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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231948/a-tailored-nanosheet-decorated-with-a-metallized-dendrimer-for-angiography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-combined-chemotherapy
#1
Guilong Zhang, Ruohong Du, Junchao Qian, Xiaojia Zheng, Xiaohe Tian, Dongqing Cai, Jiacai He, Yiqun Wu, Wei Huang, Yuanyin Wang, Xin Zhang, Kai Zhong, Duohong Zou, Zhengyan Wu
Considering the chemical exchange between gadolinium centers and water protons, nanosystems comprising gadolinium conjugated with high specific area nanocarriers might serve as more robust clinical tools for diagnosis and imaging-guided therapy. Herein, a pH-responsive nanosystem containing graphene oxide conjugated with a folic acid- and gadolinium-labeled dendrimer (FA-GCGLD) to boost its T1 contrast ability was developed, and doxorubicin (DOX) and colchicine (COLC) were efficiently loaded onto this nanosystem (FA-GCGLD-DOX/COLC)...
December 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231746/is-there-a-role-for-charcoal-in-palliative-diarrhea-management
#2
Helen Senderovich, Megan J Vierhout
OBJECTIVE: Symptomatic therapy is an intervention centred entirely on the symptom management and pain relief. The utilization of charcoal in diarrhea management is a pertinent example of this type of medical care. Diarrhea is an ailment defined as an escalation in the frequency of bowel movements, unformed stool, abdominal discomfort and pain. These symptoms can be extremely debilitating for patients and effectuate frustration as well as severely damping mood and overall well-being. This narrative review aims to explore the use of charcoal in diarrhea management and its possible benefits in alleviating discomfort associated with these symptoms...
December 12, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230857/chemical-aspects-of-metal-ion-chelation-in-the-synthesis-and-application-antibody-based-radiotracers
#3
Eszter Boros, Jason P Holland
Radiometals are becoming increasingly accessible and are utilized frequently in the design of radiotracers for imaging and therapy. Nuclear properties ranging from the emission of γ-ray and ®+ -particles (imaging) to Auger electron, ®- and α-particles (therapy) in combination with long half-lives are ideally matched with the relatively long biological half-life of monoclonal antibodies in vivo. Radiometal labelling of antibodies requires the incorporation of a metal chelate onto the monoclonal antibody...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230215/potential-effects-of-horizontal-gene-exchange-in-the-human-gut
#4
Aaron Lerner, Torsten Matthias, Rustam Aminov
Many essential functions of the human body are dependent on the symbiotic microbiota, which is present at especially high numbers and diversity in the gut. This intricate host-microbe relationship is a result of the long-term coevolution between the two. While the inheritance of mutational changes in the host evolution is almost exclusively vertical, the main mechanism of bacterial evolution is horizontal gene exchange. The gut conditions, with stable temperature, continuous food supply, constant physicochemical conditions, extremely high concentration of microbial cells and phages, and plenty of opportunities for conjugation on the surfaces of food particles and host tissues, represent one of the most favorable ecological niches for horizontal gene exchange...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229377/dosimetric-effects-of-saline-versus-water-filled-balloon-applicators-for-iort-using-the-model-s700-electronic-brachytherapy-source
#5
Gage Redler, Alistair Templeton, Heming Zhen, Julius Turian, Damian Bernard, James C H Chu, Katherine L Griem, Yixiang Liao
PURPOSE: The Xoft Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy System (Xoft, Inc., San Jose, CA) is a viable option for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) treatment of early-stage breast cancer. The low-energy (50-kVp) X-ray source simplifies shielding and increases relative biological effectiveness but increases dose distribution sensitivity to medium composition. Treatment planning systems typically assume homogenous water for brachytherapy dose calculations, including precalculated atlas plans for Xoft IORT...
December 8, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228803/in-vitro-human-placental-studies-to-support-an-adenovirus-mediated-vegf-d%C3%AE-n%C3%AE-c-maternal-gene-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-early-onset-fetal-growth-restriction
#6
Michelle Desforges, Alexandra Rogue Rogue, Nick Pearson, Carlo Rossi, Elena Olearo, Roy Forster, Mark Lees, Neil Sebire, Susan Greenwood, Colin Sibley, Anna L David, Paul Brownbill
Severe fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects 1:500 pregnancies, is untreatable and causes serious neonatal morbidity and death. Reduced uterine blood flow (UBF) is one cause. Transduction of uterine arteries in normal and FGR animal models using an adenovirus (Ad) encoding VEGF isoforms, increases UBF and improves fetal growth in utero. Understanding potential adverse consequences of this therapy before first-in-woman clinical application is essential. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Ad...
December 11, 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225692/recent-advances-in-radiation-oncology
#7
REVIEW
Cristina Garibaldi, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Giulia Marvaso, Samantha Dicuonzo, Damaris Patricia Rojas, Federica Cattani, Anna Starzyńska, Delia Ciardo, Alessia Surgo, Maria Cristina Leonardi, Rosalinda Ricotti
Radiotherapy (RT) is very much a technology-driven treatment modality in the management of cancer. RT techniques have changed significantly over the past few decades, thanks to improvements in engineering and computing. We aim to highlight the recent developments in radiation oncology, focusing on the technological and biological advances. We will present state-of-the-art treatment techniques, employing photon beams, such as intensity-modulated RT, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, stereotactic body RT and adaptive RT, which make possible a highly tailored dose distribution with maximum normal tissue sparing...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225514/elevation-of-small-dense-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-a-possible-antecedent-of-atherogenic-lipoprotein-phenotype-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-in-jos-north-central-nigeria
#8
Kenneth O Inaku, Obasola O Ogunkeye, Fayeofori M Abbiyesuku, Evelyn K Chuhwak, Christian O Isichei, Lucius C Imoh, Noel O Amadu, Alexander O Abu
Background: The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing. Dyslipidaemia is a known complication of diabetes mellitus manifesting frequently as cardiovascular diseases and stoke. Elevation of small, dense low density lipoprotein has been recognised as a component of the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype associated with cardiovascular complications. We speculate that the elevation of this lipoprotein particle may be the antecedent of the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. This study therefore aims to determine the pattern of dyslipidaemia among diabetes mellitus patients in Jos, North-Central Nigeria...
2017: BMC Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225417/comparison-of-raft-derived-poly-vinylpyrolidone-verses-poly-oligoethyleneglycol-methacrylate-for-the-stabilization-of-glycosylated-gold-nanoparticles
#9
Nga Sze Ieong, Caroline I Biggs, Mark Walker, Matthew I Gibson
Carbohydrates dictate many biological processes including infection by pathogens. Glycosylated polymers and nanomaterials which have increased affinity due to the cluster glycoside effect, are therefore useful tools to probe function, but also as prophylactic therapies or diagnostic tools. Here, the effect of polymer structure on the coating of gold nanoparticles is studied in the context of grafting density, buffer stability and in a lectin binding assay. RAFT polymerization is used to generate poly(oligoethyleneglycol methacrylates) and poly(N-vinyl pyrolidones) with a thiol end-group for subsequent immobilization onto the gold...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221804/the-impact-of-the-cd9-tetraspanin-on-lentivirus-infectivity-and-exosome-secretion
#10
Kai O Böker, Nicolas Lemus-Diaz, Rafael Rinaldi Ferreira, Lara Schiller, Stefan Schneider, Jens Gruber
Efficient transduction tools are a hallmark for both research and therapy development. Here, we introduce new insights into the generation of lentiviral vectors with improved performance by utilizing producer cells with increased production rates of extracellular vesicles through CD9 overexpression. Most human cells secrete small vesicles from their surface (microvesicles) or intraluminal endosome-derived membranes (exosomes). In particular, enhanced levels of the tetraspanin CD9 result in significantly increased numbers of extracellular vesicles with exosome-like features that were secreted from four different human cell lines...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221445/study-protocol-of-hgcsg1404-snow-study-a-phase-i-ii-trial-of-combined-chemotherapy-of-s-1-nab-paclitaxel-and-oxaliplatin-administered-biweekly-to-patients-with-advanced-gastric-cancer
#11
Yasuyuki Kawamoto, Yoshito Komatsu, Satoshi Yuki, Kentaro Sawada, Tetsuhito Muranaka, Kazuaki Harada, Hiroshi Nakatsumi, Hiraku Fukushima, Atsushi Ishiguro, Masayoshi Dazai, Kazuteru Hatanaka, Michio Nakamura, Ichiro Iwanaga, Minoru Uebayashi, Susumu Sogabe, Yoshimitsu Kobayashi, Takuto Miyagishima, Kota Ono, Naoya Sakamoto, Yuh Sakata
BACKGROUND: In Japan, S-1 plus cisplatin (SP) regimen has become a standard therapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer. Moreover, the S-1 plus oxaliplatin regimen is now a standard treatment. Nab-paclitaxel was developed for chemotherapy of gastric cancer in Japanese clinical practice. Nab-paclitaxel, created with albumin-bound paclitaxel particles, has high transferability to tumour tissues and does not cause hypersensitivity reactions because of a different chemical composition compared with docetaxel and paclitaxel...
December 8, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219628/penetration-enhancer-containing-spanlastics-pecss-for-transdermal-delivery-of-haloperidol-in-vitro-characterization-ex-vivo-permeation-and-in-vivo-biodistribution-studies
#12
Abdurrahman M Fahmy, Doaa Ahmed El-Setouhy, Ahmed B Ibrahim, Basant A Habib, Saadia A Tayel, Noha A Bayoumi
Haloperidol (Hal) is one of the widely used antipsychotic drugs. When orally administered, it suffers from low bioavailability due to hepatic first pass metabolism. This study aimed at developing Hal-loaded penetration enhancer-containing spanlastics (PECSs) to increase transdermal permeation of Hal with sustained release. PECSs were successfully prepared using ethanol injection method showing reasonable values of percentage entrapment efficiency, particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. The statistical analysis of the ex vivo permeation parameters led to the choice of F1L - made of Span® 60 and Tween® 80 at the weight ratio of 4:1 along with 1% w/v Labrasol® - as the selected formula (SF)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214223/novel-elvitegravir-nanoformulation-approach-to-suppress-the-viral-load-in-hiv-infected-macrophages
#13
Yuqing Gong, Pallabita Chowdhury, Narasimha M Midde, Mohammad A Rahman, Murali M Yallapu, Santosh Kumar
Purpose: Monocytes serve as sanctuary sites for HIV-1 from which virus is difficult to be eliminated. Therefore, an effective viral suppression in monocytes is critical for effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study focuses on a new strategy using nanoformulation to optimize the efficacy of ART drugs in HIV-infected monocytes. Methods: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based elvitegravir nanoparticles (PLGA-EVG) were prepared by nano-precipitation technique...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213338/particle-therapy-and-nanomedicine-state-of-art-and-research-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Sandrine Lacombe, Erika Porcel, Emanuele Scifoni
Cancer radiation therapy with charged particle beams, called particle therapy, is a new therapeutic treatment presenting major advantages when compared to conventional radiotherapy. Because ions have specific ballistic properties and a higher biological effectiveness, they are superior to x-rays. Numerous medical centres are starting in the world using mostly protons but also carbon ions as medical beams. Several investigations are attempting to reduce the cost/benefit ratio and enlarge the range of therapeutic indications...
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209594/genome-wide-search-for-competing-endogenous-rnas-responsible-for-the-effects-induced-by-ebola-virus-replication-and-transcription-using-a-trvlp-system
#15
Zhong-Yi Wang, Zhen-Dong Guo, Jia-Ming Li, Zong-Zheng Zhao, Ying-Ying Fu, Chun-Mao Zhang, Yi Zhang, Li-Na Liu, Jun Qian, Lin-Na Liu
Understanding how infected cells respond to Ebola virus (EBOV) and how this response changes during the process of viral replication and transcription are very important for establishing effective antiviral strategies. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide screen to identify long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and mRNAs differentially expressed during replication and transcription using a tetracistronic transcription and replication-competent virus-like particle (trVLP) system that models the life cycle of EBOV in 293T cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207843/biosynthesis-characterization-and-antibacterial-efficacy-of-silver-nanoparticles-derived-from-endophytic-fungi-against-p-gingivalis
#16
Kiran Rahul Halkai, Jayashree A Mudda, Vasundhara Shivanna, Vandana Rathod, Rahul S Halkai
Introduction: Microbial resistance to existing antimicrobial agents in periodontal therapy is a growing problem. Therefore, there is a need for development of new antimicrobial agents. Aim: To biosynthesize and characterize Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) using endophytic fungi and to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy against P. gingivalis. Materials and Methods: Cut leaf segments of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) were used to isolate the fungi...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206680/immune-therapies-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-focus-on-monoclonal-antibodies-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#17
Rita Assi, Hagop Kantarjian, Farhad Ravandi, Naval Daver
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the rationale, efficacy, and toxicity of a variety of immune approaches being evaluated in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) including naked and conjugated monoclonal antibodies, bispecific T-cell engager antibodies, and immune checkpoint blockade via antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed-death 1 (PD-1). RECENT FINDINGS: The stellar success of immune therapies that harness the power of T cells in solid tumors and an improved understanding of the immune system in patients with hematologic malignancies have resulted in major efforts to develop immune therapies for the treatment of patients with AML...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205941/application-of-aqueous-two-phase-micellar-system-to-improve-extraction-of-adenoviral-particles-from-cell-lysate
#18
João Vitor Dutra Molino, André Moreni Lopes, Daniela de Araújo Viana Marques, Priscila Gava Mazzola, Joas Lucas da Silva, Mario Hiroyuki Hirata, Rosário Dominguez Crespo Hirata, Maria Silvia Viccari Gatti, Adalberto Pessoa Júnior
Viral vectors are important in medical approaches, such as disease prevention and gene therapy, and their production depends on efficient pre-purification steps. In the present study, an aqueous two-phase micellar system (ATPMS) was evaluated to extract human adenovirus type 5 particles from a cell lysate. Adenovirus was cultured in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells to a concentration of 1.4 x 1010 particles/mL. Cells were lysed and the system formed by direct addition of Triton X-114 in a 23 full factorial design with center points...
December 4, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205621/multiparametric-characterization-of-response-to-anti-angiogenic-therapy-using-uspio-contrast-enhanced-mri-in-combination-with-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#19
Jana Kim, Eugene Kim, Leslie R Euceda, Dan E Meyer, Karina Langseth, Tone F Bathen, Siver A Moestue, Else Marie Huuse
BACKGROUND: Steady state susceptibility contrast (SSC)-MRI provides information on vascular morphology but is a rarely used method. PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of the ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIOs) GEH121333 for measuring tumor response to bevacizumab and compare this with gadolinium-based DCE-MRI. STUDY TYPE: Prospective preclinical animal model study. ANIMAL MODEL: Mice bearing subcutaneous TOV-21G human ovarian cancer xenografts treated with bevacizumab (n = 9) or saline (n = 9)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204901/cell-culture-based-production-of-defective-interfering-particles-for-influenza-antiviral-therapy
#20
Milena A Wasik, Luca Eichwald, Yvonne Genzel, Udo Reichl
Defective interfering particles (DIPs) lack an essential portion of the virus genome, but retain signals for replication and packaging, and therefore, interfere with standard virus (STV) replication. Due to this property, DIPs can be potential antivirals. The influenza A virus DIP DI244, generated during propagation in chicken eggs, has been previously described as a potential candidate for influenza antiviral therapy. As a cell culture-based manufacturing process would be more suitable to fulfill large-scale production needs of an antiviral and enables full process control in closed systems, we investigated options to produce DI244 in the avian cell line AGE1...
December 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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