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Particle therapy

Amir Shamloo, Saba Ahmad, Maede Momeni
Being the second cause of mortality across the globe, there is now a persistent effort to establish new cancer medication and therapies. Any accomplishment in treating cancers entails the existence of accurate identification systems empowering the early diagnosis. Recent studies indicate CTCs’ potential in cancer prognosis as well as therapy monitoring. The chief shortcoming with CTCs is that they are exceedingly rare cells in their clinically relevant concentration. Here, we simulated a microfluidic construct devised for immunomagnetic separation of the particles of interest from the background cells...
June 18, 2018: Biosensors
Marta Gambucci, Luigi Tarpani, Giulia Zampini, Giuseppina Massaro, Morena Nocchetti, Paola Sassi, Loredana Latterini
Trans-membrane proteins play important roles in the inter-cellular signaling to regulate the interactions among adjacent cells and influence cell fate. The study of the interactions between membrane proteins and nanomaterials is paramount for the design of nanomaterial-based therapies. In the present work, the fluorescence properties of the trans-membrane receptor Notch2 have been investigated. In particular, steady state and time resolved fluorescence methods have been used to characterize the emission of tryptophan residues of Notch2 and then this emission is used to monitor the impact of silver colloids on protein behavior...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Jie Feng, Yingyue Zhang, Simon A McManus, Kurt D Ristroph, Hoang D Lu, Kai Gong, Claire E White, Robert K Prud'homme
While the formulation of nanoparticle (NP) suspensions has been widely applied in materials and life science, the recovery of NPs from such a suspension into a solid state is practically important to confer long-term storage stability. However, solidification, while preserving the original nanoscale properties, remains a formidable challenge in the pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of NPs. Herein we combined flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) and spray-drying as a nanofabrication platform for NP formulation and recovery without compromising the dissolution kinetics of the active ingredient...
May 25, 2018: ACS Appl Nano Mater
Andreas Hillenbrand, Annika Beck, Wolfgang Kratzer, Tilmann Graeter, Thomas F E Barth, Julian Schmidberger, Peter Möller, Doris Henne-Bruns, Beate Gruener
PURPOSE: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a life-threatening helminthic disease. In humans, AE mostly affects the liver; the regional hepatic lymph nodes may be involved, indicating dissemination of AE from the liver. To achieve complete removal of the disease, enlarged hepatic lymph nodes may be resected during surgical treatment. We evaluated the frequency of affected lymph nodes by conventional microscopic and immunohistochemical analyses including detection of small particles of Echinococcus multilocularis (spem)...
June 16, 2018: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Majid Asadi-Ghalehni, Mohamad Javad Rasaee, Nabiollah Namvar Asl, Masood Khosravani, Masoumeh Rajabibazl, Saeed Khalili, Helmout Modjtahedi, Esmaeil Sadroddiny
Over expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in many human epithelial tumors has been correlated with disease progression and poor prognosis. EGFR-inhibiting immunotherapy has already been introduced in cancer therapy. Peptide displaying phage particles in eukaryotic hosts can behave as antigen carriers, able to activate the innate immune system and to elicit adaptive immunity. Herein, the M13-pAK8-VIII phagemid plasmid was engineered to contain the sequences for an EGFR mimotope along with the L2 extracellular domain of EGFR (EM-L2) which would produce the final peptide-phage vaccine...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Richa Shrivastava, Shruti Trivedi, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Mohammad Asif, Manish Kumar Chourasia, Amit Khanna, Smrati Bhadauria
Breast cancer is most frequently diagnosed cancer and fifth leading cause of death in women. About 20-30% of all breast cancers overexpress HER2/neu receptors. Lapatinib is a dual tyrosin kinase inhibitor of EGFR and HER2. It exhibits its anticancer effect via blocking intracellular domain of HER2 receptor in breast cancer. Lapatinib belongs to class II of BSC classification due to its poor solubility restricting its clinical application. Due to presence of HER2 receptor on cardiomyocytes, it is associated with generation of cardiotoxicity...
June 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jessica Fernandes, M Vivek Ghate, Sanchari Basu Mallik, Shaila A Lewis
Saxagliptin (SAX) is dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme inhibitor molecule now explored for its activity in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease. Being extremely hydrophilic, it is unable to permeate the blood-brain barrier by the conventional therapy modalities. Further repurposing the drug, SAX is associated with a reduction in the blood sugar level in the periphery. In the present study, the chitosan-L-valine conjugate was synthesized by carbodiimide chemistry. The conjugate was then used to prepare nanoparticles encapsulating SAX...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Chris J Packard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The advent of combination therapy to provide LDL lowering beyond that achieved with statins necessitates the development of greater understanding of how drugs work together, what changes occur in key lipoprotein fractions, and what residual risk remains. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials of agents that, when added to statins, generate profound LDL lowering have been successful in reducing further the risk of cardiovascular disease. LDL cholesterol can be now decreased to unprecedented levels, so the focus of attention then shifts to other apolipoprotein B-containing, atherogenic lipoprotein classes such as lipoprotein(a) and remnants of the metabolism of triglyceride-rich particles...
June 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Ye Yuan, Weijie Du, Jiaqi Liu, Wenya Ma, Lai Zhang, Zhimin Du, Benzhi Cai
The stem cell-based therapy has emerged as the promising therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Recently, increasing evidence suggest stem cell-derived active exosomes are important communicators among cells in the heart via delivering specific substances to the adjacent/distant target cells. These exosomes and their contents such as certain proteins, miRNAs and lncRNAs exhibit huge beneficial effects on preventing heart damage and promoting cardiac repair. More importantly, stem cell-derived exosomes are more effective and safer than stem cell transplantation...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Arthur J A T Braat, Dik J Kwekkeboom, Boen L R Kam, Jaap J M Teunissen, Wouter W de Herder, Koen M A Dreijerink, Rob van Rooij, Gerard C Krijger, Hugo W A M de Jong, Maurice A A J van den Bosch, Marnix G E H Lam
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) consist of a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with various organs of origin. At diagnosis 21% of the patients with a Grade 1 NET and 30% with a Grade 2 NET have distant metastases. Treatment with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) shows a high objective response rate and long median survival after treatment. However, complete remission is almost never achieved. The liver is the most commonly affected organ in metastatic disease and is the most incriminating factor for patient survival...
June 15, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Maryam A Shetab Boushehri, Mona M A Abdel-Mottaleb, Arnaud Béduneau, Yann Pellequer, Alf Lamprecht
This study sought to develop a simple nanoparticle-based approach to enhance the efficiency and tolerability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent ligand of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), for immunotherapy in cancer. Despite holding promise within this context, the strong pro-inflammatory properties of LPS also account for its low tolerability given localized and systemic side effects, which restrict the administrable dosage. Herein, we investigated the effect of LPS decoration as a surface-active molecule on a polymeric matrix upon its efficiency and tolerability...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Khaled AbouAitah, Anna Swiderska-Sroda, Ahmed A Farghali, Jacek Wojnarowicz, Agata Stefanek, Stanislaw Gierlotka, Agnieszka Opalinska, Abdou K Allayeh, Tomasz Ciach, Witold Lojkowski
Naturally derived prodrugs have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, and antiviral effects. However, significant barriers inhibit their use in medicine, e.g. their hydrophobicity. In this comprehensive study, we investigated simple and effective nanoformulations consisting of amine-functionalized and conjugated with folic acid (FA) mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). Two types of MSNs were studied: KCC- 1, with mean size 324 nm and mean pore diameter 3.4 nm, and MCM - 41, with mean size 197 and pore diameter 2 nm...
May 29, 2018: Oncotarget
Wei Li, Wanqing Hou, Xiaomeng Guo, Lihua Luo, Qingpo Li, Chunqi Zhu, Jie Yang, Jiang Zhu, Yongzhong Du, Jian You
Recently, nano-sized ultrasound contrast agents encapsulating drugs for cancer diagnosis and therapy have attracted much attention. However, the ultrasound signal of these agents is too weak to obtain an ideal ultrasound imaging effect. Furthermore, conventional ultrasound contrast agents with strong echo signal are not suitable for drug delivery against cancer because of their large size. To circumvent this problem, phase-transition ultrasound contrast agents are believed to be an excellent choice. Methods: Liposomes co-encapsulating doxorubicin (DOX), hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS), and perfluorocarbon (PFC) were synthesized by film dispersion method...
2018: Theranostics
Carolina Assis P Vilela, Lucas Eduardo B Souza, Rubens C Siqueira, Rodrigo T Calado, Dimas T Covas, Jayter S Paula
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy is a promising treatment for several degenerative ocular diseases; however, no reproducible method of monitoring these cells into the eye has been established. The aim of this study was to describe successful bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to detect viable luciferase-expressing MSC in the eye. METHODS: Human donor MSC in culture were transduced with 50 μl luciferase lentiviral vector (three viral particles/cell) prior to intraocular injection...
June 13, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yazid Touileb, Hamid Ladjal, Michael Beuve, Behzad Shariat
The use of tetrahedral-based phantoms in conjunction with Monte Carlo dose calculation techniques has shown high capabilities in radiation therapy. However, the generation of a precise dose distribution can be very time-consuming since a fine tetrahedral mesh is required. In this work, we propose a new method that defines the density distribution of patient-specific tetrahedral phantoms, based upon the CT-scans and the direction of the particle beam. The final purpose is to coarsen the tetrahedral mesh to improve computational performance in Monte Carlo simulations while guaranteeing a precise dose distribution in the target volume...
June 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Yongqiang Li, Songyuan Yao, Yansheng Li, Mingkai Xu, Huiwen Zhang, Chenggang Zhang
CAR-T cell therapy that targets surface antigens to kill tumor cells specifically has recently become another cornerstone in tumor immunotherapy. In this study, a lentiviral expression plasmid of CAR targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was constructed by genetic engineering. The recombinant plasmid was co-transfected with other packaging plasmids into HEK293T cells by calcium phosphate precipitation to generate lenti-car, which are CAR lentiviral particles. HER2-specific CAR-T cells were obtained by transducing human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with lenti-car...
May 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Olwyn R Mahon, Aisling Dunne
It is now well established that intra-articular deposition of endogenous particulates, such as osteoarthritis-associated basic calcium phosphate crystals, gout-associated monosodium urate crystals, and calcium deposition disease-associated calcium pyrophosphate crystals, contributes to joint destruction through the production of cartilage-degrading enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, exogenous wear-debris particles, generated from prosthetic implants, drive periprosthetic osteolysis which impacts on the longevity of total joint replacements...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sungtae Kim, Kyung-Seok Hu, Ui-Won Jung
Bone regeneration and reosseointegration around a dental implant were radiographically and histologically analyzed after regenerative treatment for peri-implantitis, using a case from a human autopsy. A block specimen including the tissue around the implants was obtained from the patient, who died from cancer 20 months after regenerative surgery using a synthetic bone substitute to treat peri-implantitis. Microcomputed tomographic and histologic analyses were performed. Three-wall intrabony defects at the implant placed at the site of the mandibular left first molar and a circumferential defect at the implant at the site of the mandibular left second molar were substantially filled with newly formed bone and residual bone substitute particles, and reosseointegration on the previously exposed implant surface was histologically observed...
July 2018: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
Nikki A Thiele, Justin J Wilson
The α-emitting radionuclide actinium-225 possesses nuclear properties that are highly promising for use in targeted α therapy (TAT), a therapeutic strategy that employs α particle emissions to destroy tumors. A key factor, however, that may hinder the clinical use of actinium-225 is the poor understanding of its coordination chemistry, which creates challenges for the development of suitable chelation strategies for this ion. In this article, we provide an overview of the known chemistry of actinium and a summary of the chelating agents that have been explored for use in actinium-225-based TAT...
June 11, 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Prashant Chandrasekharan, Zhi Wei Tay, Xinyi Yedda Zhou, Elaine Yu, Ryan Orendorff, Daniel Hensley, Quincy Huynh, King Long Barry Fung, Caylin Colson VanHook, Patrick Goodwill, Bo Zheng, Steven Conolly
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), introduced at the beginning of the twenty-first century, is emerging as a promising diagnostic tool in addition to the current repertoire of medical imaging modalities. Using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), that are available for clinical use, MPI produces high contrast and highly sensitive tomographic images with absolute quantitation, no tissue attenuation at-depth, and there are no view limitations. The MPI signal is governed by the Brownian and Néel relaxation behavior of the particles...
June 11, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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