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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162723/the-transcription-factor-foxc1a-in-zebrafish-directly-regulates-expression-of-nkx2-5-encoding-a-transcriptional-regulator-of-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#1
Yunyun Yue, Mingyang Jiang, Luqingqing He, Zhaojunjie Zhang, Qinxin Zhang, Chun Gu, Meijing Liu, Nan Li, Qingshun Zhao
Cardiogenesis is a tightly controlled biological process required for formation of a functional heart. The transcription factor Foxc1 not only plays a crucial role in outflow tract development in mice, but is also involved in  cardiac structure formation and normal function in human. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Foxc1 controls cardiac development remain poorly understood. Previously, we reported that zebrafish embryos deficient in foxc1a, an ortholog of mammalian Foxc1, display pericardial edemas and die 9-10 days post fertilization...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161206/a-hypersensitivity-like-response-to-meloidogyne-graminicola-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#2
Ngan Thi Phan, Dirk De Waele, Mathias Lorieux, Lizhong Xiong, Stephane Bellafiore
Meloidogyne graminicola (M. graminicola) is a major plant-parasitic nematode affecting rice cultivation in Asia. Resistance to this nematode was found in the African rice genotypes Oryza glaberrima and O. longistaminata, however, due to interspecific hybrid sterility, the introgression of resistance genes in the widely consumed O. sativa varieties remains challenging. Recently, resistance was found in O. sativa and here we report for the first time the histological and genetic characterization of the resistance to M...
November 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158085/generation-of-branching-ureteric-bud-tissues-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Shin-Ichi Mae, Makoto Ryosaka, Taro Toyoda, Kyoko Matsuse, Yoichi Oshima, Hiraku Tsujimoto, Shiori Okumura, Aya Shibasaki, Kenji Osafune
Recent progress in kidney regeneration research is noteworthy. However, the selective and robust differentiation of the ureteric bud (UB), an embryonic renal progenitor, from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) remains to be established. The present study aimed to establish a robust induction method for branching UB tissue from hPSCs towards the creation of renal disease models. Here, we found that anterior intermediate mesoderm (IM) differentiates from anterior primitive streak, which allowed us to successfully develop an efficient two-dimensional differentiation method of hPSCs into Wolffian duct (WD) cells...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157033/alteration-in-methylation-level-at-differential-methylated-regions-of-mest-and-dlk1-in-fetus-of-preeclampsia
#4
Xiaoqing Wang, Liuxia Wan, Xiaoling Weng, Jiamin Xie, Aiping Zhang, Yun Liu, Minyue Dong
OBJECTIVES: Offspring born to preeclamptic women are at high risk for metabolic diseases in later life, but the mechanisms are not known. The purposes of the current investigation were to clarify the changes in DNA methylation at MEST and DLK1 DMRs in fetus of preeclampsia and to explore the possible mechanisms behind the high risk of adult diseases in the offspring of preeclampsia. METHODS: Fetal lymphocytes were isolated from umbilical cord blood of 78 women with preeclampsia and 95 women with normal pregnancy...
November 20, 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155741/directed-differentiation-of-primitive-and-definitive-hematopoietic-progenitors-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#5
Carissa Dege, Christopher M Sturgeon
One of the major goals for regenerative medicine is the generation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Until recently, efforts to differentiate hPSCs into HSCs have predominantly generated hematopoietic progenitors that lack HSC potential, and instead resemble yolk sac hematopoiesis. These resulting hematopoietic progenitors may have limited utility for in vitro disease modeling of various adult hematopoietic disorders, particularly those of the lymphoid lineages...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155065/intradural-extramedullary-cervical-cord-lipoma-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Dimitrios Panagopoulos, Georgios Markogiannakis, Michael Koutzoglou
BACKGROUND: Spinal lipomas are generally thought to occur as a result of failed primary neurulation. Failed primary neurulation allows invasion of mesenchymal tissue of mesodermic origin into the neural structure, leading to the formation of a spinal lipoma. Despite most spinal lipomas being regarded as the result of failed primary neurulation, some confusion in terms of the embryogenesis of spinal lipomas remains. Recently, a novel classification of spinal lipomas based on embryonic changes seen during primary and secondary neurulation was has been proposed...
November 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155044/the-forkhead-transcription-factor-unc-130-foxd-integrates-both-bmp-and-notch-signaling-to-regulate-dorsoventral-patterning-of-the-c-elegans-postembryonic-mesoderm
#7
Qinfang Shen, Leila B Toulabi, Herong Shi, Erin E Nicklow, Jun Liu
The proper development of a multicellular organism requires precise spatial and temporal coordination of cell intrinsic and cell extrinsic regulatory mechanisms. Both Notch signaling and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling function to regulate the proper development of the C. elegans postembryonic mesoderm. We have identified the C. elegans FOXD transcription factor UNC-130 as a major target functioning downstream of both BMP signaling and Notch signaling to regulate dorsoventral patterning of the postembryonic mesoderm...
November 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154149/rar%C3%AE-2-dependent-signaling-represses-neuronal-differentiation-in-mouse-es-cells
#8
Sri L Kona, Amita Shrestha, Xiaoping Yi, Serenthia Joseph, Humberto Munoz Barona, Eduardo Martinez-Ceballos
Embryonic Stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells that can be induced to differentiate into cells of all three lineages: mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm. In culture, ES cells can be differentiated into mature neurons by treatment with Retinoic Acid (RA) and this effect is mediated mainly through the activation of the RA nuclear receptors (RAR α, β, and γ), and their isoforms. However, little is known about the role played by specific RAR types on ES cell differentiation. Here, we found that treatment of ES cells with AC55649, an RARβ2 agonist, increased endodermal marker gene expression...
November 10, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150614/spatial-regulation-of-contractility-by-neuralized-and-bearded-during-furrow-invagination-in-drosophila
#9
Gantas Perez-Mockus, Khalil Mazouni, Vanessa Roca, Giulia Corradi, Vito Conte, François Schweisguth
Embryo-scale morphogenesis arises from patterned mechanical forces. During Drosophila gastrulation, actomyosin contractility drives apical constriction in ventral cells, leading to furrow formation and mesoderm invagination. It remains unclear whether and how mechanical properties of the ectoderm influence this process. Here, we show that Neuralized (Neur), an E3 ubiquitin ligase active in the mesoderm, regulates collective apical constriction and furrow formation. Conversely, the Bearded (Brd) proteins antagonize maternal Neur and lower medial-apical contractility in the ectoderm: in Brd-mutant embryos, the ventral furrow invaginates properly but rapidly unfolds as medial MyoII levels increase in the ectoderm...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146144/drosophila-adult-muscle-development-and-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Rajesh D Gunage, Nagaraju Dhanyasi, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Myogenesis is a highly orchestrated, complex developmental process by which cell lineages that are mesodermal in origin generate differentiated multinucleate muscle cells as a final product. Considerable insight into the process of myogenesis has been obtained for the embryonic development of the larval muscles of Drosophila. More recently, the postembryonic development of the muscles of the adult fly has become a focus of experimental investigation of myogenesis since specific flight muscles of the fly manifest remarkable similarities to vertebrate muscles in their development and organization...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142255/a-nonredundant-role-for-the-trpm6-channel-in-neural-tube-closure
#11
Yuko Komiya, Zhiyong Bai, Na Cai, Liping Lou, Namariq Al-Saadi, Courtney Mezzacappa, Raymond Habas, Loren W Runnels
In humans, germline mutations in Trpm6 cause autosomal dominant hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia disorder. Loss of Trpm6 in mice also perturbs cellular magnesium homeostasis but additionally results in early embryonic lethality and neural tube closure defects. To define the mechanisms by which TRPM6 influences neural tube closure, we functionally characterized the role of TRPM6 during early embryogenesis in Xenopus laevis. The expression of Xenopus TRPM6 (XTRPM6) is elevated at the onset of gastrulation and is concentrated in the lateral mesoderm and ectoderm at the neurula stage...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141987/brachyury-directs-histone-acetylation-to-target-loci-during-mesoderm-development
#12
Arica Beisaw, Pavel Tsaytler, Frederic Koch, Sandra U Schmitz, Maria-Theodora Melissari, Anna D Senft, Lars Wittler, Tracie Pennimpede, Karol Macura, Bernhard G Herrmann, Phillip Grote
T-box transcription factors play essential roles in multiple aspects of vertebrate development. Here, we show that cooperative function of BRACHYURY (T) with histone-modifying enzymes is essential for mouse embryogenesis. A single point mutation (T(Y88A)) results in decreased histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) at T target sites, including the T locus, suggesting that T autoregulates the maintenance of its expression and functions by recruiting permissive chromatin modifications to putative enhancers during mesoderm specification...
November 15, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141233/mirnome-profiling-of-purified-endoderm-and-mesoderm-differentiated-from-hescs-reveals-functions-of-mir-483-3p-and-mir-1263-for-cell-fate-decisions
#13
Daichi Ishikawa, Ulf Diekmann, Jan Fiedler, Annette Just, Thomas Thum, Sigurd Lenzen, Ortwin Naujok
Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine since they can differentiate into all somatic cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) could be important for the regulation of these cell-fate decisions. Profiling of miRNAs revealed 19 differentially expressed miRNAs in the endoderm and 29 in the mesoderm when analyzing FACS-purified cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. The mesodermal-enriched miR-483-3p was identified as an important regulator for the generation of mesodermal PDGFRA(+) paraxial cells...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140251/vg1-nodal-heterodimers-are-the-endogenous-inducers-of-mesendoderm
#14
Tessa Grace Montague, Alexander F Schier
Nodal is considered the key inducer of mesendoderm in vertebrate embryos and embryonic stem cells. Other TGF-beta-related signals, such as Vg1/Dvr1/Gdf3, have also been implicated in this process but their roles have been unclear or controversial. Here we report that zebrafish embryos without maternally provided vg1 fail to form endoderm and head and trunk mesoderm, and closely resemble nodal loss-of-function mutants. Although Nodal is processed and secreted without Vg1, it requires Vg1 for its endogenous activity...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140250/gdf3-is-required-for-robust-nodal-signaling-during-germ-layer-formation-and-left-right-patterning
#15
Jose L Pelliccia, Granton A Jindal, Rebecca D Burdine
Vertebrate embryonic patterning depends on signaling from Nodal, a TGFβ superfamily member. There are three Nodal orthologs in zebrafish; southpaw directs left-right asymmetries, while squint and cyclops function earlier to pattern mesendoderm. TGFβ member Vg1 is implicated in mesoderm formation but the role of the zebrafish ortholog, Growth differentiation factor 3 (Gdf3), has not been fully explored. We show that zygotic expression of gdf3 is dispensable for embryonic development, while maternally deposited gdf3 is required for mesendoderm formation and dorsal-ventral patterning...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139535/contribution-of-cranial-neural-crest-cells-to-mouse-skull-development
#16
Taofen Wu, Guiqian Chen, Fei Tian, Hong-Xiang Liu
The mammalian skull vault is a highly regulated structure that evolutionally protects brain growth during vertebrate development. It consists of several membrane bones with different tissue origins (e.g. neural crest-derived frontal bone and mesoderm-derived parietal bone). Although membrane bones are formed through intramembranous ossification, the neural crest-derived frontal bone has superior capabilities for osteoblast activities and bone regeneration via TGF, BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling pathways. Neural crest (NC) cells are multipotent, and once induced, will follow specific paths to migrate to different locations of the body where they give rise to a diverse array of cell types and tissues...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137597/reduction-of-pluripotent-gene-expression-in-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-exposed-to-mechanical-loading-or-cyclo-rgd-peptide
#17
Olesja Hazenbiller, Neil A Duncan, Roman J Krawetz
BACKGROUND: Self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is directed by biological and/or physical cues that regulate multiple signaling cascades. We have previously shown that mESCs seeded in a type I collagen matrix demonstrate a loss of pluripotent marker expression and differentiate towards an osteogenic lineage. In this study, we examined if this effect was mediated in part through Arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) dependent integrin activity and/or mechano-transduction...
November 14, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136604/extragenital-malignant-mixed-mesodermal-tumor-a-case-report
#18
Mauro Del Papa, Gabriele D'Amata, Fulvio Manzi, Luca Musmeci, Marco Crovaro, Carlo Buonocore, Gaetano Florio, Andrea Giannetti
INTRODUCTION: Primary malignant mixed mesodermal tumor (MMMt, also called malignant mixed Mullerian tumor and designated in the WHO classification of female genital tract neoplasms as carcinosarcoma) is an infrequent tumor that develops usually in the uterus and more rarely in the ovary. Extragenital tumor, including primary peritoneal MMMt, is an extremely rare and aggressive neoplasm with only few case reported in the literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 70-year's old female who presented with nausea and abdominal discomfort for 6 months...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134197/directed-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells
#19
Tongcheng Qian, Shaenah E Maguire, Scott G Canfield, Xiaoping Bao, William R Olson, Eric V Shusta, Sean P Palecek
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of specialized endothelial cells that are critical to neurological health. A key tool for understanding human BBB development and its role in neurological disease is a reliable and scalable source of functional brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can theoretically generate unlimited quantities of any cell lineage in vitro, including BMECs, for disease modeling, drug screening, and cell-based therapies. We demonstrate a facile, chemically defined method to differentiate hPSCs to BMECs in a developmentally relevant progression via small-molecule activation of key signaling pathways...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133394/role-of-estrogen-receptor-beta-in-neural-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#20
Mukesh K Varshney, José Inzunza, Diana Lupu, Vaidheeswaran Ganapathy, Per Antonson, Joëlle Rüegg, Ivan Nalvarte, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
The ability to propagate mature cells and tissue from pluripotent stem cells offers enormous promise for treating many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Before such cells can be used successfully in neurodegenerative diseases without causing unwanted cell growth and migration, genes regulating growth and migration of neural stem cells need to be well characterized. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is essential for migration of neurons and glial cells in the developing mouse brain. To examine whether ERβ influences differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) into neural lineages, we compared control and ERβ knockout (BERKO) mESCs at defined stages of neural development and examined the effects of an ERβ-selective ligand (LY3201) with a combination of global and targeted gene-expression profiling and the expression of key pluripotency markers...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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