMPs and Nodals. Patterning of the intermediate mesoderm into proximal and distal cell fates is induced by retinoic acid signaling with downstream transcription factors including wt1a, pax2a, pax8, hnf1b, sim1a, mecom, and irx3b. In the anterior intermediate mesoderm, progenitors of the glomerular blood filter migrate and fuse at the midline and recruit a blood supply...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409309/asymmetric-and-unequal-cell-divisions-in-ascidian-embryos
#18
Takefumi Negishi, Hiroki Nishida
Asymmetric cell division during embryogenesis contributes to cell diversity by generating daughter cells that adopt distinct developmental fates. In this chapter, we summarize current knowledge of three examples of asymmetric cell division occurring in ascidian early embryos: (1) Three successive cell divisions that are asymmetric in terms of cell fate and unequal in cell size in the germline lineage at the embryo posterior pole. A subcellular structure, the centrosome-attracting body (CAB), and maternal PEM mRNAs localized within it control both the positioning of the cell division planes and segregation of the germ cell fates...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408465/human-definitive-hematopoietic-specification-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-is-regulated-by-mesodermal-expression-of-cdx4
#19
J Philip Creamer, Carissa Dege, Qihao Ren, Jolie T K Ho, Mark C Valentine, Todd E Druley, Christopher M Sturgeon
The generation of hematopoietic stem cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is a major goal for regenerative medicine. Achieving this goal is complicated by our incomplete understanding of the mechanism regulating definitive hematopoietic specification. We used our stage-specific hPSC differentiation method to obtain and identify, via CD235a expression, mesoderm harboring exclusively primitive or definitive hematopoietic potential to understand the genetic regulation of definitive hematopoietic specification...
April 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405742/crispr-cas9-mediated-deletion-of-lncrna-gm26878-in-the-distant-foxf1-enhancer-region
#20
Przemyslaw Szafranski, Justyna A Karolak, Denise Lanza, Marzena Gajęcka, Jason Heaney, Paweł Stankiewicz
Recent genome editing techniques, including CRISPR mutagenesis screens, offer unparalleled opportunities to study the regulatory non-coding genomic regions, enhancers, promoters, and functional non-coding RNAs. Heterozygous point mutations in FOXF1 and genomic deletion copy-number variants at chromosomal region 16q24.1 involving FOXF1 or its regulatory region mapping ~300 kb upstream of FOXF1 and leaving it intact have been identified in the vast majority of patients with a lethal neonatal lung disease, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV)...
April 12, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
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