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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643581/a-white-paper-on-global-wheat-health-based-on-scenario-development-and-analysis
#1
Serge Savary, Annika Djurle, Jonathan Yuen, Andrea Ficke, Vittorio Rossi, Paul Esker, Jose M Fernandes, Emerson Del Ponte, Jatindra Kumar, Laurence V Madden, Pierce A Paul, Neil McRoberts, Pawan Kumar Singh, Laurent Huber, Claude Pope de Vallavieille, Sébastien Saint-Jean, Laetitia Willocquet
Scenario analysis constitutes a useful approach to synthesize knowledge and derive hypotheses in the case of complex systems which are documented with mainly qualitative or very diverse information. In this article, a framework for scenario analysis is designed and then, applied to global wheat health within a timeframe from today to 2050. Scenario analysis entails the choice of settings, the definition of scenarios of change, and the analysis of outcomes of these scenarios in the chosen settings. Three idealized agrosystems, representing a large fraction of the global diversity of wheat-based agrosystems, are considered, which represent the settings of the analysis...
June 23, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643354/diffusion-mri-microstructure-models-with-in-vivo-human-brain-connectome-data-results-from-a-multi-group-comparison
#2
Uran Ferizi, Benoit Scherrer, Torben Schneider, Mohammad Alipoor, Odin Eufracio, Rutger H J Fick, Rachid Deriche, Markus Nilsson, Ana K Loya-Olivas, Mariano Rivera, Dirk H J Poot, Alonso Ramirez-Manzanares, Jose L Marroquin, Ariel Rokem, Christian Pötter, Robert F Dougherty, Ken Sakaie, Claudia Wheeler-Kingshott, Simon K Warfield, Thomas Witzel, Lawrence L Wald, José G Raya, Daniel C Alexander
A large number of mathematical models have been proposed to describe the measured signal in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, model comparison to date focuses only on specific subclasses, e.g. compartment models or signal models, and little or no information is available in the literature on how performance varies among the different types of models. To address this deficiency, we organized the 'White Matter Modeling Challenge' during the International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2015 conference...
June 23, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636894/effects-of-hpmc-substituent-pattern-on-water-up-take-polymer-and-drug-release-an-experimental-and-modelling-study
#3
Diego Caccavo, Gaetano Lamberti, Anna Angela Barba, Susanna Abrahmsén-Alami, Anna Viridén, Anette Larsson
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydration behavior of two matrix formulations containing the cellulose derivative hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). The two HPMC batches investigated had different substitution pattern along the backbone; the first one is referred to as heterogeneous and the second as homogenous. The release of both the drug molecule theophylline and the polymer was determined. Additionally, the water concentrations at different positions in the swollen gel layers were determined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631268/network-for-investigation-of-delirium-across-the-u-s-advancing-the-field-of-delirium-with-a-new-interdisciplinary-research-network
#4
EDITORIAL
Donna M Fick, Andrew D Auerbach, Michael S Avidan, Jan Busby-Whitehead, E Wesley Ely, Richard N Jones, Edward R Marcantonio, Dale M Needham, Pratik Pandharipande, Thomas N Robinson, Eva M Schmitt, Thomas G Travison, Sharon K Inouye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619010/did-online-publishers-get-it-right-using-a-naturalistic-search-strategy-to-review-cognitive-health-promotion-content-on-internet-webpages
#5
P V Hunter, M Delbaere, M E O'Connell, A Cammer, J X Seaton, T Friedrich, F Fick
BACKGROUND: One of the most common uses of the Internet is to search for health-related information. Although scientific evidence pertaining to cognitive health promotion has expanded rapidly in recent years, it is unclear how much of this information has been made available to Internet users. Thus, the purpose of our study was to assess the reliability and quality of information about cognitive health promotion encountered by typical Internet users. METHODS: To generate a list of relevant search terms employed by Internet users, we entered seed search terms in Google Trends and recorded any terms consistently used in the prior 2 years...
June 15, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618600/relation-between-the-porosity-and-tortuosity-of-a-membrane-formed-by-disconnected-irregular-pores-and-the-spatial-diffusion-coefficient-of-the-fick-jacobs-model
#6
Aldo Ledesma-Durán, S I Hernández, Iván Santamaría-Holek
In this work, we provide a theoretical relationship between the spatial-dependent diffusion coefficient derived in the Fick-Jacobs (FJ) approximation and the macroscopic diffusion coefficient of a membrane that depends on the porosity, tortuosity, and the constriction factors. Based on simple mass conservation arguments under equilibrium as well as in nonequilibrium conditions, we generalize previous expressions for the effective diffusion coefficient of an irregular pore, originally obtained by Festa and d'Agliano for horizontal and periodic pores, and then extended by Bradley for tortuous periodic pores, to the case of pores with arbitrary geometry...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618577/double-diffusivity-model-under-stochastic-forcing
#7
Amit K Chattopadhyay, Elias C Aifantis
The "double diffusivity" model was proposed in the late 1970s, and reworked in the early 1980s, as a continuum counterpart to existing discrete models of diffusion corresponding to high diffusivity paths, such as grain boundaries and dislocation lines. It was later rejuvenated in the 1990s to interpret experimental results on diffusion in polycrystalline and nanocrystalline specimens where grain boundaries and triple grain boundary junctions act as high diffusivity paths. Technically, the model pans out as a system of coupled Fick-type diffusion equations to represent "regular" and "high" diffusivity paths with "source terms" accounting for the mass exchange between the two paths...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601012/diclofenac-affects-kidney-histology-in-the-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus-at-low-%C3%AE-g-l-concentrations
#8
Johanna Näslund, Jerker Fick, Noomi Asker, Elisabet Ekman, D G Joakim Larsson, Leif Norrgren
Diclofenac, a commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is considered for regulation under the European water framework directive. This is because effects on fish have bean reported at concentrations around those regularly found in treated sewage effluents (∼1μg/L). However, a recent publication reports no effects on fish at 320μg/L. In this study, three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to 0, 4.6, 22, 82 and 271μg/L diclofenac in flow-through systems for 28days using triplicate aquaria per concentration...
May 31, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594533/implementation-of-teamstepps-in-orthopaedic-surgery
#9
Harpal S Khanuja, Zan A Naseer, Lynne C Jones, James R Ficke, Dwight W Burney Iii
An Institute of Medicine report published in 2000 brought attention to the devastating consequences of medical errors. The report estimated that 98,000 deaths occurred in US hospitals each year as a result of medical errors and spawned investigations into factors that are associated with medical errors as well as strategies to avoid them. Taking cues from high-reliability organizations, such as the airline industry, evidence-based tools were developed to minimize human risk factors and foster teamwork, communication, and other skills that are essential to patient safety and quality...
February 15, 2017: Instructional Course Lectures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587512/accuracy-of-predicted-haemoglobin-concentration-on-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-paediatric-cardiac-surgery-effect-of-different-formulae-for-estimating-patient-blood-volume
#10
Matthias Redlin, Wolfgang Boettcher, Frank Dehmel, Mi-Young Cho, Marian Kukucka, Helmut Habazettl
INTRODUCTION: When applying a blood-conserving approach in paediatric cardiac surgery with the aim of reducing the transfusion of homologous blood products, the decision to use blood or blood-free priming of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit is often based on the predicted haemoglobin concentration (Hb) as derived from the pre-CPB Hb, the prime volume and the estimated blood volume. We assessed the accuracy of this approach and whether it may be improved by using more sophisticated methods of estimating the blood volume...
June 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571349/asymmetric-osmotic-water-permeation-through-a-vesicle-membrane
#11
Jiaye Su, Yunzhen Zhao, Chang Fang, Yue Shi
Understanding the water permeation through a cell membrane is of primary importance for biological activities and a key step to capture its shape transformation in salt solution. In this work, we reveal the dynamical behaviors of osmotically driven transport of water molecules across a vesicle membrane by molecular dynamics simulations. Of particular interest is that the water transport in and out of vesicles is highly distinguishable given the osmotic force are the same, suggesting an asymmetric osmotic transportation...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570147/estimating-arterial-partial-pressure-of-carbon-dioxide-in-ventilated-patients-how-valid-are-surrogate-measures
#12
Boulos S Nassar, Gregory A Schmidt
The arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is an important parameter in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients. To limit invasive procedures or for more continuous monitoring of PaCO2, clinicians often rely on venous blood gases, capnography, or transcutaneous monitoring. Each of these has advantages and limitations. Central venous Pco2 allows accurate estimation of PaCO2, differing from it by an amount described by the Fick principle. As long as cardiac output is relatively normal, central venous Pco2 exceeds the arterial value by approximately 4 mm Hg...
June 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561709/practice-model-for-advanced-practice-providers-in-oncology
#13
Jamie Cairo, Mary Ann Muzi, Deanna Ficke, Shaunta Ford-Pierce, Katrina Goetzke, Diane Stumvoll, Laurie Williams, Federico A Sanchez
According to ASCO, the number of practicing oncologists has remained stable despite growth demands, leading to an overall shortage in many areas of the country. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants are advanced practice providers (APPs) who can assist in the provision of support and care to patients with cancer, but the role of the APP in the oncology setting has not been well defined. There exists a variety of different practice patterns for APPs who work in oncology, and the lack of role definition and absence of an established practice model are considered leading causes of APP attrition...
2017: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550799/in%C3%A2-vivo-assessment-of-dermal-adhesion-penetration-and-bioavailability-of-tetrabromobisphenol-a
#14
Yunjiang Yu, Liangzhong Li, Hongyan Li, Xiaowei Yu, Yanping Zhang, Qiong Wang, Zhixiang Zhou, Dandan Gao, Hao Ye, Bigui Lin, Ruixue Ma
Individuals are exposed to brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), on a daily basis because of their widespread usage. These compounds may have adverse effects on human health. In the present study, dermal absorption experiments were conducted in vivo to predict the adhesion, penetration, and bioavailability of TBBPA. TBBPA was administered to Wistar rats for 6 h by repeated dermal exposure at doses of 20, 60, 200, and 600 mg of TBBPA per kg of body weight (bw). The skin adhesion coefficient (AC) was calculated using a difference-value method and ranged from 0...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524800/swelling-mechanism-of-urea-cross-linked-starch-lignin-films-in-water
#15
Ariyanti Sarwono, Zakaria Man, M Azmi Bustam, Duvvuri Subbarao, Alamin Idris, Nawshad Muhammad, Amir Sada Khan, Zahoor Ullah
Coating fertilizer particles with thin films is a possibility to control fertilizer release rates. It is observed that novel urea cross-linked starch-lignin composite thin films, prepared by solution casting, swell on coming into contact with water due to the increase in volume by water uptake by diffusion. The effect of lignin content, varied from 0% to 20% in steps of 5% at three different temperatures (25°C, 35°C and 45°C), on swelling of the film was investigated. By gravimetric analysis, the equilibrium water uptake and diffusion coefficient decrease with lignin content, indicating that the addition of lignin increases the hydrophobicity of the films...
June 7, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497497/simultaneous-measurement-of-macro-and-microvascular-blood-flow-and-oxygen-saturation-for-quantification-of-muscle-oxygen-consumption
#16
Erin K Englund, Zachary B Rodgers, Michael C Langham, Emile R Mohler, Thomas F Floyd, Felix W Wehrli
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between blood flow and oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle, a technique called "Velocity and Perfusion, Intravascular Venous Oxygen saturation and T2*" (vPIVOT) is presented. vPIVOT allows the quantification of feeding artery blood flow velocity, perfusion, draining vein oxygen saturation, and muscle T2*, all at 4-s temporal resolution. Together, the measurement of blood flow and oxygen extraction can yield muscle oxygen consumption ( V˙O2) via the Fick principle...
May 11, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490143/method-for-sampling-and-analysis-of-volatile-biomarkers-in-process-gas-from-aerobic-digestion-of-poultry-carcasses-using-time-weighted-average-spme-and-gc-ms
#17
Jacek A Koziel, Lam T Nguyen, Thomas D Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Timothy S Frana, J Hans van Leeuwen
A passive sampling method, using retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) - gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and time-weighted averaging, was developed and validated for tracking marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during aerobic digestion of biohazardous animal tissue. The retracted SPME configuration protects the fragile fiber from buffeting by the process gas stream, and it requires less equipment and is potentially more biosecure than conventional active sampling methods. VOC concentrations predicted via a model based on Fick's first law of diffusion were within 6...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482513/modeling-the-permeability-of-multiaxial-electrospun-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-gelatin-hybrid-fibers-for-controlled-doxycycline-release
#18
Abdurizzagh Khalf, Sundararajan V Madihally
Recent advances in electrospinning allow the formation of multiple layers of micro and nanosize fibers to regulate drug/therapeutic agent release. Although there has been significant progress in fiber formation techniques and drug loading, fundamental models providing insights into controlling individual permeabilities is lacking. In this regard, we first explored forming coaxial hybrid fibers from hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and hydrophilic gelatin (GT) in three different configurations, and the release of hydrophilic doxycycline (Dox) at 37°C over five days...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481803/breast-implant-associated-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-in-australia-and-new-zealand-high-surface-area-textured-implants-are-associated-with-increased-risk
#19
Anna Loch-Wilkinson, Kenneth Beath, Robert John William Knight, William Louis Fick Wessels, Mark Magnusson, Tim Papadopoulos, Tony Connell, Julian Lofts, Michelle Locke, Ingrid Hopper, Rodney Cooter, Karen Vickery, Preeti Avinash Joshi, H Miles Prince, Anand K Deva
BACKGROUND: The association between breast implants and breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL), has been confirmed. Implant related risk has been difficult to estimate due to incomplete or unknown implant histories and lack of clarity on the number of implants utilized. METHODS: All cases in Australia and New Zealand were identified and analyzed. Textured implants reported in this group were subjected to surface area analysis.Sales data from three leading breast implant manufacturers (Mentor/Allergan/Silimed) dating back to 1999 were secured to estimate implant specific risk...
May 5, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475926/headspace-oxygen-as-a-hurdle-to-improve-the-safety-of-in-pack-pasteurized-chilled-food-during-storage-at-different-temperatures
#20
Nydia Muñoz, Kanishka Bhunia, Hongchao Zhang, Gustavo V Barbosa-Cánovas, Juming Tang, Shyam Sablani
This study investigated the use of headspace oxygen in a model food system to prevent the growth of anaerobic pathogenic bacteria in in-pack pasteurized food at various storage temperatures. Three model food formulations prepared with tryptic soy broth and three agar concentrations (0.1, 0.4 and 1.0%) were sealed without removing the air from the package in high oxygen barrier pouches (OTR=0.3cm(3)/m(2)·day·atm). Important properties influencing bacterial growth, including pH and water activity (aw) were determined...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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