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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926091/functional-role-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
Debora Lo Furno, Giuliana Mannino, Rosario Giuffrida
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into not only cells of mesodermal lineages, but also into endodermal and ectodermal derived elements, including neurons and glial cells. For this reason, MSCs have been extensively investigated to develop cell-based therapeutic strategies, especially in pathologies whose pharmacological treatments give poor results, if any. As in the case of irreversible neurological disorders characterized by progressive neuronal death, in which behavioral and cognitive functions of patients inexorably decline as the disease progresses...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920953/lifelong-haematopoiesis-is-established-by-hundreds-of-precursors-throughout-mammalian-ontogeny
#2
Miguel Ganuza, Trent Hall, David Finkelstein, Ashley Chabot, Guolian Kang, Shannon McKinney-Freeman
Current dogma asserts that mammalian lifelong blood production is established by a small number of blood progenitors. However, this model is based on assays that require the disruption, transplantation and/or culture of embryonic tissues. Here, we used the sample-to-sample variance of a multicoloured lineage trace reporter to assess the frequency of emerging lifelong blood progenitors while avoiding the disruption, culture or transplantation of embryos. We find that approximately 719 Flk1(+) mesodermal precursors, 633 VE-cadherin(+) endothelial precursors and 545 Vav1(+) nascent blood stem and progenitor cells emerge to establish the haematopoietic system at embryonic days (E)7-E8...
September 18, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919208/genetics-of-clubfoot-recent-progress-and-future-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Sulman Basit, Khalid I Khoshhal
Clubfoot or talipes equinovarus (TEV) is an inborn three-dimensional deformity of leg, ankle and foot. It results from structural defects of several tissues of foot and lower leg leading to abnormal positioning of foot and ankle joints. TEV can lead to long-lasting functional disability, malformation and discomfort if left untreated. Substantial progress has been achieved in the management and diagnosis of limb defects; however, not much is known about the molecular players and signalling pathways underlying TEV disorder...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912455/a-crispr-screen-identifies-genes-controlling-etv2-threshold-expression-in-murine-hemangiogenic-fate-commitment
#4
Haiyong Zhao, Kyunghee Choi
The ETS transcription factor Etv2 is necessary and sufficient for the generation of hematopoietic and endothelial cells. However, upstream regulators of Etv2 in hemangiogenesis, generation of hematopoietic and endothelial cells, have not been clearly addressed. Here we track the developmental route of hemangiogenic progenitors from mouse embryonic stem cells, perform genome-wide CRISPR screening, and transcriptome analysis of en route cell populations by utilizing Brachyury, Etv2, or Scl reporter embryonic stem cell lines to further understand the mechanisms that control hemangiogenesis...
September 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911199/age-dependent-effects-of-armc5-haploinsufficiency-on-adrenocortical-function
#5
A Berthon, F R Faucz, S Espiard, L Drougat, J Bertherat, C A Stratakis
Inactivating mutations in the Armadillo repeat-containing 5 (ARMC5) gene have recently been discovered in primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH), a cause of Cushing syndrome. Biallelic ARMC5 inactivation in PMAH suggested that ARMC5 may have tumor suppressor functions in the adrenal cortex. We generated and characterized a new mouse model of Armc5 deficiency. Almost all Armc5 knockout mice died during early embryonic development, around 6.5 and 8.5 days. Knockout embryos did not undergo gastrulation, as demonstrated by the absence of mesoderm development at E7...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900152/a-3d-magnetic-tissue-stretcher-for-remote-mechanical-control-of-embryonic-stem-cell-differentiation
#6
Vicard Du, Nathalie Luciani, Sophie Richard, Gaëtan Mary, Cyprien Gay, François Mazuel, Myriam Reffay, Philippe Menasché, Onnik Agbulut, Claire Wilhelm
The ability to create a 3D tissue structure from individual cells and then to stimulate it at will is a major goal for both the biophysics and regenerative medicine communities. Here we show an integrated set of magnetic techniques that meet this challenge using embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We assessed the impact of magnetic nanoparticles internalization on ESCs viability, proliferation, pluripotency and differentiation profiles. We developed magnetic attractors capable of aggregating the cells remotely into a 3D embryoid body...
September 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893950/the-taf10-containing-tfiid-and-saga-transcriptional-complexes-are-dispensable-for-early-somitogenesis-in-the-mouse-embryo
#7
Paul Bardot, Stéphane D Vincent, Marjorie Fournier, Alexis Hubaud, Mathilde Joint, László Tora, Olivier Pourquié
During development, tightly regulated gene expression programs control cell fate and patterning. A key regulatory step in eukaryotic transcription is the assembly of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) at promoters. The PIC assembly has mainly been studied in vitro, and little is known about its composition during development. In vitro data suggests that TFIID is the general transcription factor that nucleates PIC formation at promoters. Here we show that TAF10, a subunit of TFIID and of the transcriptional co-activator SAGA, is required for the assembly of these complexes in the mouse embryo...
September 11, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887525/mier3-suppresses-colorectal-cancer-progression-by-down-regulating-sp1-inhibiting-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#8
Man Peng, Yukun Hu, Wen Song, Shiyu Duan, Qiong Xu, Yanqing Ding, Jian Geng, Jun Zhou
Mesoderm induction early response 1, family member 3 (MIER3) has recently been identified as a potential cancer susceptibility gene. However, the expression pattern and the role of MIER3 in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) have not yet been well characterized. Here, we reported that MIER3 was significantly reduced in human primary colorectal cancer and was associated with CRC metastasis and poor prognosis. Moreover, the up-regulation of MIER3 expression significantly inhibited CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and repressed tumor growth and metastasis in vivo...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887217/transcriptional-factors-eaf1-2-inhibit-endoderm-and-mesoderm-formation-via-suppressing-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#9
Jing-Xia Liu, Qin-Han Xu, Sen Li, XueDong Yu, WenYe Liu, Gang Ouyang, Ting Zhang, Ling-Ling Chen
Eaf family genes act in multiple cellular responses such as tumor suppression and embryonic development. In our previous work, Eaf1/2 was found to modulate convergence and extension (C&E) movements and pattern the embryonic anterior-posterior axis during zebrafish embryogenesis. Here, we found that loss-of-function of eaf1/2 caused expanded mesoderm and endoderm in zebrafish embryos and led to the recovery of endoderm specification in TGF-β factor-mzoep(tz257) mutants, while gain-of-function of eaf1/2 induced reduced mesoderm and endoderm...
September 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887018/dpp9-enzyme-activity-controls-survival-of-mouse-migratory-tongue-muscle-progenitors-and-its-absence-leads-to-neonatal-lethality-due-to-suckling-defect
#10
Munkyung Kim, Maryline Minoux, Alessandro Piaia, Benjamin Kueng, Berangere Gapp, Delphine Weber, Corinne Haller, Samuel Barbieri, Kenji Namoto, Thorsten Lorenz, Johann Wirsching, Frederic Bassilana, William Dietrich, Filippo M Rijli, Iwona Ksiazek
Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) is an intracellular N-terminal post-proline-cleaving enzyme whose physiological function remains largely unknown. We investigated the role of DPP9 enzyme in vivo by characterizing knock-in mice expressing a catalytically inactive mutant form of DPP9 (S729A; DPP9(ki/ki) mice). We show that DPP9(ki/ki) mice die within 12-18hours after birth. The neonatal lethality can be rescued by manual feeding, indicating that a suckling defect is the primary cause of neonatal lethality. The suckling defect results from microglossia, and is characterized by abnormal formation of intrinsic muscles at the distal tongue...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883443/planar-polarized-rab35-functions-as-an-oscillatory-ratchet-during-cell-intercalation-in-the-drosophila-epithelium
#11
Cayla E Jewett, Timothy E Vanderleest, Hui Miao, Yi Xie, Roopa Madhu, Dinah Loerke, J Todd Blankenship
The coordination between membrane trafficking and actomyosin networks is essential to the regulation of cell and tissue shape. Here, we examine Rab protein distributions during Drosophila epithelial tissue remodeling and show that Rab35 is dynamically planar polarized. Rab35 compartments are enriched at contractile interfaces of intercalating cells and provide the first evidence of interfacial monopolarity. When Rab35 function is disrupted, apical area oscillations still occur and contractile steps are observed...
September 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882402/visceral-endoderm-and-the-primitive-streak-interact-to-build-the-fetal-placental-interface-of-the-mouse-gastrula
#12
Adriana M Rodriguez, Karen M Downs
Hypoblast/visceral endoderm assists in amniote nutrition, axial positioning and formation of the gut. Here, we provide evidence, currently limited to humans and non-human primates, that hypoblast is a purveyor of extraembryonic mesoderm in the mouse gastrula. Fate mapping a unique segment of axial extraembryonic visceral endoderm associated with the allantoic component of the primitive streak, and referred to as the "AX", revealed that visceral endoderm supplies the placentae with extraembryonic mesoderm. Exfoliation of the AX was dependent upon contact with the primitive streak, which modulated Hedgehog signaling...
September 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880281/a-right-handed-signalling-pathway-drives-heart-looping-in-vertebrates
#13
Oscar H Ocaña, Hakan Coskun, Carolina Minguillón, Prayag Murawala, Elly M Tanaka, Joan Galcerán, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli, M Angela Nieto
Most animals show external bilateral symmetry, which hinders the observation of multiple internal left-right (L/R) asymmetries that are fundamental to organ packaging and function. In vertebrates, left identity is mediated by the left-specific Nodal-Pitx2 axis that is repressed on the right-hand side by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer Snail1 (refs 3, 4). Despite some existing evidence, it remains unclear whether an equivalent instructive pathway provides right-hand-specific information to the embryo...
September 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879635/ectopic-hamartomatous-thymoma-a-review-of-the-literature-with-report-of-new-cases-and-proposal-of-a-new-name-biphenotypic-branchioma
#14
Kimiya Sato, Lester D R Thompson, Kosuke Miyai, Takako Kono, Hitoshi Tsuda
Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma (EHT) is a rare benign neoplasm of the lower neck suggesting branchial origin. Despite use of the term thymoma in the nomenclature, there is no evidence of thymic origin or differentiation. It affects middle-aged adults with a remarkable male predominance. To date less than 80 cases have been reported in the English literature. We present here two additional cases of EHT. The first is a benign case in a 31-year-old man, showing typical histological features. The second is a malignant case in a 70-year-old woman, showing intraductal carcinoma arising in intimate association with an EHT...
September 6, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874788/comprehensive-transcriptome-mining-of-the-direct-conversion-of-mesodermal-cells
#15
Bijan Akbari, Ping Wee, Moein Yaqubi, Abdulshakour Mohammadnia
The direct reprogramming of somatic cells is a promising approach for regenerative medicine, especially in the production of mesoderm layer-derived cells. Meta-analysis studies provide precise insight into the undergoing processes and help increase the efficiency of reprogramming. Here, using 27 high-throughput expression data sets, we analyzed the direct reprogramming of mesodermal cells in humans and mice. Fibroblast-derived cells showed a common expression pattern of up- and down-regulated genes that were mainly involved in the suppression of the fibroblast-specific gene expression program, and may be used as markers of the initiation of reprogramming...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867208/inter-adipocyte-adhesion-and-signaling-by-collagen-iv-intercellular-concentrations-in-drosophila
#16
Jianli Dai, Mengqi Ma, Zhi Feng, José C Pastor-Pareja
Sheet-forming Collagen IV is the main component of basement membranes, which are planar polymers of extracellular matrix underlying epithelia and surrounding organs in all animals. Adipocytes in both insects and mammals are mesodermal in origin and often classified as mesenchymal. However, they form true tissues where cells remain compactly associated. Neither the mechanisms providing this tissue-level organization nor its functional significance are known. Here we show that discrete Collagen IV intercellular concentrations (CIVICs), distinct from basement membranes and thicker in section, mediate inter-adipocyte adhesion in Drosophila...
August 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866134/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-links-embryonic-lung-development-and-asthmatic-airway-remodeling
#17
REVIEW
Musaddique Hussain, Chengyun Xu, Meiping Lu, Xiling Wu, Lanfang Tang, Ximei Wu
Embryonic lung development requires reciprocal endodermal-mesodermal interactions; mediated by various signaling proteins. Wnt/β-catenin is a signaling protein that exhibits the pivotal role in lung development, injury and repair while aberrant expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling leads to asthmatic airway remodeling: characterized by hyperplasia and hypertrophy of airway smooth muscle cells, alveolar and vascular damage goblet cells metaplasia, and deposition of extracellular matrix; resulting in decreased lung compliance and increased airway resistance...
August 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862651/3d-microstructure-inhibits-mesenchymal-stem-cells-homing-to-the-site-of-liver-cancer-cells-on-a-microchip
#18
Xingyuan Yang, Xinyue Xu, Yuan Zhang, Weijia Wen, Xinghua Gao
The cell microenvironment consists of multiple types of biophysical and biochemical factors, and represents a complex integrated system that is variable in both time and space. Studies show that changes in biochemical and biophysical factors in cell microenvironments result in significant changes in cellular forms and functions, especially for stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are derived from adult stem cells of the mesoderm and play an important role in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and even cancer therapy...
September 1, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859300/etv2-as-an-essential-regulator-of-mesodermal-lineage-development
#19
Naoko Koyano-Nakagawa, Daniel J Garry
The 'master regulatory factors' that position at the top of the genetic hierarchy of lineage determination have been a focus of intense interest, and have been investigated in various systems. Etv2/Etsrp71/ER71 is such a factor that is both necessary and sufficient for the development of haematopoietic and endothelial lineages. As such, genetic ablation of Etv2 leads to complete loss of blood and vessels, and overexpression can convert non-endothelial cells to the endothelial lineage. Understanding such master regulatory role of a lineage is not only a fundamental quest in developmental biology, but also holds immense possibilities in regenerative medicine...
September 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855339/role-of-remodeling-and-spacing-factor-1-in-histone-h2a-ubiquitination-mediated-gene-silencing
#20
Zhuo Zhang, Amanda E Jones, Wei Wu, Jinman Kim, Yue Kang, Xiaobao Bi, Yue Gu, Ivan K Popov, Matthew B Renfrow, Marina N Vassylyeva, Dmitry G Vassylyev, Keith E Giles, Dongquan Chen, Ashwath Kumar, Yuhong Fan, Yufeng Tong, Chuan-Fa Liu, Woojin An, Chenbei Chang, Jianjun Luo, Louise T Chow, Hengbin Wang
Posttranslational histone modifications play important roles in regulating chromatin-based nuclear processes. Histone H2AK119 ubiquitination (H2Aub) is a prevalent modification and has been primarily linked to gene silencing. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely obscure. Here we report the identification of RSF1 (remodeling and spacing factor 1), a subunit of the RSF complex, as a H2Aub binding protein, which mediates the gene-silencing function of this histone modification. RSF1 associates specifically with H2Aub, but not H2Bub nucleosomes, through a previously uncharacterized and obligatory region designated as ubiquitinated H2A binding domain...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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