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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925861/modeling-heavy-ion-impairment-of-hippocampal-neurogenesis-after-acute-and-fractionated-irradiation
#1
Eliedonna Cacao, Francis A Cucinotta
Radiation-induced impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is a concern due to its reported association with cognitive detriments after radiotherapy for brain cancers and the possible risks to astronauts chronically exposed to space radiation. Here, we have extended our recent work in a mouse model of impaired neurogenesis after exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion radiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis for a variety of radiation types after acute or fractionated irradiation...
December 7, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924161/combination-therapy-for-ulcerative-colitis-orally-targeted-nanoparticles-prevent-mucosal-damage-and-relieve-inflammation
#2
Bo Xiao, Zhan Zhang, Emilie Viennois, Yuejun Kang, Mingzhen Zhang, Moon Kwon Han, Jiucun Chen, Didier Merlin
Combination therapy is an emerging strategy that is under intensive preclinical investigation for the treatment of various diseases. CD98 is highly overexpressed on the surfaces of epithelial cells and macrophages in the colon tissue with ulcerative colitis (UC), which is usually associated with mucosal damage and inflammation. We previously proved that CD98 siRNA (siCD98)-induced down-regulation of CD98 in colitis tissue decreased the severity of UC to a certain extent. In an effort to further improve the therapeutic efficacy, we aim to simultaneously deliver siCD98 in combination with a potent anti-inflammatory agent, curcumin (CUR), using hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized polymeric nanoparticles (NPs)...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919356/lipoprotein-a-cholesterol-levels-estimated-by-vertical-auto-profile-correlate-poorly-with-lp-a-mass-in-hyperlipidemic-subjects-implications-for-clinical-practice-interpretation-of-lp-a-mediated-risk
#3
Calvin Yeang, Paul C Clopton, Sotirios Tsimikas
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is generally measured as total mass of the entire particle or as apolipoprotein(a) particle number. OBJECTIVE: The cholesterol content of Lp(a) [Lp(a)-C)] can be estimated by the vertical auto profile (VAP) method. We assessed whether this is an accurate surrogate measurement of Lp(a) mass. METHODS: VAP-Lp(a)-C and VAP-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) estimated by the VAP technique, Lp(a) mass, oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB) that primarily reflect OxPL on Lp(a), and HDL-C measured by enzymatic methods were measured in 552 hypercholesterolemic patients at baseline and 24 weeks after therapy with niacin monotherapy (N = 118), ezetimibe/simvastatin monotherapy (n = 155), or ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/20 mg) + niacin (to 2 g) (N = 279) in a randomized, double-blind trial...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919338/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-heart
#4
Marjan Boerma, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Xiao-Wen Mao, Gregory A Nelson, Amrita K Cheema, Igor Koturbash, Sharda P Singh, Alan J Tackett, Martin Hauer-Jensen
This article provides an overview of studies addressing effects of ionizing radiation on the heart. Clinical studies have identified early and late manifestations of radiation-induced heart disease, a side effect of radiation therapy to tumors in the chest when all or part of the heart is situated in the radiation field. Studies in preclinical animal models have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation may injure the heart. More recent observations in human subjects suggest that ionizing radiation may have cardiovascular effects at lower doses than was previously thought...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919215/current-strategies-in-modification-of-plga-based-gene-delivery-system
#5
Mohammad Ramezani, Mahboubeh Ebrahimian, Maryam Hashemi
The successful gene therapy has been limited by safe and efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the target cells. Poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) are able to deliver drugs and gene efficiently. This formulation has several advantages in comparison with other formulations including improvement of solubility, stability, controlling of degradation and release of the entrapped agents. For application of PLGA as gene carrier, there exist many challenges. PLGA nanoparticles could protect the encapsulated DNA from in vivo degradation but the DNA release is slowl and their negative charge acts as a barrier to DNA incorporation and delivery...
December 5, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918644/self-assembled-supramolecular-nanogels-as-a-safe-and-effective-drug-delivery-vector-for-cancer-therapy
#6
Chih-Chia Cheng, Mei-Chih Liang, Zhi-Sheng Liao, Jyun-Jie Huang, Duu-Jong Lee
Simple construction and manipulation of low-molecular-weight supramolecular nanogels, based on the introduction of multiple hydrogen bonding interactions, with the desired physical properties to achieve effective and safe delivery of drugs for cancer therapy remain highly challenging. Herein, a novel supramolecular oligomer cytosine (Cy)-polypropylene glycol containing self-complementary multiple hydrogen-bonded Cy moieties is developed, which undergoes spontaneous self-assembly to form nanosized particles in an aqueous environment...
December 5, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916824/graphene-oxide-nanoribbons-induce-autophagic-vacuoles-in-neuroblastoma-cell-lines
#7
Emanuela Mari, Stefania Mardente, Emanuela Morgante, Marco Tafani, Emanuela Lococo, Flavia Fico, Federica Valentini, Alessandra Zicari
Since graphene nanoparticles are attracting increasing interest in relation to medical applications, it is important to understand their potential effects on humans. In the present study, we prepared graphene oxide (GO) nanoribbons by oxidative unzipping of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and analyzed their toxicity in two human neuroblastoma cell lines. Neuroblastoma is the most common solid neoplasia in children. The hallmark of these tumors is the high number of different clinical variables, ranging from highly metastatic, rapid progression and resistance to therapy to spontaneous regression or change into benign ganglioneuromas...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916516/local-dose-enhancement-of-proton-therapy-by-ceramic-oxide-nanoparticles-investigated-with-geant4-simulations
#8
Sally McKinnon, Susanna Guatelli, Sebastien Incerti, Vladimir Ivanchenko, Konstantin Konstantinov, Stéphanie Corde, Michael Lerch, Moeava Tehei, Anatoly Rosenfeld
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to enhance X-ray radiotherapy and proton therapy of cancer. The effectiveness of radiation damage is enhanced in the presence of high atomic number (high-Z) NPs due to increased production of low energy, higher linear energy transfer (LET) secondary electrons when NPs are selectively internalized by tumour cells. This work quantifies the local dose enhancement produced by the high-Z ceramic oxide NPs Ta2O5 and CeO2, in the target tumour, for the first time in proton therapy, by means of Geant4 simulations...
December 1, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915417/retrospective-analysis-of-10-000-implants-from-insertion-up-to-20%C3%A2-years-analysis-of-implantations-using-augmentative-procedures
#9
Wolfram Knöfler, Thomas Barth, Reinhard Graul, Dietmar Krampe
BACKGROUND: A sufficient amount of bone is essential to ensure long-term stability of dental implants. To support the bone regeneration process, different techniques and materials are available. It has been questioned whether these techniques and materials may compromise implant survival compared to pristine bone. To properly answer this question, long-term stability up to 20.2 years after insertion of implants placed in augmented or non-augmented sites was retrospectively analysed. METHODS: Retrospective analysis included 10,158 implants from 3095 patients in three private practices who underwent implant therapy with or without bone augmentation procedures...
December 2016: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915198/a-new-approach-to-the-rapid-separation-of-isomeric-compounds-in-a-silybum-marianum-extract-using-uhplc-core-shell-column-with-f5-stationary-phase
#10
Jakub Fibigr, Dalibor Šatínský, Petr Solich
In this paper, a new ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method using a core-shell column with a pentafluorophenyl stationary phase for separation of seven active compounds of a Silybum marianum extract was developed and validated. Silymarin, an extract of Silybum marianum, is known for its abilities to protect the liver from toxic substances, hepatitis therapy, and anti-tumour activity. Silymarin is currently being widely used in commercial preparations and herbal teas. Separation of seven compounds contained in the Silybum marianum extract (taxifolin, silychristin, silydianin, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B) and other substances occurring in real samples was performed on the Kinetex 1...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915023/anisotropic-noble-metal-nanoparticles-synthesis-surface-functionalization-and-applications-in-biosensing-bioimaging-drug-delivery-and-theranostics
#11
REVIEW
Gokul Paramasivam, Namitharan Kayambu, Arul Maximus Rabel, Ashok K Sundramoorthy, Anandhakumar Sundaramurthy
Anisotropic nanoparticles have fascinated scientists and engineering communities for over a century because of their unique physical and chemical properties. In recent years, continuous advances in design and fabrication of anisotropic nanoparticles have opened new avenues for application in various areas of biology, chemistry and physics. Anisotropic nanoparticles have the plasmon absorption in the visible as well as near-infrared (NIR) region, which enable them to be used for crucial applications such as biological imaging, medical diagnostics and therapy ("theranostics")...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914093/lsmo-nanoparticles-coated-by-hyaluronic-acid-for-magnetic-hyperthermia
#12
Yuanwei Chen, Ying Wang, Xi Liu, Mai Lu, Jiangwei Cao, Tao Wang
Magnetic hyperthermia with the treating temperature range of 41-46 °C is an alternative therapy for cancer treatment. In this article, lanthanum strontium manganates (La1-x Sr x MnO3, 0.25 ≤ × ≤ 0.35) magnetic nanoparticles coated by hyaluronic acid (HA) which possesses the ability of targeting tumor cells were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method combined with a high-energy ball milling technique. The crystal structure, morphology, magnetic properties of the HA-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and their heating ability under alternating magnetic field were investigated...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913127/co-assembly-of-doxorubicin-and-curcumin-targeted-micelles-for-synergistic-delivery-and-improving-anti-tumor-efficacy
#13
Wenzhuan Ma, Qiang Guo, Ying Li, Xiaohui Wang, Jinling Wang, Pengfei Tu
Chemotherapeutic drugs have a series of limitations in anti-tumor treatment, mainly including multidrug resistance (MDR) and serious adverse reactions. Co-delivery system with two or more synergistic therapeutic drugs is an effective strategy to settle these limitations. In this study, active tumor-targeted co-delivery micelles (DOX+Cur)-PMs, with two synergistic drugs of a therapeutic drug of doxorubicin (DOX) and a chemosensitizer of curcumin (Cur) co-encapsulated into hyaluronic acid-vitamin E succinate (HA-VES) graft copolymer, were prepared and delivered simultaneously into tumor cells for improving therapeutic effects of DOX...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911139/volumetric-response-of-intracranial-meningioma-after-photon-or-particle-irradiation
#14
Petra Mozes, Jan Oliver Dittmar, Daniel Habermehl, Eric Tonndorf-Martini, Katalin Hideghety, Anne Dittmar, Jürgen Debus, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas are usually slow growing, well circumscribed intracranial tumors. In symptom-free cases observation with close follow-up imaging could be performed. Symptomatic meningiomas could be surgically removed and/or treated with radiotherapy. The study aimed to evaluate the volumetric response of intracranial meningiomas at different time points after photon, proton, and a mixed photon and carbon ion boost irradiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In Group A 38 patients received proton therapy (median dose: 56 GyE in 1...
December 2, 2016: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908720/preparation-and-characterization-of-polymeric-nanoparticles-surface-modified-with-chitosan-for-target-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer
#15
Mohamed M Badran, Mohsen M Mady, Magdy M Ghannam, Faiyaz Shakeel
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded chitosan (C) coated polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles [NPs] (C-5-FU PLGA NPs) and polycaprolactone [PCL] (C-5-FU PCL NPs) were employed as the carriers for cancer treatment. The prepared NPs showed the spherical shape of NPs with the particle size in the range of 188.1-302.2nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of <0.30. C-coated NPs converted zeta potential from negative to positive value with small modification in particle size distribution. The entrapment efficiency of 5-FU was recorded in the range of 32-51%...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903900/autoregulation-of-mbnl1-function-by-exon-1-exclusion-from-mbnl1-transcript
#16
Patryk Konieczny, Ewa Stepniak-Konieczna, Katarzyna Taylor, Łukasz J Sznajder, Krzysztof Sobczak
Muscleblind-like proteins (MBNLs) are regulators of RNA metabolism. During tissue differentiation the level of MBNLs increases, while their functional insufficiency plays a crucial role in myotonic dystrophy (DM). Deep sequencing of RNA molecules cross-linked to immunoprecipitated protein particles (CLIP-seq) revealed that MBNL1 binds to MBNL1 exon 1 (e1) encoding both the major part of 5'UTR and an amino-terminal region of MBNL1 protein. We tested several hypotheses regarding the possible autoregulatory function of MBNL1 binding to its own transcript...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903435/lack-of-effect-of-selected-sunscreens-applied-on-ex-vivo-human-skin-for-5-methyl-aminolevulinic-acid-penetration-and-protoporphyrin-ix-photoactivation
#17
Hanan Osman-Ponchet, Karine Sevin, Alexandre Gaborit, Magali Kouidhi, Johanna Hanaizi, Pierre Comby, Bernard Ruty, Guy Bouvier
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a successful treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers. Methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) is metabolized to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which accumulates in the skin lesion and which generates a painful photochemical toxic reaction upon red light exposure. PDT using daylight (DL) exposure is now used to reduce pain and subjects are advised to protect the areas with sunscreen. This work investigated the effect of sunscreen on MAL penetration and PpIX photoactivation in ex vivo human skin...
November 26, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901092/a-microfluidic-platform-to-design-crosslinked-hyaluronic-acid-nanoparticles-chanps-for-enhanced-mri
#18
Maria Russo, Paolo Bevilacqua, Paolo Antonio Netti, Enza Torino
Recent advancements in imaging diagnostics have focused on the use of nanostructures that entrap Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Contrast Agents (CAs), without the need to chemically modify the clinically approved compounds. Nevertheless, the exploitation of microfluidic platforms for their controlled and continuous production is still missing. Here, a microfluidic platform is used to synthesize crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid NanoParticles (cHANPs) in which a clinically relevant MRI-CAs, gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA), is entrapped...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899526/dynamic-pre-bcr-homodimers-fine-tune-autonomous-survival-signals-in-b-cell-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#19
M Frank Erasmus, Ksenia Matlawska-Wasowska, Ichiko Kinjyo, Avanika Mahajan, Stuart S Winter, Li Xu, Michael Horowitz, Diane S Lidke, Bridget S Wilson
The pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) is an immature form of the BCR critical for early B lymphocyte development. It is composed of the membrane-bound immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain, surrogate light chain components, and the signaling subunits Igα and Igβ. We developed monovalent quantum dot (QD)-labeled probes specific for Igβ to study the behavior of pre-BCRs engaged in autonomous, ligand-independent signaling in live B cells. Single-particle tracking revealed that QD-labeled pre-BCRs engaged in transient, but frequent, homotypic interactions...
November 29, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899320/preparation-characterization-and-in-vivo-pharmacokinetic-study-of-pvp-modified-oleanolic-acid-liposomes
#20
Yan Liu, Xiao Luo, Xiaochao Xu, Nannan Gao, Xiaohong Liu
The primary purpose of the present study was to design and optimize a liposomal formulation of the poorly water-soluble drug oleanolic acid (OA) to improve its oral bioavailability, and prolong the duration of therapeutic drug level. Liposomes containing a soybean lecithin and cholesterol lipid bilayer, a protective hydrophilic polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 (PVP-K30) coating, and a protective bile salt, sodium deoxycholate, were prepared by a thin-film dispersion method coupled with sonication. Several properties of the PVP-modified OA liposomes (PVPOALs), including surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency were extensively characterized...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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