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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782307/cutaneous-manifestations-of-tuberous-sclerosis
#1
Mirjana Bakić, Marina Ratković, Branka Gledović, Balsa Vujović, Danilo Radunović, Vera Babić, Vladimir Prelević
Dear Editor, Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disease, which occurs due to genetically determined hyperplasia of ectodermal and mesodermal cells. Clinical manifestations present on the skin and in the nervous system, kidneys, heart, and other organs. Recent studies estimate the incidence of TS at 1/6000 to 1/10,000 live births, and a prevalence in the general population of approximately 1 in 20,000 (1). There are two different genetic loci responsible for TS: 9q34 (TSC1-hamartin) and 16p13...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770705/gingival-mesenchymal-stem-cells-outperform-haploidentical-dental-pulp-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-proliferation-rate-migration-ability-and-angiogenic-potential
#2
Ioannis Angelopoulos, Claudia Brizuela, Maroun Khoury
High donor variation makes comparison studies between different dental sources dubious. Dental tissues offer a rare opportunity for comparing the biological characteristics of haploidentical mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from the same donor. The objective was to identify the optimal dental source of MSCs through a biological and functional comparison of haploidentical MSCs from gingival (GMSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) focusing mainly on their angiogenic potential. The comparison study included (1) surface markers expression, (2) mesodermal differentiation capacity (chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic), (3) proliferation, (4) migration potential, (5) ability to form colony units, and (6) angiogenic potential in vitro and in vivo...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769399/dissecting-and-culturing-animal-cap-explants
#3
Kevin S Dingwell, James C Smith
The animal cap explant is a simple but adaptable tool available to developmental biologists. The use of animal cap explants in demonstrating the presence of mesoderm-inducting activity in the Xenopus embryo vegetal pole is one of many elegant examples of their worth. Animal caps respond to a range of growth factors (e.g., Wnts, FGF, TGF-β), making them especially useful for studying signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory networks. Explants are also suitable for examining cell behavior and have provided key insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling vertebrate morphogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769221/size-reduced-embryos-reveal-a-gradient-scaling-based-mechanism-for-zebrafish-somite-formation
#4
Kana Ishimatsu, Tom W Hiscock, Zach M Collins, Dini Wahyu Kartika Sari, Kenny Lischer, David L Richmond, Yasumasa Bessho, Takaaki Matsui, Sean G Megason
Little is known about how the sizes of animal tissues are controlled. A prominent example is somite size which varies widely both within an individual and across species. Despite intense study of the segmentation clock governing the timing of somite generation, how it relates to somite size is poorly understood. Here we examine somite scaling and find that somite size at specification scales with the length of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) despite considerable variation in PSM length across developmental stages and in surgically size-reduced embryos...
May 16, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769009/mesenchymal-stem-cell-research-in-veterinary-medicine
#5
Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo, Amarpal, Vikash Chandra, Mohd Yaqoob Wani, Kuldeep Dhama, Gutulla Taru Sharma
BACKGROUND: The stem cells due to their unique characteristic features like self-renewal, multiplication, immuno-modulation and differentiation, are seen and hoped to bring new horizons in the field of biology, in general and medicine, in particular. OBJECTIVE: Among various stem cell types, currently mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are extensively studied in regenerative medicine owing to their readily available sources, easy harvesting and ability to differentiate both into mesodermal as well as non-mesodermal tissues with little associated ethical issues...
May 16, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765017/assessment-of-established-techniques-to-determine-developmental-and-malignant-potential-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
(no author information available yet)
The International Stem Cell Initiative compared several commonly used approaches to assess human pluripotent stem cells (PSC). PluriTest predicts pluripotency through bioinformatic analysis of the transcriptomes of undifferentiated cells, whereas, embryoid body (EB) formation in vitro and teratoma formation in vivo provide direct tests of differentiation. Here we report that EB assays, analyzed after differentiation under neutral conditions and under conditions promoting differentiation to ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm lineages, are sufficient to assess the differentiation potential of PSCs...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761784/ripply2-recruits-proteasome-complex-for-tbx6-degradation-to-define-segment-border-during-murine-somitogenesis
#7
Wei Zhao, Masayuki Oginuma, Rieko Ajima, Makoto Kiso, Akemi Okubo, Yumiko Saga
The metameric structure in vertebrates is based on the periodic formation of somites from the anterior end of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). The segmentation boundary is defined by the Tbx6 expression domain, whose anterior limit is determined by Tbx6 protein destabilization via Ripply2. However, the molecular mechanism of this process is poorly understood. Here, we show that Ripply2 directly binds to Tbx6 in cultured cells without changing the stability of Tbx6, indicating an unknown mechanism for Tbx6 degradation in vivo...
May 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758179/regeneration-of-the-germline-in-the-annelid-capitella-teleta
#8
Leah C Dannenberg, Elaine C Seaver
The germline is essential for sexual reproduction and survival of the species. In many metazoans, the developmental potential to generate a distinct germline is segregated from somatic cell lineages early in embryogenesis, suggesting that the unique features of the germline must be established from its onset. Previous studies suggest that germ cells cannot regenerate once removed from the embryo, but few animals have been experimentally tested. We investigated the ability of the germline to regenerate in a lophotrochozoan, the segmented worm Capitella teleta, which has a stereotyped cell lineage program by deleting the germline precursor (cell 3D) in early stage embryos using an infrared laser...
May 11, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756146/effect-of-geometrical-constraints-on-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-nuclei-in-pluripotency-and-differentiation
#9
Eleonora Grespan, Giovanni G Giobbe, Florent Badique, Karine Anselme, Jürgen Rühe, Nicola Elvassore
Mechanical stimuli and geometrical constraints transmitted across the cytoskeleton to the nucleus affect the nuclear morphology and cell function. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent an effective tool for evaluating transitions in nuclear deformability from the pluripotent to differentiated stage, and for deciphering the underlying mechanisms. We report the first study that investigates the nuclear deformability induced by geometrical constraints of hPSCs both in the pluripotent stage and during early germ layer specification...
May 14, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754779/a-linc1405-eomes-complex-promotes-cardiac-mesoderm-specification-and-cardiogenesis
#10
Xudong Guo, Yanxin Xu, Zikang Wang, Yukang Wu, Jiayu Chen, Guiying Wang, Chenqi Lu, Wenwen Jia, Jiajie Xi, Songcheng Zhu, Zeyidan Jiapaer, Xiaoping Wan, Zhongmin Liu, Shaorong Gao, Jiuhong Kang
Large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play widespread roles in epigenetic regulation during multiple differentiation processes, but little is known about their mode of action in cardiac differentiation. Here, we identified the key roles of a lincRNA, termed linc1405, in modulating the core network of cardiac differentiation by functionally interacting with Eomes. Chromatin- and RNA-immunoprecipitation assays showed that exon 2 of linc1405 physically mediates a complex consisting of Eomes, trithorax group (TrxG) subunit WDR5, and histone acetyltransferase GCN5 binding at the enhancer region of Mesp1 gene and activates its expression during cardiac mesoderm specification of embryonic stem cells...
May 3, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741810/quantitative-proteomics-study-reveals-changes-in-the-molecular-landscape-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-with-impaired-stem-cell-differentiation-upon-exposure-to-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles
#11
Lei Pan, Yew Mun Lee, Teck Kwang Lim, Qingsong Lin, Xiuqin Xu
The increasing number of nanoparticles (NPs) being used in various industries has led to growing concerns of potential hazards that NP exposure can incur on human health. However, its global effects on humans and the underlying mechanisms are not systemically studied. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), with the ability to differentiate to any cell types, provide a unique system to assess cellular, developmental, and functional toxicity in vitro within a single system highly relevant to human physiology. Here, the quantitative proteomics approach is adopted to evaluate the molecular consequences of titanium dioxide NPs (TiO2 NPs) exposure in hESCs...
May 9, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738712/drosophila-tnf-modulates-tissue-tension-in-the-embryo-to-facilitate-macrophage-invasive-migration
#12
Aparna Ratheesh, Julia Biebl, Jana Vesela, Michael Smutny, Ekaterina Papusheva, S F Gabriel Krens, Walter Kaufmann, Attila Gyoergy, Alessandra Maria Casano, Daria E Siekhaus
Migrating cells penetrate tissue barriers during development, inflammatory responses, and tumor metastasis. We study if migration in vivo in such three-dimensionally confined environments requires changes in the mechanical properties of the surrounding cells using embryonic Drosophila melanogaster hemocytes, also called macrophages, as a model. We find that macrophage invasion into the germband through transient separation of the apposing ectoderm and mesoderm requires cell deformations and reductions in apical tension in the ectoderm...
May 7, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738711/mechanical-strain-determines-cilia-length-motility-and-planar-position-in-the-left-right-organizer
#13
Yuan-Hung Chien, Shyam Srinivasan, Ray Keller, Chris Kintner
The Xenopus left-right organizer (LRO) breaks symmetry along the left-right axis of the early embryo by producing and sensing directed ciliary flow as a patterning cue. To carry out this process, the LRO contains different ciliated cell types that vary in cilia length, whether they are motile or sensory, and how they position their cilia along the anterior-posterior (A-P) planar axis. Here, we show that these different cilia features are specified in the prospective LRO during gastrulation, based on anisotropic mechanical strain that is oriented along the A-P axis, and graded in levels along the medial-lateral axis...
May 7, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737740/-unilateral-sinonasal-disease-in-376-adult-patients-a-retrospective-study
#14
Xin Yan Cui, Li Qin Wang, Min Yin, Xi Chen, Mei Ping Lu, Han Zhou, Wei Da Dong, Zhi Bin Chen, Lei Cheng
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical and pathological features of patients with unilateral sinonasal disease (USD). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was completed on 376 adult patients with USD from January 2015 to December 2016. Their presenting symptoms, nasal endoscope, CT scanning, and pathology were analyzed respectively. RESULTS: Among the 267 (71.01%) patients with inflammatory disease, there were 4 pathological types. And there were 8 pathological types in 60 (15...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737535/neural-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-induced-by-glial-cell-conditioned-media
#15
Debora Lo Furno, Giuliana Mannino, Rosario Giuffrida, Elisa Gili, Carlo Vancheri, Maria S Tarico, Rosario E Perrotta, Rosalia Pellitteri
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) may transdifferentiate into cells belonging to mesodermal, endodermal, and ectodermal lineages. The aim of this study was to verify whether a neural differentiation of ASCs could be induced by a conditioned medium (CM) obtained from cultures of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) or Schwann cells (SCs). ASCs were isolated from the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue and expanded for 2-3 passages. They were then cultured in OEC-CM or SC-CM for 24 hr or 7 days...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733091/mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-the-perivascular-environment-to-clinical-applications
#16
REVIEW
Bianca Vezzani, Enrico Pierantozzi, Vincenzo Sorrentino
Adult stem cells represent a fundamental biological system that has fascinated scientists over the last decades, and are currently the subject of a large number of studies aimed at better defining the properties of these cells, with a prominent focus on improving their application in regenerative medicine. One of the most used adult stem cells in clinical trials are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are multipotent cells able to differentiate into mature cells of mesodermal lineages. Following the initial studies on MSCs isolated from bone marrow, similar cells were also isolated from a variety of fetal and adult human tissues...
May 7, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731773/romidepsin-promotes-osteogenic-and-adipocytic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-inhibition-of-histondeacetylase-activity
#17
Dalia Ali, Elna P Chalisserry, Muthurangan Manikandan, Rimi Hamam, Musaad Alfayez, Moustapha Kassem, Abdullah Aldahmash, Nehad M Alajez
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into mesodermal lineage cells, including adipocytes and osteoblasts. However, the epigenetic mechanisms governing the lineage-specific commitment of BMSCs into adipocytes or osteoblasts are under investigation. Herein, we investigated the epigenetic effect of romidepsin, a small molecule dual inhibitor targeting HDAC1 and HDAC2 identified through an epigenetic library functional screen. BMSCs exposed to romidepsin (5 nM) exhibited enhanced adipocytic and osteoblastic differentiation...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731302/quantitative-control-of-gpcr-organization-and-signaling-by-endocytosis-in-epithelial-morphogenesis
#18
Ankita Jha, Thomas S van Zanten, Jean-Marc Philippe, Satyajit Mayor, Thomas Lecuit
Tissue morphogenesis arises from controlled cell deformations in response to cellular contractility. During Drosophila gastrulation, apical activation of the actomyosin networks drives apical constriction in the invaginating mesoderm and cell-cell intercalation in the extending ectoderm. Myosin II (MyoII) is activated by cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as Smog and Mist, that activate G proteins, the small GTPase Rho1, and the kinase Rok. Quantitative control over GPCR and Rho1 activation underlies differences in deformation of mesoderm and ectoderm cells...
April 25, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729270/rbm14-is-indispensable-for-pluripotency-maintenance-and-mesoderm-development-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#19
Guilai Chen, Da Zhang, Linlin Zhang, Guihai Feng, Boya Zhang, Yihui Wu, Wei Li, Ying Zhang, Baoyang Hu
The pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is maintained by core pluripotency transcription factors, cofactors and several signaling pathways. RBM14 is a component of the para-speckle complex, which has been implicated in multiple important biological processes. The role of RBM14 in ESCs and lineage differentiation remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we provided evidence that RBM14 plays important roles in maintaining pluripotency and in the early differentiation of ESCs. RBM14 was demonstrated to be expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and localized in the nucleus...
May 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727300/rab23-and-developmental-disorders
#20
Catherine H H Hor, Bor Luen Tang, Eyleen L K Goh
Rab23 is a conserved member of the Rab family of small GTPases that regulates membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. It is unique amongst the Rabs in terms of its implicated role in mammalian development, as originally illustrated by the embryonic lethality and open neural tube phenotype of a spontaneous mouse mutant that carries homozygous mutation of open brain, a gene encoding Rab23. Rab23 was initially identified to act as an antagonist of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, and has since been implicated in a number of physiological and pathological roles, including oncogenesis...
May 4, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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