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Berndt Björlenius, Mátyás Ripszám, Peter Haglund, Richard H Lindberg, Mats Tysklind, Jerker Fick
The consumption of pharmaceuticals worldwide coupled with modest removal efficiencies of sewage treatment plants have resulted in the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems globally. In this study, we investigated the environmental concentrations of a selection of 93 pharmaceuticals in 43 locations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to anthropogenic activities due to a long turnover time and a sensitive ecosystem in the brackish water. Thirty-nine of 93 pharmaceuticals were detected in at least one sample, with concentrations ranging between 0...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jenifer Gómez-Pastora, Cristina González-Fernández, Eusebio Real, Alexander Iles, Eugenio Bringas, Edward P Furlani, Inmaculada Ortiz
Magnetic beads can be functionalized to capture and separate target pathogens from blood for extracorporeal detoxification. The beads can be magnetically separated from a blood stream and collected into a coflowing buffer solution using a two-phase liquid-liquid continuous-flow microfluidic device in the presence of an external field. However, device design and process optimization, i.e. high bead recovery with minimum blood loss or dilution remain a substantial technological challenge. We introduce a CFD-based Eulerian-Lagrangian computational model that enables the rational design and optimization of such systems...
May 11, 2018: Lab on a Chip
D G Joakim Larsson, Antoine Andremont, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Kristian Koefoed Brandt, Ana Maria de Roda Husman, Patriq Fagerstedt, Jerker Fick, Carl-Fredrik Flach, William H Gaze, Makoto Kuroda, Kristian Kvint, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Celia M Manaia, Kaare Magne Nielsen, Laura Plant, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Carlos Segovia, Pascal Simonet, Kornelia Smalla, Jason Snape, Edward Topp, Arjon J van Hengel, David W Verner-Jeffreys, Marko P J Virta, Elizabeth M Wellington, Ann-Sofie Wernersson
There is growing understanding that the environment plays an important role both in the transmission of antibiotic resistant pathogens and in their evolution. Accordingly, researchers and stakeholders world-wide seek to further explore the mechanisms and drivers involved, quantify risks and identify suitable interventions. There is a clear value in establishing research needs and coordinating efforts within and across nations in order to best tackle this global challenge. At an international workshop in late September 2017, scientists from 14 countries with expertise on the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance gathered to define critical knowledge gaps...
May 7, 2018: Environment International
Robert J Fick, Mary C Clay, Lucas Vander Lee, Steve Scheiner, Hashim M Al-Hashimi, Raymond C Trievel
The C-terminal domain of cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) has an essential role in catalyzing the reactivation of the enzyme following the oxidation of its cobalamin cofactor. This reactivation occurs through reductive methylation of the cobalamin using S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as the methyl donor. Herein, we examine the molecular recognition of AdoMet by the MetH reactivation domain utilizing structural, biochemical, and computational approaches. Crystal structures of the E. coli MetH reactivation domain in complex with AdoMet, the methyl transfer product S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), and the AdoMet analog inhibitor sinefungin illustrate that the ligands exhibit an analogous conformation within the solvent-exposed substrate binding cleft of the enzyme...
May 7, 2018: Biochemistry
Johannes Pohl, Berndt Björlenius, Tomas Brodin, Gunnar Carlsson, Jerker Fick, D G Joakim Larsson, Leif Norrgren, Stefan Örn
Pharmaceutical residues and other micro-contaminants may enter aquatic environments through effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and could cause adverse effects in wild fish. One strategy to alleviate this situation is to improve wastewater treatment by ozonation. To test the effectiveness of full-scale wastewater effluent ozonation at a Swedish municipal STP, the added removal efficiency was measured for 105 pharmaceuticals. In addition, gene expression, reproductive and behavioral endpoints were analyzed in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed on-site over 21 days to ozonated or non-ozonated effluents as well as to tap water...
April 25, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Alireza Mehregan Nikoo, Rassoul Kadkhodaee, Behrouz Ghorani, Hussam Razzaq, Nick Tucker
One of the major challenges with microencapsulation and delivery of low molecular weight bioactive compounds is their diffusional loss during storage and process conditions as well as under gastric conditions. In an attempt to slow down the release rate of core material, electrospray fabricated calcium alginate microhydrogels were coated with low molecular weight and high molecular weight chitosans. Caffeine as a hydrophilic model compound was used due to its several advantages on human behavior especially increasing consciousness...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Theodore Dassios, Konstantinos G Dassios, George Dassios
Conventionally, the alveolar surface area (SA ) has been measured by using post-mortem morphometry. Such studies have highlighted that SA in prematurely-born infants is markedly smaller when compared to term-born infants as a result of postnatal impairment or arrest of alveolar development. We herein explore how, non-invasive measurements of the ventilation/perfusion ratio (VA /Q) can be used to estimate SA in prematurely-born surviving, convalescent infants. We also compare SA in prematurely-born infants measured at term-corrected age, to term-born infants using previously published datasets of VA /Q...
April 29, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
S C Sargant, M J Lennon, R J Khan, D Fick, H Robertson, S Haebich
There is a growing body of evidence in favour of continuous adductor canal block (CACB) for total knee arthroplasty. However, there are no studies describing the optimal duration of the infusion. At our institution the usual practice was to stop the infusion on day three. Our hypothesis was that extending the infusion to five days would improve analgesia and quality of recovery. A prospective, non-blinded, randomised trial was undertaken. Patients received a continuous infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine via an adductor canal catheter for either three or five days...
May 2018: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Pavol Kalinay, F Slanina
Diffusion of point-like particles in a two-dimensional channel of varying width is studied. The particles are driven by an arbitrary space dependent force. We construct a general recurrence procedure mapping the corresponding two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation onto the longitudinal coordinate x. Unlike the previous specific cases, the presented procedure enables us to find the one-dimensional description of the confined diffusion even for non-conservative (vortex) forces, e.g. caused by flowing solvent dragging 
 the particles...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Nadine Kraupner, Stefan Ebmeyer, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Jerker Fick, Erik Kristiansson, Carl-Fredrik Flach, D G Joakim Larsson
There is concern that antibiotics in the environment can select for and enrich bacteria carrying acquired antibiotic resistance genes, thus increasing the potential of those genes to emerge in a clinical context. A critical question for understanding and managing such risks is what levels of antibiotics are needed to select for resistance in complex bacterial communities. Here, we address this question by examining the phenotypic and genotypic profiles of aquatic communities exposed to ciprofloxacin, also evaluating the within-species selection of resistant E...
April 25, 2018: Environment International
Yu-Tian Zhang, Mei-Feng Xiao, Kai-Wen Deng, Yan-Tao Yang, Yi-Qun Zhou, Jin Zhou, Fu-Yuan He, Wen-Long Liu
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, to research and formulate an efficiency extraction system for Chinese herbal medicine, scientists have always been facing a great challenge for quality management, so that the transitivity of Q-markers in quantitative analysis of TCM was proposed by Prof. Liu recently. In order to improve the quality of extraction from raw medicinal materials for clinical preparations, a series of integrated mathematic models for transitivity of Q-markers in quantitative analysis of TCM were established...
April 6, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Tim Lustberg, Johan van Soest, Peter Fick, Rianne Fijten, Tim Hendriks, Sander Puts, Andre Dekker
Performing image feature extraction in radiation oncology is often dependent on the organ and tumor delineations provided by clinical staff. These delineation names are free text DICOM metadata fields resulting in undefined information, which requires effort to use in large-scale image feature extraction efforts. In this work we present a scale-able solution to overcome these naming convention challenges with a REST service using Semantic Web technology to convert this information to linked data. As a proof of concept an open source software is used to compute radiation oncology image features...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Jinok Kim, Gwangwe Yoo, Jin Park, Jin-Hong Park
We investigated the effect of an electric field-based post exposure bake (EF-PEB) process on photoacid diffusion and pattern formation. To investigate the control of photoacid diffusion experimentally, the EF-PEB processes was performed at various temperatures. Cross sectional images of various EF-PEB processed samples were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after ion beam milling. In addition, we conducted a numerical analysis of photoacid distribution and diffusion with following Fick's second law and compared the experimental results with our theoretical model...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Thijs van Westen, Robert D Groot
The quality of stored frozen products such as foods and biomaterials generally degrades in time due to the growth of large ice crystals by recrystallization. While there is ample experimental evidence that recrystallization within such products (or model systems thereof) is often dominated by diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening, the application of Ostwald-ripening theories to predict measured recrystallization rates has only met with limited success. For a model system of polycrystalline ice within an aqueous solution of sugars, we here show recrystallization rates can be predicted on the basis of Ostwald ripening theory, provided (1) the theory accounts for the fact the solution can be nonideal, nondilute and of different density than the crystals, (2) the effect of ice-phase volume fraction on the diffusional flux of water between crystals is accurately described, and (3) all relevant material properties (involving binary Fick diffusion coefficients, the thermodynamic factor of the solution, and the surface energy of ice) are carefully estimated...
April 4, 2018: Crystal Growth & Design
Stephen E Fick, Rand R Evett
Historical reconstructions of plant community distributions are useful for biogeographic studies and restoration planning, but the quality of insights gained depends on the depth and reliability of historical information available. For the Central Valley of California, one of the most altered terrestrial ecosystems on the planet, this task is particularly difficult given poor historical documentation and sparse relict assemblages of pre-invasion plant species. Coastal and interior prairies were long assumed to have been dominated by perennial bunchgrasses, but this hypothesis has recently been challenged...
2018: PloS One
Ruidong Yang, Zhi Xu, Shixuan Zeng, Wenheng Jing, Adam Trontz, Junhang Dong
Fiber optic interferometer (FOI) sensors have been fabricated by directly growing pure-silica MFI-type zeolite (i.e., silicalite) films on straight-cut endfaces of single-mode communication optical fibers. The FOI sensor has been demonstrated for determining molecular diffusivity in the zeolite by monitoring the temporal response of light interference from the zeolite film during the dynamic process of gas adsorption. The optical thickness of the zeolite film depends on the amount of gas adsorption that causes the light interference to shift upon loading molecules into the zeolitic channels...
April 4, 2018: Sensors
Tyler Fick, Ramya Keshavaram, Douglas McLaughlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Pediatrics in Review
David Snipelisky, Jacob Jentzer, Omar Batal, Zeina Dardari, Michael Mathier
INTRODUCTION: Serum albumin is a strong prognostic indicator for many disease processes, yet limited data exist regarding its prognostic relationship in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Our study aims to assess the relationship of hypoalbuminemia with disease severity and mortality in this population. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients with WHO group 1 PAH evaluated between March 2001 and August 2008 was performed. Patients were stratified into groups based on serum albumin concentration ≤3...
March 31, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Yan Yang, Lian Shen, Feng Yuan, Hui Fu, Weiguang Shan
Lately, a great deal of attention is being paid to capsule coating, since the coat protects active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from damage, as is in the case of tablet and pellet. However, moisture and heat sensitivity of gelatin shells make it challenging to coat capsules using the conventional aqueous coating techniques. In an effort to overcome this challenge, the present study aims to coat capsules using two different coating techniques: electrostatic dry powder coating (EDPC) and dip coating (DC)...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Susan L Huehn, Mary Beth Kuehn, Katherine E Fick
Interprofessional educational experiences for baccalaureate nursing students are essential to prepare them for interprofessional communication and collaborative interprofessional teamwork. The aim of this descriptive qualitative study was to understand the experience of baccalaureate nursing students utilizing the hospital chaplain while caring for a suicidal patient in the emergency department during simulation. The need for interprofessional education is documented in the literature, but there are very few comprehensive, successful projects integrating spiritual care for nurse educators to use as models...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
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