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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684508/methylene-blue-ameliorates-olfactory-dysfunction-and-motor-deficits-in-a-chronic-mptp-probenecid-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
K C Biju, Robert C Evans, Kripa Shrestha, Daniel C B Carlisle, Jonathan Gelfond, Robert A Clark
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are very prominent and early features in Parkinson's disease (PD) and in animal models of PD. Thus, antioxidant therapy for PD has been proposed, but in clinical trials such strategies have met with very limited success. Methylene blue (MB), a small-molecule synthetic heterocyclic organic compound that acts as a renewable electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, manifesting robust antioxidant and cell energetics-enhancing properties, has recently been shown to have significant beneficial effects in reducing nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss and motor impairment in acute toxin models of PD...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682446/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-myelofibrosis-a-case-report-and-revision-of-literature
#2
F Del Porto, C Tatarelli, A Di Napoli, M Proietta
Blood cytopenia represents one of the diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may occur as the first symptom of the disease. Antibody-mediated peripheral destruction of blood cells is the main cause of cytopenia observed in patients affected by SLE, however, inflammatory anemia, nutritional deficiencies, immunosuppressive therapy and, more rarely, myelofibrosis (MF) have also been documented. In the literature, 45 cases of autoimmune MF (AIMF) and SLE have been previously reported. Here the 46 th case of a 43-year-old female with a SLE and an underhand cytopenia, with a review of the literature...
2018: Leukemia Research Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680937/intralesional-uridine-5-triphosphate-utp-treatment-induced-resistance-to-leishmania-amazonensis-infection-by-boosting-th-1-immune-responses-and-reactive-oxygen-species-production
#3
Camila Marques-da-Silva, Mariana M Chaves, Maria Luiza Thorstenberg, Vanessa R Figliuolo, Flávia S Vieira, Suzana P Chaves, José Roberto Meyer-Fernandes, Bartira Rossi-Bergmann, Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio, Robson Coutinho-Silva
Leishmania amazonensis is the etiologic agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, an immune-driven disease causing a range of clinical symptoms. Infections caused by L. amazonensis suppress the activation and function of immune cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and CD4+ T cells. In this study, we analyzed the course of infection as well as the leishmanicidal effect of intralesional UTP treatment in L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice. We found that UTP treatment reduced the parasitic load in both footpad and lymph node sites of infection...
April 21, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680514/brain-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-serum-biomarkers-in-schizophrenia
#4
REVIEW
Alireza Mohammadi, Ehsan Rashidi, Vahid Ghasem Amooeian
Over the last decade, finding a reliable biomarker for the early detection of schizophrenia (Scz) has been a topic of interest. The main goal of the current review is to provide a comprehensive view of the brain, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and serum biomarkers of Scz disease. Imaging studies have demonstrated that the volumes of the corpus callosum, thalamus, hippocampal formation, subiculum, parahippocampal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, and amygdala-hippocampal complex were reduced in patients diagnosed with Scz...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679709/unique-glandular-ex-vivo-th1-and-th17-receptor-motifs-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-patients-using-single-cell-analysis
#5
Alexandria Voigt, Katherine Bohn, Sukesh Sukumaran, Carol M Stewart, Indraneel Bhattacharya, Cuong Q Nguyen
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disease in which the underlying cause has yet to be elucidated. The main objective of this study was to determine the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires of individual infiltrating T helper (Th)-1 and 17 cells of pSS patients using single-cell analysis. Single-cell analysis of ex-vivo infiltrating T cells demonstrated that pSS patients had higher frequencies of activated Th17 cells. Single-cell TCR sequencing revealed that TCRβ variable (TRBV)3-1/joint (J)1-2 (CLFLSMSACVW) and TRBV20-1/J1-1 (SVGSTAIPP*T) were expressed by activated Th1 and Th17 cells in both cohorts...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678672/genetic-restriction-of-antigen-presentation-dictates-allergic-sensitization-and-disease-in-humanized-mice
#6
Alina Neunkirchner, Bernhard Kratzer, Cordula Köhler, Ursula Smole, Lukas F Mager, Klaus G Schmetterer, Doris Trapin, Victoria Leb-Reichl, Edward Rosloniec, Ronald Naumann, Lukas Kenner, Beatrice Jahn-Schmid, Barbara Bohle, Rudolf Valenta, Winfried F Pickl
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin(Ig)E-associated allergies result from misguided immune responses against innocuous antigens. CD4+ T lymphocytes are critical for initiating and perpetuating that process, yet the crucial factors determining whether an individual becomes sensitized towards a given allergen remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the key factors for sensitization and allergy towards a given allergen. METHODS: We here created a novel human T cell receptor(TCR) and human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1 (TCR-DR1) transgenic mouse model of asthma, based on the human-relevant major mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) pollen allergen Art v 1 to examine the critical factors for sensitization and allergy upon natural allergen exposure via the airways in the absence of systemic priming and adjuvants...
April 5, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678393/positive-correlations-between-free-vitamin-d-and-bone-variables-in-a-group-of-young-lebanese-women
#7
Abir Alwan, Maroun Rizkallah, Ghassan Maalouf, Joseph Matta, Fabienne Frenn, Angélique Barakat, Falah Bachour, Amer Sebaaly, Abdel-Jalil Berro, Nathalie Al Rassy, Mirza Howayek, Hassane Zouhal, Rawad El Hage
Optimizing bone mass in adulthood is of great importance to prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis in later age. Vitamin D is an essential component of bone health. Low-serum vitamin D is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), which is an important predictor of fracture risk. However, most cells, apart from renal tubular cells, are exposed to free rather than to total 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Whether free vitamin D would be a better marker than total vitamin D is still under debate. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationships between serum total vitamin D, vitamin D-binding protein (BP), free vitamin D, and bone parameters in a group of young Lebanese women...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678232/type-i-and-type-ii-cytokine-production-of-cd4-t-cells-in-immune-response-biased-dairy-cattle-around-calving
#8
M A Paibomesai, S Sharif, N Karrow, B A Mallard
The peripartum period is a period of high stress, transition and management changes for dairy cows. It is associated with higher incidence of both metabolic and pathogenic disease. Both antibody-(AMIR) and cell-(CMIR) mediated immune responses play a key role in the maintenance of health in mammals protecting against extracellular and intracellular pathogens, respectively. Generally, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) has been associated with CMIR, whereas interleukin 4 (IL-4) has been associated with AMIR bias, and interleukin 17 (IL-17A) is associated with pro-inflammatory...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675022/immunoporosis-immunology-of-osteoporosis-role-of-t-cells
#9
REVIEW
Rupesh K Srivastava, Hamid Y Dar, Pradyumna K Mishra
The role of immune system in various bone pathologies, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis is now well established. This had led to the emergence of a modern field of systems biology called as osteoimmunology, an integrated research between fields of immunology and bone biology under one umbrella. Osteoporosis is one of the most common inflammatory bone loss condition with more than 200 million individuals affected worldwide. T helper (Th) cells along with various other immune cells are major players involved in bone homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674474/genetic-deletion-of-il-interleukin-19-exacerbates-atherogenesis-in-il19-%C3%A3-ldlr-double-knockout-mice-by-dysregulation-of-mrna-stability-protein-hur-human-antigen-r
#10
Mitali Ray, Khatuna Gabunia, Christine N Vrakas, Allison B Herman, Farah Kako, Sheri E Kelemen, Laurel A Grisanti, Michael V Autieri
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that loss of IL (interleukin)-19 exacerbates atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Il19 -/- mice were crossed into Ldlr -/- (low-density lipoprotein receptor knock out) mice. Double knockout (dKO) mice had increased plaque burden in aortic arch and root compared with Ldlr -/- controls after 14 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD). dKO mice injected with 10 ng/g per day rmIL-19 had significantly less plaque compared with controls. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed dKO mice had increased systemic and intraplaque polarization of T cells and macrophages to proinflammatory Th 1 and M1 phenotypes, and also significantly increased TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α expression in spleen and aortic arch compared with Ldlr -/- controls...
April 19, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673285/tlr-agonist-combinations-that-stimulate-th-type-i-polarizing-responses-from-human-neonates
#11
Naveen Surendran, Andrea Simmons, Michael E Pichichero
Each year millions of neonates die due to vaccine preventable infectious diseases. Our study seeks to develop novel neonatal vaccines and improve immunogenicity of early childhood vaccines by incorporating TLR agonist-adjuvant combinations that overcome the inherent neonatal Th2 bias and stimulate Th1 polarizing response from neonatal APCs. We systematically stimulated cord blood mononuclear cells with single and multiple combinations of TLR agonists and measured levels of IL-12p70, IFN-γ, IFN-α, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β from cell culture supernatants...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669853/cd32-is-expressed-on-cells-with-transcriptionally-active-hiv-but-does-not-enrich-for-hiv-dna-in-resting-t-cells
#12
Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Leticia Kuri-Cervantes, Judith Grau-Exposito, Adam M Spivak, Racheal A Nell, Costin Tomescu, Surya Kumari Vadrevu, Leila B Giron, Carla Serra-Peinado, Meritxell Genescà, Josep Castellví, Guoxin Wu, Perla M Del Rio Estrada, Mauricio González-Navarro, Kenneth Lynn, Colin T King, Sai Vemula, Kara Cox, Yanmin Wan, Qingsheng Li, Karam Mounzer, Jay Kostman, Ian Frank, Mirko Paiardini, Daria Hazuda, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, Douglas Richman, Bonnie Howell, Pablo Tebas, Javier Martinez-Picado, Vicente Planelles, Maria J Buzon, Michael R Betts, Luis J Montaner
The persistence of HIV reservoirs, including latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells, is the major obstacle to cure HIV infection. CD32a expression was recently reported to mark CD4+ T cells harboring a replication-competent HIV reservoir during antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppression. We aimed to determine whether CD32 expression marks HIV latently or transcriptionally active infected CD4+ T cells. Using peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue of ART-treated HIV+ or SIV+ subjects, we found that most of the circulating memory CD32+ CD4+ T cells expressed markers of activation, including CD69, HLA-DR, CD25, CD38, and Ki67, and bore a TH 2 phenotype as defined by CXCR3, CCR4, and CCR6...
April 18, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669266/the-strength-of-reward-related-learning-depends-on-the-degree-of-activation-of-ventral-tegmental-area-dopamine-neurons
#13
E Galaj, R Ranaldi
We tested whether (1) the capacity of a reward-associated conditioned stimulus (CS) to cause conditioned activation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons is associated with its capacity to elicit conditioned approach responses and (2) whether the acquisition of these capacities by a CS requires N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor stimulation. Rats were trained to emit a conditioned approach response to a light CS that was previously paired with food and were treated systemically with scopolamine (a mACh receptor antagonist) or MK-801 a (NMDA receptor antagonist) either prior to each conditioning session (during which animals experienced paired CS and food presentations) or prior to the conditioned approach (CS-only)...
April 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665658/effect-of-the-anti-il-17-antibody-on-allergic-inflammation-in-an-obesity-related-asthma-model
#14
Lin Liang, Jung Hur, Ji Young Kang, Chin Kook Rhee, Young Kyoon Kim, Sook Young Lee
Background/Aims: The co-occurrence of obesity aggravates asthma symptoms. Diet-induced obesity increases helper T cell (TH) 17 cell differentiation in adipose tissue and the spleen. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pravastatin can potentially be used to treat asthma in obese patients by inhibiting interleukin 17 (IL-17) expression. This study investigated the combined effects of pravastatin and anti-IL-17 antibody treatment on allergic inflammation in a mouse model of obesity-related asthma...
April 19, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662488/subretinal-injection-of-hy-peptides-induces-systemic-antigen-specific-inhibition-of-effector-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-responses
#15
Julie Vendomèle, Safa Dehmani, Quentin Khebizi, Anne Galy, Sylvain Fisson
Purpose: Injection of an antigen into the anterior chamber of the eye induces a peripheral antigen-specific immune modulation mechanism, known as anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID). Delayed-type hypersensitivity experiments argue that the subretinal space (SR) of the eye displays properties similar to ACAID. However, no investigation was performed regarding the differential impact of a subretinal antigen injection on peripheral CD4+ versus CD8+ T cells, on the potential immune deviation regarding Th profiles, and on the antigen-specificity of the inhibition...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662438/cannabinoid-receptor-type-1-expression-in-the-developing-avian-retina-morphological-and-functional-correlation-with-the-dopaminergic-system
#16
Luzia da Silva Sampaio, Regina C C Kubrusly, Yolanda P Colli, Priscila P Trindade, Victor T Ribeiro-Resende, Marcelo Einicker-Lamas, Roberto Paes-de-Carvalho, Patricia F Gardino, Fernando G de Mello, Ricardo A De Melo Reis
The avian retina has been used as a model to study signaling by different neuro- and gliotransmitters. It is unclear how dopaminergic and cannabinoid systems are related in the retina. Here we studied the expression of type 1 and 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 ), as well as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the enzyme that degrades 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), during retina development. Our data show that CB1 receptor is highly expressed from embryonic day 5 (E5) until post hatched day 7 (PE7), decreasing its levels throughout development...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662170/c-maf-controls-immune-responses-by-regulating-disease-specific-gene-networks-and-repressing-il-2-in-cd4-t-cells
#17
Leona Gabryšová, Marisol Alvarez-Martinez, Raphaëlle Luisier, Luke S Cox, Jan Sodenkamp, Caroline Hosking, Damián Pérez-Mazliah, Charlotte Whicher, Yashaswini Kannan, Krzysztof Potempa, Xuemei Wu, Leena Bhaw, Hagen Wende, Michael H Sieweke, Greg Elgar, Mark Wilson, James Briscoe, Vicki Metzis, Jean Langhorne, Nicholas M Luscombe, Anne O'Garra
The transcription factor c-Maf induces the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in CD4+ T cells in vitro. However, the global effects of c-Maf on diverse immune responses in vivo are unknown. Here we found that c-Maf regulated IL-10 production in CD4+ T cells in disease models involving the TH 1 subset of helper T cells (malaria), TH 2 cells (allergy) and TH 17 cells (autoimmunity) in vivo. Although mice with c-Maf deficiency targeted to T cells showed greater pathology in TH 1 and TH 2 responses, TH 17 cell-mediated pathology was reduced in this context, with an accompanying decrease in TH 17 cells and increase in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells...
April 16, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661791/interferon-%C3%AE-and-its-important-roles-in-promoting-and-inhibiting-spontaneous-and-therapeutic-cancer-immunity
#18
Elise Alspach, Danielle M Lussier, Robert D Schreiber
Originally identified in studies of cellular resistance to viral infection, interferon (IFN)-γ is now known to represent a distinct member of the IFN family and plays critical roles not only in orchestrating both innate and adaptive immune responses against viruses, bacteria, and tumors, but also in promoting pathologic inflammatory processes. IFN-γ production is largely restricted to T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells and can ultimately lead to the generation of a polarized immune response composed of T helper (Th)1 CD4+ T cells and CD8+ cytolytic T cells...
April 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660300/the-major-orphan-forms-of-ichthyosis-are-characterized-by-systemic-t-cell-activation-and-th-17-tc-17-th-22-tc22-polarization-in-blood
#19
Tali Czarnowicki, Helen He, Alexandra Leonard, Kunal Malik, Shai Magidi, Stephanie Rangel, Krishna Patel, Kara Ramsey, Morgan Murphrey, Teresa Song, Yeriel Estrada, Hue-Chi Wen, James G Krueger, Emma Guttman-Yassky, Amy S Paller
The ichthyoses are rare skin disorders with immune and barrier aberrations. Identifying blood phenotypes may advance targeted-therapeutics.We aimed to compare frequencies of skin homing/CLA+ vs. systemic/CLA- "polar" CD4+ /CD8+ and activated T-cell subsets in ichthyosis vs. atopic dermatitis/AD, psoriasis and control blood, with appropriate clinical correlations. Flow cytometry was used to measure IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22 cytokines in CD4+ /CD8+ T-cells, with ICOS and HLA-DR defining mid- and long-term T-cell activation, respectively...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660294/high-performance-all-polymer-solar-cells-achieved-by-fused-perylenediimide-based-conjugated-polymer-acceptors
#20
Yuli Yin, Jing Yang, Fengyun Guo, Erjun Zhou, Liancheng Zhao, Yong Zhang
We report three n-type polymeric electron acceptors (PFPDI-TT, PFPDI-T and PFPDI-Se) based on the fused perylene diimide (FPDI) and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene, thiophene or selenophene units for all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs). These FPDI-based polymer acceptors exhibit the strong absorption between 350 nm and 650 nm with the wide optical badgaps of 1.86~1.91 eV, showing good absorption compensation with the narrow bangap polymer donor. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels were located at around -4...
April 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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