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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913274/two-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-5-genes-exhibit-different-yet-conserved-functions-in-development-and-growth
#1
Guo-Dong Zheng, Chun-Xue Zhou, Si-Tong Lin, Jie Chen, Xia-Yun Jiang, Shu-Ming Zou
Insulin-like growth factor binding-protein 5 (igfbp5), the most conserved member of the IGFBP family in vertebrates, plays a critical role in controlling cell survival, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we characterized the expression patterns of igfbp5a and igfbp5b in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which are retained in many fish species, likely from the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication. Both igfbp5a and igfbp5b encode 268- and 263-aa peptides, respectively, which share a sequence identity of 71%...
November 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911385/application-of-impermeable-barriers-combined-with-candidate-factor-soaked-beads-to-study-inductive-signals-in-the-chick
#2
Susan Wilde, Malcolm P Logan
The chick embryo provides a superb vertebrate model that can be used to dissect developmental questions in a direct way. Its accessibility and robustness following surgical intervention are key experimental strengths. Mica plates were the first barriers used to prevent chick limb bud initiation(1). Protocols that use aluminum foil as an impermeable barrier to wing bud or leg bud induction and or initiation are described. We combine this technique with bead placement lateral to the barrier to exogenously supply candidate endogenous factors that have been blocked by the barrier...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906170/generating-high-purity-cardiac-and-endothelial-derivatives-from-patterned-mesoderm-using-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Nathan J Palpant, Lil Pabon, Clayton E Friedman, Meredith Roberts, Brandon Hadland, Rebecca J Zaunbrecher, Irwin Bernstein, Ying Zheng, Charles E Murry
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide a valuable model for the study of human development and a means to generate a scalable source of cells for therapeutic applications. This protocol specifies cell fate efficiently into cardiac and endothelial lineages from hPSCs. The protocol takes 2 weeks to complete and requires experience in hPSC culture and differentiation techniques. Building on lessons taken from early development, this monolayer-directed differentiation protocol uses different concentrations of activin A and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) to polarize cells into mesodermal subtypes that reflect mid-primitive-streak cardiogenic mesoderm and posterior-primitive-streak hemogenic mesoderm...
January 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902735/role-of-hepatic-specific-transcription-factors-and-polycomb-repressive-complex-2-during-induction-of-fibroblasts-to-hepatic-fate
#4
Shima Rastegar-Pouyani, Niusha Khazaei, Ping Wee, Abdulshakour Mohammadnia, Moein Yaqubi
Direct reprogramming using defined sets of transcription factors (TFs) is a recent strategy for generating induced hepatocytes (iHeps) from fibroblasts for use in regenerative medicine and drug development. Comprehensive studies detailing the regulatory role of TFs during this reprogramming process could help increase its efficiency. This study aimed to find the TFs with the greatest influences on the generation of iHeps from fibroblasts, and to further understand their roles in the regulation of the gene expression program...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900095/intravenous-leiomyomatosis-with-right-atrium-extension-in-two-patients-a-case-report
#5
Lianxue Zhang, Yang Duan, Fulin Song, Junrui Xiao, Benqiang Yang
Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is a rare benign tumor of the uterus mesoderm, which can spread via the vein, from the micro-vein to the inferior vena cava, and even to the right atrium. IVL was first described this disease in 1896 and the first presented case of IVL with right atrium extension in the autopsy was described in 1907. On rare occasions, the tumors may extend into the regional and systemic veins, thus reaching the heart. This may subsequently cause intracardiac leiomyomatosis (ICL), which may lead to congestive heart failure and on occasion, sudden fatalities...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894818/supt20-is-required-for-development-of-the-axial-skeleton
#6
Sunita Warrier, Samer Nuwayhid, Julia A Sabatino, Kelsey F Sugrue, Irene E Zohn
Somitogenesis and subsequent axial skeletal development is regulated by the interaction of pathways that determine the periodicity of somite formation, rostrocaudal somite polarity and segment identity. Here we use a hypomorphic mutant mouse line to demonstrate that Supt20 (Suppressor of Ty20) is required for development of the axial skeleton. Supt20 hypomorphs display fusions of the ribs and vertebrae at lower thoracic levels along with anterior homeotic transformation of L1 to T14. These defects are preceded by reduction of the rostral somite and posterior shifts in Hox gene expression...
November 25, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888544/conditioned-medium-a-new-alternative-for-cryopreservation-of-equine-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Leandro Maia, Marianne Camargos Dias, Carolina Nogueira de Moraes, Camila de Paula Freitas-Dell'aqua, Ligia S L Silveira da Mota, Valquíria Santiloni, Fernanda da Cruz Landim-Alvarenga
Cryopreservation is a feasible alternative to maintaining several cell lines, particularly for immediate therapeutic use, transportation of samples and implementation of new in vitro studies. This work parts from the hypothesis that the medium of cryopreservation composed by 90% of conditioned medium (CM) supports cryopreservation of equine umbilical cord intervascular matrix mesenchymal stem cells (UCIM-MSCs), allowing the maintenance of the biological properties for the establishment of cell banks intended for therapeutic use and in vitro studies...
November 26, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883036/the-mevalonate-pathway-regulates-primitive-streak-formation-via-protein-farnesylation
#8
Yoshimi Okamoto-Uchida, Ruoxing Yu, Norio Miyamura, Norie Arima, Mari Ishigami-Yuasa, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Suguru Yoshida, Takamitsu Hosoya, Makiko Nawa, Takeshi Kasama, Yoichi Asaoka, Reiner Wimmer Alois, Ulrich Elling, Josef M Penninger, Sachiko Nishina, Noriyuki Azuma, Hiroshi Nishina
The primitive streak in peri-implantation embryos forms the mesoderm and endoderm and controls cell differentiation. The metabolic cues regulating primitive streak formation remain largely unknown. Here we utilised a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation system and a library of well-characterised drugs to identify these metabolic factors. We found that statins, which inhibit the mevalonate metabolic pathway, suppressed primitive streak formation in vitro and in vivo. Using metabolomics and pharmacologic approaches we identified the downstream signalling pathway of mevalonate and revealed that primitive streak formation requires protein farnesylation but not cholesterol synthesis...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881003/mir-508-5p-acts-as-an-anti-oncogene-by-targeting-mesdc1-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
S G Wu, Y J Huang, B Bao, L M Wu, J Dong, X H Liu, Z H Li, X Y Wang, L Wang, B J Chen, W Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer associated mortality. Accumulating evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) act as critical factors for tumor recurrence and metastasis. MiR-508-5p has been reported as a down-regulated miRNA in the primary gastric cancer tissues. However, the role of miR-508-5p on HCC has not been well elucidated. In this study, we observed that miR-508-5p was downregulated in HCC tissues when compared to the non-tumorous tissues. We then demonstrated that overexpression of miR-508-5p attenuated HepG2 cells proliferation and invasion and induced cell apoptosis in vitro...
November 24, 2016: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878275/method-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-vascular-endothelial-cells
#10
Qihong Wang, Weifeng Zhang, Guifen He, Huifang Sha, Zhe Quan
Vascular development is a regulated process and is dependent on the participation and differentiation of many cell types including the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells and differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to mesodermal precursor cells. Thus, reconstitution of this process in vitro necessitates providing ambient conditions for generating and culturing EPCs in vitro and differentiating them to vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we developed methods to differentiate bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into EPCs and to vascular endothelial cells...
November 18, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876901/nematodes-ultrastructure-complex-systems-and-processes
#11
REVIEW
Maha M A Basyoni, Enas M A Rizk
Nematode worms are among the most ubiquitous organisms on earth. They include free-living forms as well as parasites of plants, insects, humans and other animals. Recently, there has been an explosion of interest in nematode biology, including the area of nematode ultrastructure. Nematodes are round with a body cavity. They have one way guts with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. They have a pseudocoelom that is lined on one side with mesoderm and on the other side with endoderm. It appears that the cuticle is a very complex and evolutionarily plastic feature with important functions involving protection, body movement and maintaining shape...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871114/bone-marrow-stromal-stem-cells-in-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#12
A Polymeri, W V Giannobile, D Kaigler
Bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) are adult multipotent cells, which have the potential to differentiate into cell types of mesodermal origin, namely osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Due to their accessibility and expansion potential, BMSCs have historically held therapeutic promise in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. More recently, it has been demonstrated that not only can bone marrow stromal stem cells directly participate in tissue regeneration, but they also have the capacity to migrate to distant sites of tissue injury, where they can participate in tissue repair either directly through their differentiation or indirectly through paracrine mechanisms...
November 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861498/somite-derived-retinoic-acid-regulates-zebrafish-hematopoietic-stem-cell-formation
#13
Laura M Pillay, Kacey J Mackowetzky, Sonya A Widen, Andrew Jan Waskiewicz
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are multipotent progenitors that generate all vertebrate adult blood lineages. Recent analyses have highlighted the importance of somite-derived signaling factors in regulating HSC specification and emergence from dorsal aorta hemogenic endothelium. However, these factors remain largely uncharacterized. We provide evidence that the vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) functions as an essential regulator of zebrafish HSC formation. Temporal analyses indicate that RA is required for HSC gene expression prior to dorsal aorta formation, at a time when the predominant RA synthesis enzyme, aldh1a2, is strongly expressed within the paraxial mesoderm and somites...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856309/hedgehog-signalling-acts-upstream-of-laminin-alpha1-transcription-in-the-zebrafish-paraxial-mesoderm
#14
Joseph Pickering, Vincent T Cunliffe, Freek Van Eeden, Anne-Gaëlle Borycki
Laminin-111 (α1β1γ1) is a member of the Laminin family of extra-cellular matrix proteins that comprises 16 members, components of basement membranes. Laminin-111, one of the first Laminin proteins synthesised during embryogenesis, is required for basement membrane deposition and has essential roles in tissue morphogenesis and patterning. Yet, the mechanisms controlling Laminin-111 expression are poorly understood. We generated a zebrafish transgenic reporter line that reproduces faithfully the expression pattern of lama1, the gene encoding Laminin α1, and we used this reporter line to investigate lama1 transcriptional regulation...
November 14, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853617/homology-of-the-cranial-vault-in-birds-new-insights-based-on-embryonic-fate-mapping-and-character-analysis
#15
Hillary C Maddin, Nadine Piekarski, Elizabeth M Sefton, James Hanken
Bones of the cranial vault appear to be highly conserved among tetrapod vertebrates. Moreover, bones identified with the same name are assumed to be evolutionarily homologous. However, recent developmental studies reveal a key difference in the embryonic origin of cranial vault bones between representatives of two amniote lineages, mammals and birds, thereby challenging this view. In the mouse, the frontal is derived from cranial neural crest (CNC) but the parietal is derived from mesoderm, placing the CNC-mesoderm boundary at the suture between these bones...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848279/a-transcriptional-switch-point-during-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cell-ontogeny
#16
Daisuke Sugiyama, Anagha Joshi, Kasem Kulkeaw, Keai Sinn Tan, Tomoko Yokoo-Inoue, Chiyo Mizuochi-Yanagi, Kaori Yasuda, Atsushi Doi, Tadafumi Iino, Masayoshi Itoh, Sayaka Nagao-Sato, Kenzaburo Tani, Koichi Akashi, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Harukazu Suzuki, Hideya Kawaji, Piero Carninci, Alistair R R Forrest
During mammalian embryogenesis, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) originate from mesoderm-derived endothelial cells in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region and placenta. Later, HSPCs expand in fetal liver and migrate to bone marrow shortly before birth. Understanding global transcriptional regulation governing HSPC emergence from embryonic stem/induced pluripotent stem cells is necessary to devise clinical applications, such as novel transplantation approaches. Here, to assess transcriptional dynamics during development, we performed cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) on 10 developmental murine HSPC populations isolated from the AGM region, placenta, fetal liver and bone marrow and identified 15,681 transcripts across HSPC ontogeny...
November 16, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842922/paragangliomas-of-head-and-neck-a-surgical-challenge
#17
Katarzyna Malec, Pawel Cenda, Pawel Brzewski, Krzysztof Kuchta, Pawel Dobosz, Maciej Modrzejewski
Paragangliomas of the head and neck region are rare and predominantly asymptomatic tumors. These neoplasms arise from widely distributed paraganglionic cells, which originate from both mesodermal elements of third branchial arch and the neural crest residues. Despite the rare occurrence of paragangliomas, problems encountered in their diagnosis, unclear malignancy and treatment ensure that they still remain in the focus of head and neck surgeons. This is a retrospective study of the medical records of patients treated in the ENT Department of the 5th Military Hospital in Krakow during the period 2010-2014...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834953/cftr-%C3%AE-catenin-interaction-regulates-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-differentiation-and-embryonic-development
#18
Zhenqing Liu, Jinghui Guo, Yan Wang, Zhihui Weng, Biao Huang, Mei-Kuen Yu, Xiaohu Zhang, Ping Yuan, Hui Zhao, Wai-Yee Chan, Xiaohua Jiang, Hsiao-Chang Chan
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-regulated anion channel capable of conducting both Cl(-) and HCO3(-), mutations of which cause cystic fibrosis (CF), a common autosomal recessive disease. Although CF patients are known to have varied degree of developmental problems, the biological role of CFTR in embryonic development remains elusive. Here, we show that CFTR is functionally expressed in mouse ESCs. CFTR(-/-) mESCs exhibit dramatic defect in mesendoderm differentiation. In addition, CFTR physically interacts with β-catenin, defect of which leads to premature degradation of β-catenin and suppressed activation of β-catenin signaling...
November 11, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833997/ontogeny-of-pioneer-neurons-in-the-antennal-nervous-system-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#19
George Boyan, Erica Ehrhardt
The nervous system of the antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria consists of two nerve tracts in which sensory cells project their axons to the brain. Each tract is pioneered early in embryogenesis by a pair of identified cells located apically in the antennal lumen. The pioneers are thought to originate in the epithelium of the antenna and then delaminate into the lumen where they commence axogenesis. However, unambiguous molecular identification of these cells in the epithelium, of an identifiable precursor, and of their mode of generation has been lacking...
November 10, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832950/the-chick-embryo-chorioallantoic-membrane-cam-assay
#20
Domenico Ribatti
During avian development the mesodermal layers of the allantois and chorion fuse to form the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). This structure rapidly expands generating a rich vascular network that provides an interface for gas and waste exchange. The CAM allows to study tissue grafts, tumor growth and metastasis, drugs delivery and toxicologic analysis, and angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules. The CAM is relatively simple, quick, and low-cost model that allows screening of a large number of pharmacological samples in a short time; does not require administrative procedures for obtaining ethics committee approval for animal experimentation...
November 7, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
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