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Particle therapy

Ming Ma, Fei Yan, Minghua Yao, Zijun Wei, Dongliang Zhou, Heliang Yao, Hairong Zheng, Hangrong Chen, Jianlin Shi
Entirely differing from the common templating-based multistep strategy in fabricating multifunctional hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs), a facile and template-free synthetic strategy has been established in constructing a unique hollow/mesoporous organosilica nanocapsule concurrently encapsulating both isopentyl acetate (PEA) liquid and superparamagnetic iron oxides inside (denoted as PEA@OSNCs). This novel material exhibits ultrasmall and uniform particle size (~82 nm), high surface area (~534 m2 g-1) and excellent colloidal stability in aqueous solution...
October 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nghi C Nguyen, Muhammad Shah, Leonard J Appleman, Rahul Parikh, James M Mountz
Background and Purpose. Radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo®, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.) is the first α-particle emitter therapeutic agent approved by the FDA, with benefits in overall survival and delay in symptomatic skeletal event for patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Recent post hoc analyses of the phase III ALSYMPCA trial support the previously established safety profile as well as therapeutic effect and clinical outcome of Radium-223. Currently, Radium-223 is approved as a single agent therapy for metastatic CRPC...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Imaging
S Anandhakumar, G Krishnamoorthy, K M Ramkumar, A M Raichur
In recent years, nanoparticles (NPs) based on biopolymers or peptides are gaining popularity for the encapsulation and release of drug molecules, especially for cancer therapy, due to their ability for targeted and controlled release. The use of collagen peptide (CP) for the preparation of chitosan (CN) NPs is especially interesting as it results in NPs that are stable under physiological conditions. In this work, mono-dispersed pH responsive CPCN NPs of about 100nm were prepared via ionic gelation method by simple and mild co-precipitation of CN and CP...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Giulia Marvaso, Barbara Vischioni, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Delia Ciardo, Piero Fossati, Tommaso Giandini, Sara Morlino, Mauro Carrara, Paola Romanelli, Elvio Russi, Francesca Valvo, Riccardo Valdagni, Roberto Orecchia
Hadrontherapy has been in constant progress in the past decades. Due to the increasing interest in this field and the spreading of the technique in Italy and worldwide, the Italian Society of Radiation Oncology surveyed (by an online survey) its members regarding their perception of hadrontherapy. The survey outline addressed different items all related to hadrontherapy, such as: demographics (3 items), personal knowledge (5 items), actual use in clinical practice (5 items), and future perspectives and development (5 items)...
October 21, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
H Kumon, Y Ariyoshi, K Sasaki, T Sadahira, M Araki, S Ebara, H Yanai, M Watanabe, Y Nasu
As the First-In-Human study of in situ gene therapy using an adenovirus vector carrying the human REIC (reduced expression in immortalized cell)/Dkk-3 gene (Ad-REIC), we conducted neoadjuvant intraprostatic injections in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients with recurrence probability of 35% or more within 5 years following RP, as calculated by Kattan's nomogram, were enrolled. Patients received two ultrasound-guided intratumoral injections at 2-week intervals, followed by RP 6 weeks after the second injection...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Pelin Erkoc, Ahmet Cingöz, Tugba Bagci Onder, Seda Kizilel
Overcoming drug resistance is a major challenge for cancer therapy. Tumor necrosis factor α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potent therapeutic as an activator of apoptosis, particularly in tumor but not in healthy cells. However, its efficacy is limited by the resistance of tumor cell populations to the therapeutic substance. Here, we have addressed this limitation through the development of a controlled release system, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive and arg-gly-asp-ser (RGDS) peptide functionalized poly (ethylene-glycol) (PEG) particles which are synthesized via visible-light-induced water-in-water emulsion polymerization...
October 20, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Junyi Che, Anqi Tao, Shun Chen, Xiaoming Li, Yi Zhao, Weien Yuan
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has increased the hope for highly-efficient treatment of gene-related diseases. However, the stable and efficient delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids is a prerequisite for the successful clinical translation of RNA interfering therapy. To achieve this, we condensed the low molecular weight polyethyleneimine (PEI, Mw < 2000) with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde (PDA) to synthesize a biologically responsive and degradable cationic polymer (abbreviated to PDAPEI) which was utilized as a gene vector for the delivery of a VEGF-A shRNA expression plasmid DNA (pDNA)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bushra Jamil, Rashda Abbasi, Shahid Abbasi, Muhammad Imran, Siffat U Khan, Ayesha Ihsan, Sundus Javed, Habib Bokhari, Muhammad Imran
Natural antimicrobial agents, particularly essential oils present an excellent alternative to current antibiotics due to their potent and broad-spectrum antimicrobial potential, unique mechanisms of action and low tendency to induce resistance. However their potential as a viable therapeutic alternative is greatly compromised due to their hydrophobic and volatile nature. The objective of the current research was to explore the anti-pathogenic potential of essential oils in a bio-based nano-carrier system. Six different essential oils were tested on multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chu-Qiang Qin, Dong-Sheng Huang, Chi Zhang, Bin Song, Jian-Bin Huang, Yue Ding
BACKGROUND: Aseptic loosening is a significant impediment to joint implant longevity. Prosthetic wear particles are postulated to play a central role in the onset and progression of periprosthetic osteolysis, leading to aseptic loosening of the prosthesis. METHODS: We investigated the inhibitory effects of a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA that targets the TNF-alpha gene on the particle-induced inflammatory and osteolytic changes via macrophages both in vitro and in vivo...
October 18, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Petra Füredi, Zsófia Edit Pápay, Kristóf Kovács, Borbála Dalmadi Kiss, Krisztina Ludányi, István Antal, Imre Klebovich
The number of topical fungal infections is growing, mostly owing to immunosuppressive therapy. Several topical fungal infections, such as eye mycoses, can be treated by local administration of antimycotic drugs. One major group of the antifungal agents is triazole, such as voriconazole (VCZ), which is used as the first line treatment of aspergillosis. A disadvantage of VCZ is its low water solubility making the drug difficult to administer in a liquid preparation. The lipid-based nanoparticles (LNP) have attracted increasing attention due to their advantageous properties...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Dick C Chan, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism leads to increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. We highlight the findings from recent studies of the effect of lipid-regulating therapies on apolipoprotein metabolism in humans employing endogenous labelling with stable isotopically labelled isotopomers. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplementation and niacin treatment both reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels by decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB-100 (apoB) and apoB-48-containing chylomicron particles in obese and/or type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Jake S Burrell, Simon Walker-Samuel, Jessica K R Boult, Lauren C J Baker, Yann Jamin, Jane Halliday, John C Waterton, Simon P Robinson
The aim of this study was to use the combined carbogen-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (CUSPIO) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, which uses spatial correlations in independent susceptibility imaging biomarkers, to investigate and compare the impact of tumor size and anatomical site on vascular structure and function in vivo. Mice bearing either subcutaneous or orthotopic PC3 LN3 prostate tumors were imaged at 7 T, using a multi-gradient echo sequence to quantify R2, before and during carbogen (95% O2/5% CO2) breathing, and subsequently following intravenous administration of USPIO particles...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Maíra N Pereira, Heidi L Schulte, Natane Duarte, Eliana M Lima, Livia L Sá-Barreto, Tais Gratieri, Guilherme M Gelfuso, Marcilio S S Cunha-Filho
Currently marketed minoxidil formulations present inconveniences that ranges from a grease hard aspect they leave on the hair to more serious adverse reactions as scalp dryness and irritation. In this paper we propose a novel approach for minoxidil sulphate (MXS) delivery based on a solid effervescent formulation. The aim was to investigate whether the particle mechanical movement triggered by effervescence would lead to higher follicle accumulation. Preformulation studies using thermal, spectroscopic and morphological analysis demonstrated the compatibility between effervescent salts and the drug...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
E C Simpson
PURPOSE: Positron emitting isotopes such as (11)C and (10)C can be used for vital dose verification in hadron therapy. These isotopes are produced when the high energy (12)C primary beam particles undergo nuclear reactions within the patient. METHODS: We discuss a model for calculating cross sections for the production (11)C in (12)C+(12)C collisions, applicable at hadron therapy energies. RESULTS: Good agreement with the available cross section measurements is found for (12)C(-1n), though more detailed, systematic measurements would be very valuable...
October 11, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Brent F B Huisman, J M Létang, É Testa, D Sarrut
There is interest in the particle therapy community in using prompt gammas (PGs), a natural byproduct of particle treatment, for range verification and eventually dose control. However, PG production is a rare process and therefore estimation of PGs exiting a patient during a proton treatment plan executed by a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation converges slowly. Recently, different approaches to accelerating the estimation of PG yield have been presented. Sterpin et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 4915-46) described a fast analytic method, which is still sensitive to heterogeneities...
October 14, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Igor Slivac, David Guay, Mathias Mangion, Juliette Champeil, Bruno Gaillet
Delivery of nucleic acid-based molecules in human cells is a highly studied approach for the treatment of several disorders including monogenic diseases and cancers. Non-viral vectors for DNA and RNA transfer, although in general less efficient than virus-based systems, are particularly well adapted mostly due to the absence of biosafety concerns. Non-viral methods could be classified in two main groups: physical and vector-assisted delivery systems. Both groups comprise several different methods, none of them universally applicable...
October 14, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
C M Wong, L A Nash, J Del Papa, K L Poulin, T Falls, J C Bell, R J Parks
When injected directly into a tumor mass, adenovirus (Ad) vectors only transduce cells immediately along the injection tract. Expression of fusogenic proteins from the Ad vector can lead to syncytium formation, which efficiently spreads the therapeutic effect. Fusogenic proteins can also cause cancer cell death directly, and enhance the release of exosome-like particles containing tumor-associated antigens, which boosts the anti-tumor immune response. In this study, we have examined whether delivery of an early region 1 (E1)-deleted, replication-defective Ad vector encoding the reptilian reovirus p14 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein can provide therapeutic efficacy in an immunocompetent mouse tumor model...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
M H Jazayeri, H Amani, A A Pourfatollah, A Avan, G A Ferns, H Pazoki-Toroudi
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used to screen for prostate disease, although it has several limitations in its application as an organ-specific or cancer-specific marker. Furthermore, a highly specific/sensitive and/or label-free identification of PSA still remains a challenge in the diagnosis of prostate anomalies. We aimed to develop a gold nanoparticle (GNP)-conjugated anti-PSA antibody-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) as a novel approach to detect prostatic disease. A total of 25 nm colloidal gold particles were prepared followed by conjugation with anti-PSA pAb (GNPs-PSA pAb)...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Nicholas T Funderburg, Dihua Xu, Martin P Playford, Aditya A Joshi, Adriana Andrade, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Michael M Lederman, Nehal N Mehta
BACKGROUND: Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. METHODS: We report results from 39 ART-naïve participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir (RAL), emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24, and 48 weeks after ART initiation...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Fan Jia, Huan Miao, Xutao Zhu, Fuqiang Xu
Semliki Forest virus (SFV), a neurotropic virus, has been used to deliver heterologous genes into cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we constructed a reporter SFV4-FL-EGFP and found that it can deliver EGFP into neurons located at the injection site without disseminating throughout the brain. Lacking of the capsid gene of SFV4-FL-EGFP does not block its life cycle, while forming replication-competent virus-like particles (VLPs). These VLPs hold subviral genome by using the packaging sequence (PS) located within the nsP2 gene, and can transfer their genome into cells...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
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