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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204808/bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-enhances-the-osteogenic-differentiation-capacity-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-derived-from-human-bone-marrow-and-umbilical-cord
#1
Kulisara Marupanthorn, Chairat Tantrawatpan, Pakpoom Kheolamai, Duangrat Tantikanlayaporn, Sirikul Manochantr
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can give rise to different cell types of the mesodermal lineages. They are powerful sources for cell therapy in regenerative medicine as they can be isolated from various tissues, and can be expanded and induced to differentiate into multiple lineages. Recently, the umbilical cord has been suggested as an alternative source of MSCs. Although MSCs derived from the umbilical cord can be induced to differentiate into osteoblasts with a phenotypic similarity to that of bone marrow-derived MSCs, the differentiation ability is not consistent...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202025/mild-electrical-stimulation-with-heat-shock-guides-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-into-pdx1-expressing-cells-within-the-definitive-endoderm
#2
Tomoaki Koga, Nobuaki Shiraki, Shuichiro Yano, Mary Ann Suico, Saori Morino-Koga, Takashi Sato, Tsuyoshi Shuto, Shoen Kume, Hirofumi Kai
BACKGROUND: Because of the increasing number of diabetic patients, it is important to generate pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (Pdx1)-expressing cells, which are capable of differentiating into pancreatic endocrine β cells. Mild electrical stimulation was reported to modulate the differentiation of ES cells into ectoderm-derived neuronal cells or mesoderm-derived cardiac cells. RESULTS: In this study, we report that mild electrical stimulation with heat shock (MET) potentiates the differentiation of ES cells into definitive endoderm-derived Pdx1-expressing cells...
February 15, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198400/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase37-regulates-tcf7-dna-binding-for-the-activation-of-wnt-signalling
#3
Wonhee Han, Hyeyoon Lee, Jin-Kwan Han
The Tcf/Lef family of transcription factors mediates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway that is involved in a wide range of biological processes, including vertebrate embryogenesis and diverse pathogenesis. Post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, sumoylation and acetylation, are known to be important for the regulation of Tcf/Lef proteins. However, the importance of ubiquitination and ubiquitin-mediated regulatory mechanisms for Tcf/Lef activity are still unclear. Here, we newly show that ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 37 (Uch37), a deubiquitinase, interacts with Tcf7 (formerly named Tcf1) to activate Wnt signalling...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197779/colonic-mesenchyme-differentiates-into-smooth-muscle-before-its-colonization-by-vagal-enteric-neural-crest-derived-cells-in-the-chick-embryo
#4
Annick Bourret, Norbert Chauvet, Pascal de Santa Barbara, Sandrine Faure
During development, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract arises from a primary tube composed of mesoderm and endoderm. The mesoderm gives rise to the digestive mesenchyme, which in turn differentiates into multiple tissues, namely the submucosa, the interstitial cells of Cajal and the smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by vagal enteric neural crest-derived cells (vENCDCs), a population of cells that gives rise to the enteric nervous system, the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract...
February 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192080/evo-engineering-and-the-cellular-and-molecular-origins-of-the-vertebrate-spinal-cord
#5
REVIEW
Ben Steventon, Alfonso Martinez Arias
The formation of the spinal cord during early embryonic development in vertebrate embryos is a continuous process that begins at gastrulation and continues through to the completion of somitogenesis. Despite the conserved usage of patterning mechanisms and gene regulatory networks that act to generate specific spinal cord progenitors, there now exists two seemingly disparate models to account for their action. In the first, a posteriorly localized signalling source transforms previously anterior-specified neural plate into the spinal cord...
February 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187709/the-drosophila-gene-expression-tool-dget-for-expression-analyses
#6
Yanhui Hu, Aram Comjean, Norbert Perrimon, Stephanie E Mohr
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing technologies have greatly increased our ability to identify gene expression levels, including at specific developmental stages and in specific tissues. Gene expression data can help researchers understand the diverse functions of genes and gene networks, as well as help in the design of specific and efficient functional studies, such as by helping researchers choose the most appropriate tissue for a study of a group of genes, or conversely, by limiting a long list of gene candidates to the subset that are normally expressed at a given stage or in a given tissue...
February 10, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183698/constitutively-active-notch1-converts-cranial-neural-crest-derived-frontonasal-mesenchyme-to-perivascular-cells-in-vivo
#7
Sophie R Miller, Surangi N Perera, Clare V H Baker
Perivascular/mural cells originate from either the mesoderm or the cranial neural crest. Regardless of their origin, Notch signalling is necessary for their formation. Furthermore, in both chicken and mouse, constitutive Notch1 activation (via expression of the Notch1 intracellular domain) is sufficient in vivo to convert trunk mesoderm-derived somite cells to perivascular cells, at the expense of skeletal muscle. In experiments originally designed to investigate the effect of premature Notch1 activation on the development of neural crest-derived olfactory ensheathing glial cells (OECs), we used in ovo electroporation to insert a tetracycline-inducible NotchΔE construct (encoding a constitutively active mutant of mouse Notch1) into the genome of chicken cranial neural crest cell precursors, and activated NotchΔE expression by doxycycline injection at embryonic day 4...
February 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182636/mechanism-for-generation-of-left-isomerism-in-ccdc40-mutant-embryos
#8
Kelsey F Sugrue, Irene E Zohn
Leftward fluid flow in the mouse node is generated by cilia and is critical for initiating asymmetry of the left-right axis. Coiled-coil domain containing-40 (Ccdc40) plays an evolutionarily conserved role in the assembly of motile cilia and establishment of the left-right axis. Approximately one-third of Ccdc40lnks mutant embryos display situs defects and here we investigate the underlying mechanism. Ccdc40lnks mutants show delayed induction of markers of the left-lateral plate mesoderm (L-LPM) including Lefty1, Lefty2 and Nodal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178531/in%C3%A2-vivo-human-somitogenesis-guides-somite-development-from-hpscs
#9
Haibin Xi, Wakana Fujiwara, Karen Gonzalez, Majib Jan, Simone Liebscher, Ben Van Handel, Katja Schenke-Layland, April D Pyle
Somites form during embryonic development and give rise to unique cell and tissue types, such as skeletal muscles and bones and cartilage of the vertebrae. Using somitogenesis-stage human embryos, we performed transcriptomic profiling of human presomitic mesoderm as well as nascent and developed somites. In addition to conserved pathways such as WNT-β-catenin, we also identified BMP and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling as major regulators unique to human somitogenesis. This information enabled us to develop an efficient protocol to derive somite cells in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs)...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174671/evaluation-of-serum-free-xeno-free-cryopreservation-solutions-for-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Chika Miyagi-Shiohira, Naoya Kobayashi, Issei Saitoh, Masami Watanabe, Yasufumi Noguchi, Masayuki Matsushita, Hirofumi Noguchi
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have the potential to differentiate into cells of mesodermal origin, such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, myocytes, and chondrocytes, and cryopreservation is currently performed as a routine method for preserving ASCs to safely acquire large numbers of cells. For clinical application of ASCs, serum-free, xeno-free cryopreservation solutions should be used. This study determined the viability and adipo-osteogenic potential of cryopreserved ASCs using four cryopreservation solutions: 10% DMSO, Cell Banker 2 (serum free), Stem Cell Banker (=Cell Banker 3: serum free, xeno free), and TC protector (serum free, xeno free)...
January 8, 2017: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170287/intermediate-reprogramming-of-mouse-skin-fibroblasts-into-stem-like-cells-by-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4
#11
Seung-Eun Lee, Sang-Jun Uhm, Yeo-Jin Son, Yun-Gwi Park, Eun-Young Kim, Se-Pill Park
Specific transcription factors are sufficient to reprogram fully induced pluripotent stem cells or other types of cells. These findings raise the question of whether chemical molecules or proteins can replace transcription factors to alter the defined cell fate. In this study, we treated mouse skin fibroblasts (MSFs) with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and examined intermediate reprogramming of MSFs into stem-like cells. Putative epidermal stem cells isolated from the ventral skin epidermis of an adult mouse were used to confirm the reprogramming activity of BMP4, which increased the proliferation of these cells...
February 7, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168721/yolk-sac-development-in-lizards-lacertilia-scincidae-new-perspectives-on-the-egg-of-amniotes
#12
James R Stewart, Michael B Thompson
Embryos of oviparous reptiles develop on the surface of a large mass of yolk, which they metabolize to become relatively large hatchlings. Access to the yolk is provided by tissues growing outward from the embryo to cover the surface of the yolk. A key feature of yolk sac development is a dedicated blood vascular system to communicate with the embryo. The best known model for yolk sac development and function of oviparous amniotes is based on numerous studies of birds, primarily domestic chickens. In this model, the vascular yolk sac forms the perimeter of the large yolk mass and is lined by a specialized epithelium, which takes up, processes and transports yolk nutrients to the yolk sac blood vessels...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167799/cell-population-structure-prior-to-bifurcation-predicts-efficiency-of-directed-differentiation-in-human-induced-pluripotent-cells
#13
Rhishikesh Bargaje, Kalliopi Trachana, Martin N Shelton, Christopher S McGinnis, Joseph X Zhou, Cora Chadick, Savannah Cook, Christopher Cavanaugh, Sui Huang, Leroy Hood
Steering the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) toward specific cell types is crucial for patient-specific disease modeling and drug testing. This effort requires the capacity to predict and control when and how multipotent progenitor cells commit to the desired cell fate. Cell fate commitment represents a critical state transition or "tipping point" at which complex systems undergo a sudden qualitative shift. To characterize such transitions during iPSC to cardiomyocyte differentiation, we analyzed the gene expression patterns of 96 developmental genes at single-cell resolution...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166224/mesoderm-specific-stat3-deletion-affects-expression-of-sox9-yielding-sox9-dependent-phenotypes
#14
Michael D Hall, Caroline A Murray, Michael J Valdez, Alan O Perantoni
To date, mutations within the coding region and translocations around the SOX9 gene both constitute the majority of genetic lesions underpinning human campomelic dysplasia (CD). While pathological coding-region mutations typically result in a non-functional SOX9 protein, little is known about what mechanism(s) controls normal SOX9 expression, and subsequently, which signaling pathways may be interrupted by alterations occurring around the SOX9 gene. Here, we report the identification of Stat3 as a key modulator of Sox9 expression in nascent cartilage and developing chondrocytes...
February 6, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165492/enhanced-development-of-skeletal-myotubes-from-porcine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Nicholas J Genovese, Timothy L Domeier, Bhanu Prakash V L Telugu, R Michael Roberts
The pig is recognized as a valuable model in biomedical research in addition to its agricultural importance. Here we describe a means for generating skeletal muscle efficiently from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSC) in vitro thereby providing a versatile platform for applications ranging from regenerative biology to the ex vivo cultivation of meat. The GSK3B inhibitor, CHIR99021 was employed to suppress apoptosis, elicit WNT signaling events and drive naïve-type piPSC along the mesoderm lineage, and, in combination with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-cytidine, to activate an early skeletal muscle transcription program...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165148/a-correlative-study-of-the-allantois-in-pig-and-rabbit-highlighting-the-diversity-of-extraembryonic-tissues-in-four-mammalian-species-including-mouse-and-man
#16
Waad Hassan, Christoph Viebahn
Despite its conserved role in placenta and umbilical cord formation, the mammalian allantois shows remarkable diversity in size and form as well as in the timing of its appearance and attachment to the chorion. In the mouse, the common allantoic diverticulum is lacking; instead, the allantoic core domain is defined as a progenitor center for allantoic development. In this study, the allantoises of the pig and the rabbit as two nonrodent mammals of increasing significance in biomedical research are compared (1) morphologically using high resolution light and electron microscopy and (2) molecularly using brachyury mRNA expression as a mesodermal marker...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148216/histone-h3-lysine-27-trimethylation-leads-to-loss-of-mesendodermal-competence-during-gastrulation-in-zebrafish-ectodermal-cells
#17
Taishi Shiomi, Akihiko Muto, Shunya Hozumi, Hiroshi Kimura, Yutaka Kikuchi
Previous studies in Xenopus have shown that forced expression of Nodal signaling can change ectodermal cells to a mesodermal fate by the early gastrula stage, suggesting mesodermal competence in early ectoderm cells. This mesodermal competence in ectodermal cells has been shown to be regulated at the level of nucleocytoplasmic localization of Smad2 in Xenopus. However, the regulation of mesodermal competence through epigenetic mechanisms has not been fully elucidated. Here, we used a constitutively active form of zebrafish Smad2 (Smad2ca) to overcome the inhibition of Nodal signaling via the nuclear exclusion of Smad2...
February 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140483/current-update-on-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-head-and-neck-soft-tissue-sarcomas
#18
REVIEW
Ben Tudor-Green, Ricardo Gomez, Peter A Brennan
Head and neck soft tissue sarcomas are a group of rare heterogeneous tumours arising from embryonic mesoderm. They comprise less than 1% of all head and neck malignancies and 5-15% of all sarcomas with most head and neck sarcomas arising from soft tissues. Although rare, they are associated with both high recurrence and mortality rates. We review the current management of head and neck soft tissue sarcomas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 31, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138731/-sack-of-marbles-in-mature-cystic-ovarian-teratoma
#19
REVIEW
K H Lee
Mature ovarian cystic teratoma (also known as ovarian dermoid cyst) is a slow growing encapsulated tumor which contains well differentiated derivations of at least two out of three germ cell layers (i.e., ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm). The lesion is lined by ectodermally derived squamous epithelium containing skin appendages. The cyst content commonly consists of keratin, sebaceous materials and fat. On CT images, the intracystic globules of sebum/fat could appear as multiple free floating rounde hypoattenuating nodules, giving the classical 'sack-of-marbles' appearance...
January 30, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125926/coordinated-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-human-ips-cell-derived-cardiac-progenitor-cells-depends-on-bmp-signaling-regulation-by-gremlin-2
#20
Jeffery Bylund, Cassandra P Awgulewitsch, Linh T Trinh, David T Paik, Christopher Jetter, Rajneesh Jha, Jianhua Zhang, Kristof Nolan, Chunhui Xu, Thomas Thompson, Timothy J Kamp, Antonis K Hatzopoulos
Heart development depends on coordinated proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells, but how the two processes are synchronized is not well understood. Here, we show that the secreted BMP antagonist GREMLIN2 (GREM2) is induced in cardiac progenitor cells shortly after cardiac mesoderm specification. GREM2 expression follows cardiac lineage differentiation independently of the differentiation protocol used, or the origin of human pluripotent stem cells, suggesting GREM2 is linked to cardiogenesis...
January 26, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
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