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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545044/differentiation-of-spontaneously-contracting-cardiomyocytes-from-non-virally-reprogrammed-human-amniotic-fluid-stem-cells
#1
Aaron J Velasquez-Mao, Christopher J M Tsao, Madeline N Monroe, Xavier Legras, Beatrice Bissig-Choisat, Karl-Dimiter Bissig, Rodrigo Ruano, Jeffrey G Jacot
Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defect. The limiting factor in tissue engineering repair strategies is an autologous source of functional cardiomyocytes. Amniotic fluid contains an ideal cell source for prenatal harvest and use in correction of congenital heart defects. This study aims to investigate the potential of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSC) to undergo non-viral reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) followed by growth-factor-free differentiation into functional cardiomyocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544655/3d-bioprinting-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-constructs-for-in-situ-cell-proliferation-and-successive-multilineage-differentiation
#2
Qi Gu, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Jeremy M Crook
The ability to create 3D tissues from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is poised to revolutionize stem cell research and regenerative medicine, including individualized, patient-specific stem cell-based treatments. There are, however, few examples of tissue engineering using iPSCs. Their culture and differentiation is predominantly planar for monolayer cell support or induction of self-organizing embryoids (EBs) and organoids. Bioprinting iPSCs with advanced biomaterials promises to augment efforts to develop 3D tissues, ideally comprising direct-write printing of cells for encapsulation, proliferation, and differentiation...
May 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543863/prmt8-controls-the-pluripotency-and-mesodermal-fate-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-by-enhancing-the-pi3k-akt-sox2-axis
#3
Ho-Chang Jeong, Soon-Jung Park, Jong-Jin Choi, Young-Hyun Go, Soon-Ki Hong, Ok-Seon Kwon, Joong-Gon Shin, Rae-Kwon Kim, Mi-Ok Lee, Su-Jae Lee, Hyoung Doo Shin, Sung-Hwan Moon, Hyuk-Jin Cha
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) supplementation is critical to maintain the pluripotency of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) through activation of PI3K/AKT, rather than MEK/ERK pathway. Thus, elaborate molecular mechanisms that preserve PI3K/AKT signaling upon bFGF stimulation may exist in hPSCs. Protein arginine methyltransferases 8 (PRMT8) was expressed and then its level gradually decreased during spontaneous differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). PRMT8 loss- or gain-of-function studies demonstrated that PRMT8 contributed to longer maintenance of hESC pluripotency, even under bFGF-deprived conditions...
May 20, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543398/interdigital-tissue-remodelling-in-the-embryonic-limb-involves-dynamic-regulation-of-the-mirna-profiles
#4
Beatriz Garcia-Riart, Carlos I Lorda-Diez, Jessica C Marin-Llera, Juan A Garcia-Porrero, Juan M Hurle, Juan A Montero
Next-generation sequencing in combination with quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed a dynamic miRNA signature in the interdigital mesoderm of the chick embryonic hinlimb in the course of interdigit remodelling. During this period, 612 previously known chicken miRNAs (gga-miRNAs) and 401 non-identified sequences were expressed in the interdigital mesoderm. Thirty-six microRNAs, represented by more than 750 reads per million, displayed differential expression between stages HH29 (6 id) and HH32 (7...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539509/fin-fold-development-in-paddlefish-and-catshark-and-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-autopod
#5
Frank J Tulenko, James L Massey, Elishka Holmquist, Gabriel Kigundu, Sarah Thomas, Susan M E Smith, Sylvie Mazan, Marcus C Davis
The evolutionary origin of the autopod involved a loss of the fin-fold and associated dermal skeleton with a concomitant elaboration of the distal endoskeleton to form a wrist and digits. Developmental studies, primarily from teleosts and amniotes, suggest a model for appendage evolution in which a delay in the AER-to-fin-fold conversion fuelled endoskeletal expansion by prolonging the function of AER-mediated regulatory networks. Here, we characterize aspects of paired fin development in the paddlefish Polyodon spathula (a non-teleost actinopterygian) and catshark Scyliorhinus canicula (chondrichthyan) to explore aspects of this model in a broader phylogenetic context...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536000/an-analysis-of-myod-dependent-transcription-using-crispr-cas9-gene-targeting-in-xenopus-tropicalis-embryos
#6
Caitlin McQueen, Mary Elizabeth Pownall
Myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) are known to have essential roles in both the establishment and differentiation of the skeletal muscle cell lineage. MyoD is expressed early in the Xenopus mesoderm where it is present and active several hours before the activation of muscle differentiation genes. Previous studies in cultured cells and in Xenopus laevis have identified sets of genes that require MyoD prior to differentiation of skeletal muscle. Here we report results from experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 to target the MyoD gene in the diploid frog Xenopus tropicalis, that are analysed by RNA-seq at gastrula stages...
May 20, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535374/discovery-of-stromal-regulatory-networks-that-suppress-ras-sensitized-epithelial-cell-proliferation
#7
Huayang Liu, James A Dowdle, Safiya Khurshid, Nicholas J Sullivan, Nicholas Bertos, Komal Rambani, Markus Mair, Piotr Daniel, Esther Wheeler, Xing Tang, Kyle Toth, Michael Lause, Markus E Harrigan, Karl Eiring, Connor Sullivan, Matthew J Sullivan, Serena W Chang, Siddhant Srivastava, Joseph S Conway, Raleigh Kladney, Joseph McElroy, Sooin Bae, Yuanzhi Lu, Ali Tofigh, Sadiq M I Saleh, Soledad A Fernandez, Jeffrey D Parvin, Vincenzo Coppola, Erin R Macrae, Sarmila Majumder, Charles L Shapiro, Lisa D Yee, Bhuvaneswari Ramaswamy, Michael Hallett, Michael C Ostrowski, Morag Park, Helen M Chamberlin, Gustavo Leone
Mesodermal cells signal to neighboring epithelial cells to modulate their proliferation in both normal and disease states. We adapted a Caenorhabditis elegans organogenesis model to enable a genome-wide mesodermal-specific RNAi screen and discovered 39 factors in mesodermal cells that suppress the proliferation of adjacent Ras pathway-sensitized epithelial cells. These candidates encode components of protein complexes and signaling pathways that converge on the control of chromatin dynamics, cytoplasmic polyadenylation, and translation...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534463/gene-expression-analysis-of-bovine-embryonic-disc-trophoblast-and-parietal-hypoblast-at-the-start-of-gastrulation
#8
Peter L Pfeffer, Craig S Smith, Paul Maclean, Debra K Berg
In cattle early gastrulation-stage embryos (Stage 5), four tissues can be discerned: (i) the top layer of the embryonic disc consisting of embryonic ectoderm (EmE); (ii) the bottom layer of the disc consisting of mesoderm, endoderm and visceral hypoblast (MEH); (iii) the trophoblast (TB); and (iv) the parietal hypoblast. We performed microsurgery followed by RNA-seq to analyse the transcriptome of these four tissues as well as a developmentally earlier pre-gastrulation embryonic disc. The cattle EmE transcriptome was similar at Stages 4 and 5, characterised by the OCT4/SOX2/NANOG pluripotency network...
May 23, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531914/lineage-specific-expression-of-mir-200-family-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells-during-in-vitro-differentiation
#9
Yeji Kim, Nury Kim, Sang-Wook Park, Hyemin Kim, Han-Jin Park, Yong-Mahn Han
Although microRNAs have emerged as key regulators in diverse cellular processes, the roles of microRNAs are poorly understood in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during differentiation into specialized cell types. In this study, we used a microRNA array with 799 human microRNA probes to examine the expression profiles of microRNAs in hESCs during differentiation into endodermal and mesodermal lineages in vitro. Among the microRNAs analyzed, 7 and 20 microRNAs were enriched in the developmental process of hESCs into mesodermal and endodermal lineages, respectively...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529527/skeletal-muscle-cell-induction-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
REVIEW
Yusaku Kodaka, Gemachu Rabu, Atsushi Asakura
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the potential to differentiate into various types of cells including skeletal muscle cells. The approach of converting ESCs/iPSCs into skeletal muscle cells offers hope for patients afflicted with the skeletal muscle diseases such as the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Patient-derived iPSCs are an especially ideal cell source to obtain an unlimited number of myogenic cells that escape immune rejection after engraftment. Currently, there are several approaches to induce differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs to skeletal muscle...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526751/a-new-hypothesis-for-foregut-and-heart-tube-formation-based-on-differential-growth-and-actomyosin-contraction
#11
Hadi S Hosseini, Kara E Garcia, Larry A Taber
For decades, it was commonly thought that the bilateral heart fields in the early embryo fold directly toward the midline, where they meet and fuse to create the primitive heart tube. Recent studies have challenged this view, however, suggesting that the heart fields fold diagonally. Since early foregut and heart tube morphogenesis are intimately related, this finding also raises questions concerning the traditional view of foregut formation. Here, we combine experiments on chick embryos with computational modeling to explore a new hypothesis for the physical mechanisms of heart tube and foregut formation...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521042/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-modelling-of-hlhs-underlines-the-contribution-of-dysfunctional-notch-signalling-to-impaired-cardiogenesis
#12
Chunbo Yang, Yaobo Xu, Min Yu, David Lee, Sameer Alharti, Nicola Hellen, Noor Ahmad Shaik, Babajan Banaganapalli, Hussein Ali Mohamoud Sheikh, Elango Ramu, Stefan Przyborski, Gennadiy Tenin, Simon Williams, John O'Sullivan, Osman O Al-Radi, Jameel Atta, Sian E Harding, Bernard Keavney, Majlinda Lako, Lyle Armstrong
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is among the most severe forms of congenital heart disease. Although the consensus view is that reduced flow through the left heart during development is a key factor in the development of the condition, the molecular mechanisms leading to hypoplasia of left heart structures are unknown. We have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from five HLHS patients and two unaffected controls, differentiated these to cardiomyocytes and identified reproducible in vitro cellular and functional correlates of the HLHS phenotype...
May 17, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520465/mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-in-regenerative-medicine-past-present-and-future
#13
Ourania Trohatou, Maria G Roubelakis
The concept of Regenerative Medicine combined with Cell based Therapy and Tissue Engineering represents the fourth pillar of healthcare and provides a promising approach for the treatment of serious diseases. Recently, cell based therapies are focused on the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Human MSCs, that represent a mesoderm derived population of progenitors, are easily expanded in culture. They are capable to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes and exhibit the potential to repair or regenerate damaged tissues...
May 18, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518115/analysis-of-retinoic-acid-induced-neural-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-in-two-and-three-dimensional-embryoid-bodies
#14
Junning Yang, Chuanshen Wu, Ioana Stefanescu, Arie Horowitz
Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) isolated from the inner mass of the blastocyst (typically at day E3.5), can be used as in vitro model system for studying early embryonic development. In the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ESCs differentiate by default into neural precursor cells. They can be amassed into a three dimensional (3D) spherical aggregate termed embryoid body (EB) due to its similarity to the early stage embryo. EBs can be seeded on fibronectin-coated coverslips, where they expand by growing two dimensional (2D) extensions, or implanted in 3D collagen matrices where they continue growing as spheroids, and differentiate into the three germ layers: endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512389/evaluation-of-quality-of-life-at-progression-in-patients-with-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#15
Stacie Hudgens, Anna Forsythe, Ilias Kontoudis, David D'Adamo, Ashley Bird, Hans Gelderblom
Introduction. Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS) is a rare malignancy of mesodermal tissue, with international incidence estimates between 1.8 and 5 per 100,000 per year. Understanding quality of life (QoL) and the detrimental impact of disease progression is critical for long-term care and survival. Objectives. The primary objective was to explore the relationship between disease progression and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using data from Eisai's study (E7389-G000-309). Methods. This was a 1 : 1 randomized, open-label, multicenter, Phase 3 study comparing the efficacy and safety of eribulin versus dacarbazine in patients with advanced STS...
2017: Sarcoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511398/undifferentiated-uterine-sarcoma-an-uncommon-case-report
#16
Madhumita Mukhopadhyay, Chhanda Das, Tamanna Parvin, Keya Basu
Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas (ESS) are rare uterine malignancy of mesodermal origin. A 65-year-old female presented with postmenopausal bleeding in the Department of Gynaecology in our hospital. Computed Topography (CT) revealed an enlarged uterus with areas of low attenuation. On gross appearance endometrial cavity was distorted with an irregular friable necrotic mass. Histopathologically, it was diagnosed as undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. Rhabdoid, osteoid and cartilaginous differentiation were found along with osteoclast like giant cells...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508073/three-dimensional-system-enabling-the-maintenance-and-directed-differentiation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-under-defined-conditions
#17
Denise Zujur, Kosuke Kanke, Alexander C Lichtler, Hironori Hojo, Ung-Il Chung, Shinsuke Ohba
The development of in vitro models for the maintenance and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is an active area of stem cell research. The strategies used so far are based mainly on two-dimensional (2D) cultures, in which cellular phenotypes are regulated by soluble factors. We show that a 3D culture system with atelocollagen porous scaffolds can significantly improve the outcome of the current platforms intended for the maintenance and lineage specification of mouse PSCs (mPSCs). Unlike 2D conditions, the 3D conditions maintained the undifferentiated state of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) without exogenous stimulation and also supported endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm differentiation of mESCs under serum-free conditions...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501506/defective-neuronal-migration-and-inhibition-of-bipolar-to-multipolar-transition-of-migrating-neural-cells-by-mesoderm-specific-transcript-mest-in-the-developing-mouse-neocortex
#18
Liting Ji, Kausik Bishayee, Ali Sadra, Seunghyuk Choi, Wooyul Choi, Sungho Moon, Eek-Hoon Jho, Sung-Oh Huh
Brain developmental disorders such as lissencephaly can result from faulty neuronal migration and differentiation during the formation of the mammalian neocortex. The cerebral cortex is a modular structure, where developmentally, newborn neurons are generated as a neuro-epithelial sheet and subsequently differentiate, migrate and organize into their final positions in the cerebral cortical plate via a process involving both tangential and radial migration. The specific role of Mest, an imprinted gene, in neuronal migration has not been previously studied...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498073/does-the-mesodermal-derangement-in-chiari-type-i-malformation-extend-to-the-cervical-spine-evidence-from-an-analytical-morphometric-study-on-cervical-paraspinal-muscles
#19
Sumit Thakar, Avinash Kurudi Siddappa, Saritha Aryan, Dilip Mohan, Narayanam Anantha Sai Kiran, Alangar S Hegde
OBJECTIVE The mesodermal derangement in Chiari Type I malformation (CMI) has been postulated to encompass the cervical spine. The objectives of this study were to assess the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of cervical paraspinal muscles (PSMs) in patients with CMI without syringomyelia, compare them with those in non-CMI subjects, and evaluate their correlations with various factors. METHODS In this retrospective study, the CSAs of cervical PSMs in 25 patients were calculated on T2-weighted axial MR images and computed as ratios with respect to the corresponding vertebral body areas...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497946/nanopillar-surface-topology-promotes-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-through-cofilin-mediated-cytoskeleton-rearrangement
#20
Ha-Rim Seo, Hyung Joon Joo, Dae Hwan Kim, Long-Hui Cui, Seung-Cheol Choi, Jong-Ho Kim, Sung Woo Cho, Kyu Back Lee, Do-Sun Lim
Nanoscaled surface patterning is an emerging potential method of directing the fate of stem cells. We adopted nanoscaled pillar gradient patterned cell culture plates with three diameter gradients [280-360 (GP 280/360), 200-280 (GP 200/280), and 120-200 nm (GP 120/200)] and investigated their cell fate-modifying effect on multipotent fetal liver kinase 1-positive mesodermal precursor cells (Flk1(+) MPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. We observed increased cell proliferation and colony formation of the Flk1(+) MPCs on the nanopattern plates...
May 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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