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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330921/four-and-a-half-domain-2-fhl2-scaffolding-protein-is-a-marker-of-connective-tissues-of-developing-digits-and-regulates-fibrogenic-differentiation-of-limb-mesodermal-progenitors
#1
C I Lorda-Diez, J A Montero, C Sanchez-Fernandez, J A Garcia-Porrero, J Chimal-Monroy, J M Hurle
FHL2 is a multifunctional scaffolding protein of well-known function regulating cell signaling cascades and gene transcription in cancer tissues. However, its function in embryonic systems is poorly characterized. Here, we show that Fhl2 is involved in the differentiation of connective tissues of developing limb autopod. We show that Fhl2 exhibits spatially restricted and temporally dynamic expression around the tendons of developing digits, interphalangeal joint capsules, and fibrous peridigital tissue. Immunolabeling analysis of the skeletal progenitors identified a predominant, but not exclusive, cytoplasmic distribution of FHL2 being associated with focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329912/identification-and-fate-mapping-of-the-pancreatic-mesenchyme
#2
Jesse Angelo, Kimberly D Tremblay
The murine pancreas buds from the ventral embryonic endoderm at approximately 8.75 dpc and a second pancreas bud emerges from the dorsal endoderm by 9.0 dpc. Although it is clear that secreted signals from adjacent mesoderm-derived sources are required for both the appropriate emergence and further refinement of the pancreatic endoderm, neither the exact signals nor the requisite tissue sources have been defined in mammalian systems. Herein we use DiI fate mapping of cultured murine embryos to identify the embryonic sources of both the early inductive and later condensed pancreatic mesenchyme...
January 9, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323720/tfcp2l1-safeguards-the-maintenance-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#3
Hongwei Sun, Yu You, Mengmeng Guo, Xiaohu Wang, Yan Zhang, Shoudong Ye
Tfcp2l1 is a transcription factor critical for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) maintenance. However, its role in human ESCs (hESCs) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the functions of Tfcp2l1 in controlling hESC activity and showed that Tfcp2l1 is functionally important in the maintenance of hESC identity. Tfcp2l1 expression is highly enriched in hESCs and dramatically decreases upon differentiation. Forced expression of Tfcp2l1 promoted hESC self-renewal. Functional analysis of the mutant forms of Tfcp2l1 revealed that both the CP2- and SAM-like domains are indispensable for Tfcp2l1 to maintain the undifferentiated state of hESCs...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322554/transcription-factor-foxc1-is-involved-in-anterior-part-of-cranial-base-formation
#4
Nandar Mya, Toshiko Furutera, Shigeru Okuhara, Tsutomu Kume, Masaki Takechi, Sachiko Iseki
The cranial base is a structure mainly formed through endochondral ossification, and integrated into the craniofacial complex acting as an underlying platform for developing brain. Foxc1 is an indispensable regulator during intramembranous and endochondral ossification. In this study, we found that the spontaneous loss of Foxc1 function mouse (congenital hydrocephalous), Foxc1ch/ch , showed the anterior cranial base defects including unossified presphenoid and lack of middle part of the basisphenoid bone. Consistently, hypoplastic presphenoid primordial cartilage (basal portion of the trabecular cartilage) and lack of the middle part of basisphenoid primordial cartilage (the hypophyseal cartilage) were observed at earlier developmental stage...
January 11, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321666/are-there-multiple-cells-of-origin-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
J C Sunshine, N S Jahchan, J Sage, J Choi
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but lethal cancer with the highest case-by-case fatality rate among all skin cancers. Eighty percent of cancers are associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Twenty percent of MCCs are virus negative. Recent epidemiological data suggest that there are important, clinically relevant differences between these two subtypes of MCC. Recent studies in cancer genomics, mouse genetics, and virology experiments have transformed our understanding of MCC pathophysiology...
January 11, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320747/identification-of-cardiomyocyte-fated-progenitors-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-marked-with-cd82
#6
Masafumi Takeda, Yasuharu Kanki, Hidetoshi Masumoto, Shunsuke Funakoshi, Takeshi Hatani, Hiroyuki Fukushima, Akashi Izumi-Taguchi, Yusuke Matsui, Teppei Shimamura, Yoshinori Yoshida, Jun K Yamashita
Here, we find that human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocyte (CM)-fated progenitors (CFPs) that express a tetraspanin family glycoprotein, CD82, almost exclusively differentiate into CMs both in vitro and in vivo. CD82 is transiently expressed in late-stage mesoderm cells during hiPSC differentiation. Purified CD82+ cells gave rise to CMs under nonspecific in vitro culture conditions with serum, as well as in vivo after transplantation to the subrenal space or injured hearts in mice, indicating that CD82 successfully marks CFPs...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317646/engineering-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-a-functional-skeletal-muscle-tissue
#7
Lingjun Rao, Ying Qian, Alastair Khodabukus, Thomas Ribar, Nenad Bursac
The generation of functional skeletal muscle tissues from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has not been reported. Here, we derive induced myogenic progenitor cells (iMPCs) via transient overexpression of Pax7 in paraxial mesoderm cells differentiated from hPSCs. In 2D culture, iMPCs readily differentiate into spontaneously contracting multinucleated myotubes and a pool of satellite-like cells endogenously expressing Pax7. Under optimized 3D culture conditions, iMPCs derived from multiple hPSC lines reproducibly form functional skeletal muscle tissues (iSKM bundles) containing aligned multi-nucleated myotubes that exhibit positive force-frequency relationship and robust calcium transients in response to electrical or acetylcholine stimulation...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315687/patterning-of-the-hepato-pancreatobiliary-boundary-by-bmp-reveals-heterogeneity-within-the-murine-liver-bud
#8
Amrita Palaria, Jesse R Angelo, Taylor Guertin, Jesse Mager, Kimberly D Tremblay
During development, the endoderm initiates organ-restricted gene expression patterns in a spatiotemporally controlled manner. This process, termed induction, requires signals from adjacent mesodermal derivatives. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) emanating from the cardiac mesoderm and the septum transversum mesenchyme (STM), respectively, are believed to be simultaneously and uniformly required to directly induce hepatic gene expression from the murine endoderm. Using small molecule inhibitors of BMP signals during liver bud induction in the developing mouse embryo, we find that BMP signaling is not uniformly required to induce hepatic gene expression...
January 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314416/transient-microrna-expression-enhances-myogenic-potential-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#9
Joanna Bem, Iwona Grabowska, Maciej Daniszewski, Dorota Zawada, Areta Czerwinska, Lukasz Bugajski, Katarzyna Piwocka, Anna Fogtman, Maria A Ciemerych
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known regulators of various cellular processes, including pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We analyzed differentiation of two ESC lines - D3 and B8, and observed significant differences in the expression of miRNAs and genes involved in pluripotency and differentiation. We also examined if transient miRNA overexpression could serve as a sufficient impulse modulating differentiation of mouse ESCs. ESCs were transfected with miRNA Mimics and differentiated in embryoid bodies and embryoid body outgrowths...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301846/epithelial-properties-of-the-second-heart-field
#10
REVIEW
Claudio Cortes, Alexandre Francou, Christopher De Bono, Robert G Kelly
The vertebrate heart tube forms from epithelial progenitor cells in the early embryo and subsequently elongates by progressive addition of second heart field (SHF) progenitor cells from adjacent splanchnic mesoderm. Failure to maximally elongate the heart results in a spectrum of morphological defects affecting the cardiac poles, including outflow tract alignment and atrioventricular septal defects, among the most common congenital birth anomalies. SHF cells constitute an atypical apicobasally polarized epithelium with dynamic basal filopodia, located in the dorsal wall of the pericardial cavity...
January 5, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291511/establishment-and-characterization-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-placental-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#11
Shagufta Parveen
Human term placenta is a bulky organ which harbours abundant mesenchymal stromal cells. This study reports isolation and characterization of placental mesenchymal stromal cells (PMSCs) followed by reprogramming of PMSCs to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The placental human iPSC (PhiPSC) line is pluripotent with high telomerase activity, genetically identical to parental PMSCs, transgene free, karyotypically normal and differentiates into ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm both in vitro and in vivo. Thus PMSCs serve as a unique cell type for human perinatal iPSC derivation from extra embryonic tissue...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275993/long-range-signaling-activation-and-local-inhibition-separate-the-mesoderm-and-endoderm-lineages
#12
Antonius L van Boxtel, Andrew D Economou, Claire Heliot, Caroline S Hill
Specification of the three germ layers by graded Nodal signaling has long been seen as a paradigm for patterning through a single morphogen gradient. However, by exploiting the unique properties of the zebrafish embryo to capture the dynamics of signaling and cell fate allocation, we now demonstrate that Nodal functions in an incoherent feedforward loop, together with Fgf, to determine the pattern of endoderm and mesoderm specification. We show that Nodal induces long-range Fgf signaling while simultaneously inducing the cell-autonomous Fgf signaling inhibitor Dusp4 within the first two cell tiers from the margin...
December 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259119/neural-induction-by-the-node-and-placode-induction-by-head-mesoderm-share-an-initial-state-resembling-neural-plate-border-and-es-cells
#13
Katherine E Trevers, Ravindra S Prajapati, Mark Hintze, Matthew J Stower, Anna C Strobl, Monica Tambalo, Ramya Ranganathan, Natalia Moncaut, Mohsin A F Khan, Claudio D Stern, Andrea Streit
Around the time of gastrulation in higher vertebrate embryos, inductive interactions direct cells to form central nervous system (neural plate) or sensory placodes. Grafts of different tissues into the periphery of a chicken embryo elicit different responses: Hensen's node induces a neural plate whereas the head mesoderm induces placodes. How different are these processes? Transcriptome analysis in time course reveals that both processes start by induction of a common set of genes, which later diverge. These genes are remarkably similar to those induced by an extraembryonic tissue, the hypoblast, and are normally expressed in the pregastrulation stage epiblast...
December 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249668/gcn5-regulates-fgf-signaling-and-activates-selective-myc-target-genes-during-early-embryoid-body-differentiation
#14
Li Wang, Evangelia Koutelou, Calley Hirsch, Ryan McCarthy, Andria Schibler, Kevin Lin, Yue Lu, Collene Jeter, Jianjun Shen, Michelle C Barton, Sharon Y R Dent
Precise control of gene expression during development is orchestrated by transcription factors and co-regulators including chromatin modifiers. How particular chromatin-modifying enzymes affect specific developmental processes is not well defined. Here, we report that GCN5, a histone acetyltransferase essential for embryonic development, is required for proper expression of multiple genes encoding components of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway in early embryoid bodies (EBs). Gcn5-/- EBs display deficient activation of ERK and p38, mislocalization of cytoskeletal components, and compromised capacity to differentiate toward mesodermal lineage...
December 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249665/fzd4-marks-lateral-plate-mesoderm-and-signals-with-norrin-to-increase-cardiomyocyte-induction-from-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiac-progenitors
#15
Charles Yoon, Hannah Song, Ting Yin, Damaris Bausch-Fluck, Andreas P Frei, Steven Kattman, Nicole Dubois, Alec D Witty, Johannes A Hewel, Hongbo Guo, Andrew Emili, Bernd Wollscheid, Gordon Keller, Peter W Zandstra
The identification of cell surface proteins on stem cells or stem cell derivatives is a key strategy for the functional characterization, isolation, and understanding of stem cell population dynamics. Here, using an integrated mass spectrometry- and microarray-based approach, we analyzed the surface proteome and transcriptome of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) generated from the stage-specific differentiation of mouse and human pluripotent stem cells. Through bioinformatics analysis, we have identified and characterized FZD4 as a marker for lateral plate mesoderm...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249002/notch-mediated-lateral-inhibition-is-an-evolutionarily-conserved-mechanism-patterning-the-ectoderm-in-echinoids
#16
Eric M Erkenbrack
Notch signaling is a crucial cog in early development of euechinoid sea urchins, specifying both non-skeletogenic mesodermal lineages and serotonergic neurons in the apical neuroectoderm. Here, the spatial distributions and function of delta, gcm, and hesc, three genes critical to these processes in euechinoids, are examined in the distantly related cidaroid sea urchin Eucidaris tribuloides. Spatial distribution and experimental perturbation of delta and hesc suggest that the function of Notch signaling in ectodermal patterning in early development of E...
December 16, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244789/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-from-arpe19-promotes-proliferation-and-inhibits-apoptosis-of-human-umbilical-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-serum-free-medium
#17
Dah-Ching Ding, Yao-Tseng Wen, Rong-Kung Tsai
Clinical expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is hampered by the lack of knowledge regarding how to prevent MSC apoptosis and promote their proliferation in serum-free medium. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that human umbilical cord MSCs (HUCMSCs) underwent apoptosis in the serum-free medium. When HUCMSCs were co-cultured with retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE19), however, HUCMSCs exhibited normal growth and morphology in serum-free medium. Their colony formation was promoted by the conditioned medium (CM) of ARPE19 cells on Matrigel...
December 15, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241974/endometriosis-associated-ovarian-neoplasia
#18
REVIEW
Xavier Matias-Guiu, Colin J R Stewart
This article reviews the most relevant pathological and molecular features of ovarian tumours that are associated with endometriosis. Endometriosis is a common condition, affecting 5-15% of all women, and it has been estimated that 0.5-1% of cases are complicated by neoplasia. The most common malignant tumours in this setting are endometrioid adenocarcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma, each accounting for approximately 10% of ovarian carcinomas in Western countries. A minority of cases are associated with Lynch syndrome...
December 11, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240775/ornithine-decarboxylase-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-endometrial-cancer
#19
Hong Im Kim, Chad R Schultz, Andrea L Buras, Elizabeth Friedman, Alyssa Fedorko, Leigh Seamon, Gadisetti V R Chandramouli, G Larry Maxwell, André S Bachmann, John I Risinger
Ornithine Decarboxylase (ODC) a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is often overexpressed in cancers and contributes to polyamine-induced cell proliferation. We noted ubiquitous expression of ODC1 in our published endometrial cancer gene array data and confirmed this in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) with highest expression in non-endometrioid, high grade, and copy number high cancers, which have the worst clinical outcomes. ODC1 expression was associated with worse overall survival and increased recurrence in three endometrial cancer gene expression datasets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239050/therapeutic-potential-of-amniotic-fluid-stem-cells-to-treat-bilateral-ovarian-dystrophy-in-dairy-cows-in-a-subtropical-region
#20
L-B Chang, S-Y Peng, C-J Chou, Y-J Chen, J-S Shiu, P-A Tu, S-X Gao, Y-C Chen, T-K Lin, S-C Wu
Amniotic fluid is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) have become a new source of stem cells; they have low immunogenicity and are easily harvested. For this reason, they may be useful in clinical tissue engineering. Moreover, AFSCs have anti-inflammatory properties and can repair tissues. This study evaluated the utility of AFSC injection to treat bilateral ovarian dystrophy in Holstein-Friesian cows. Bovine AFSCs (BAFSCs) were collected at slaughter from Holstein-Friesian cows during the third or fourth month of pregnancy and cultured in vitro...
December 14, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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