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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213011/calorie-restriction-promotes-cardiolipin-biosynthesis-and-distribution-between-mitochondrial-membranes
#1
Luis Alberto Luévano-Martínez, Maria Fernanda Forni, Julia Peloggia, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Alicia J Kowaltowski
Calorie restriction (CR) has been amply demonstrated to modify mitochondrial function. However, little is known regarding the effects of this dietary regimen on mitochondrial membranes. We isolated phospholipids from rat liver mitochondria from animals on CR or ad libitum diets and found that mitochondria from ad libitum animals present an increased content of lipoperoxides and the content of cardiolipin. Cardiolipin is the main anionic phospholipid present in mitochondrial membranes, and plays a key role in mitochondrial function, signaling and stress response...
February 14, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210956/mdivi-1-alleviates-early-brain-injury-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-possibly-via-inhibition-of-drp1-activated-mitochondrial-fission-and-oxidative-stress
#2
Pei Wu, Yuchen Li, Shiyi Zhu, Chunlei Wang, Jiaxing Dai, Guang Zhang, Bingjie Zheng, Shancai Xu, Ligang Wang, Tongyu Zhang, PeiQuan Zhou, John H Zhang, Huaizhang Shi
Mdivi-1 is a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Previous studies have shown that Mdivi-1 improves neurological outcomes after ischemia, seizures and trauma but it remains unclear whether Mdivi-1 can attenuate early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We thus investigated the therapeutic effect of Mdivi-1 on early brain injury following SAH. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; SAH; SAH + vehicle; and SAH + Mdivi-1...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207880/skeletal-muscle-metabolic-adaptations-to-endurance-exercise-training-are-attainable-in-mice-with-simvastatin-treatment
#3
William M Southern, Anna S Nichenko, Daniel D Shill, Corey C Spencer, Nathan T Jenkins, Kevin K McCully, Jarrod A Call
We tested the hypothesis that a 6-week regimen of simvastatin would attenuate skeletal muscle adaptation to low-intensity exercise. Male C57BL/6J wildtype mice were subjected to 6-weeks of voluntary wheel running or normal cage activities with or without simvastatin treatment (20 mg/kg/d, n = 7-8 per group). Adaptations in in vivo fatigue resistance were determined by a treadmill running test, and by ankle plantarflexor contractile assessment. The tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and plantaris muscles were evaluated for exercised-induced mitochondrial adaptations (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202127/-role-of-mitophagy-in-neonatal-rats-with-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#4
Ming-Xi Li, Yi Qu, De-Zhi Mu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate mitophagy in an animal model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) and its role in HIBD. METHODS: A total of 120 neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 days were divided into three groups: sham-operation, HIBD, and autophagy inhibitor intervention (3MA group). The rats in the HIBD group were treated with right common carotid artery ligation and then put in a hypoxic chamber (8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen) for 2.5 hours. Those in the 3MA group were given ligation and hypoxic treatment at 30 minutes after intraperitoneal injection of 2 μL 3MA...
February 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197922/coordination-of-cellular-localization-dependent-effects-of-sumoylation-in-regulating-cardiovascular-and-neurological-diseases
#5
Jun-Ichi Abe, Uday G Sandhu, Nguyet Minh Hoang, Manoj Thangam, Raymundo A Quintana-Quezada, Keigi Fujiwara, Nhat Tu Le
Sumoylation, a reversible post-transcriptional modification process, of proteins are involved in cellular differentiation, growth, and even motility by regulating various protein functions. Sumoylation is not limited to cytosolic proteins as recent evidence shows that nuclear proteins, those associated with membranes, and mitochondrial proteins are also sumoylated. Moreover, it is now known that sumoylation plays an important role in the process of major human ailments such as malignant, cardiovascular and neurological diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191022/effect-of-mahuang-gancao-ganjiang-decoction-on-fusion-and-fission-of-mitochondria-and-apoptosis-of-lymphocytes-in-mice-under-cold-stress
#6
Longyun Chen, Huimin Chen
Mahuang Gancao Ganjiang Decoction (MGGD) can effectively alleviate the symptoms of the patients suffering from exogenous cold stress. However, the curative mechanism has not been fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the effect of MGGD on the apoptosis of lymphocytes induced by cold stress in mice. The model mice were randomly divided into four groups: the normal control group (no handling mice), cold stress group, MGGD + cold stress group, and MGGD group. Lymphocytes of the mice were isolated from the peripheral blood...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190775/drp1-suppresses-leptin-and-glucose-sensing-of-pomc-neurons
#7
Anna Santoro, Michela Campolo, Chen Liu, Hiromi Sesaki, Rosaria Meli, Zhong-Wu Liu, Jung Dae Kim, Sabrina Diano
Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons regulate energy and glucose metabolism. Intracellular mechanisms that enable these neurons to respond to changes in metabolic environment are ill defined. Here we show reduced expression of activated dynamin-related protein (pDRP1), a mitochondrial fission regulator, in POMC neurons of fed mice. These POMC neurons displayed increased mitochondrial size and aspect ratio compared to POMC neurons of fasted animals. Inducible deletion of DRP1 of mature POMC neurons (Drp1(fl/fl)-POMC-cre:ER(T2)) resulted in improved leptin sensitivity and glucose responsiveness...
January 30, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177702/modulation-of-mitochondrial-biomarkers-by-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-and-aerobic-exercise-after-eccentric-exercise-in-trained-rats
#8
David Rizo-Roca, Juan Gabriel Ríos-Kristjánsson, Cristian Núñez-Espinosa, Estela Santos-Alves, José Magalhães, António Ascensão, Teresa Pagès, Ginés Viscor, Joan Ramon Torrella
Unaccustomed eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, calcium homeostasis disruption and mitochondrial alterations. Since exercise and hypoxia are known to modulate mitochondrial function, we aimed to analyze the effects on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EEIMD), in trained rats, of two recovery protocols based on: 1) intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) and 2) IHH followed by exercise. The expression of biomarkers related to mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, oxidative stress and bioenergetics was evaluated...
February 2, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174288/direct-substrate-delivery-into-mitochondrial-fission-deficient-pancreatic-islets-rescues-insulin-secretion
#9
Uma D Kabra, Katrin Pfuhlmann, Adriana Migliorini, Susanne Keipert, Daniel Lamp, Olle Korsgren, Moritz Gegg, Stephen C Woods, Paul T Pfluger, Heiko Lickert, Charles Affourtit, Matthias H Tschöp, Martin Jastroch
In pancreatic beta cells, mitochondrial bioenergetics control glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Mitochondrial dynamics are generally associated with quality control, maintaining the functionality of bioenergetics. By acute pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, we here demonstrate that mitochondrial fission is necessary for GSIS in mouse and human islets. We confirm that genetic silencing of Drp1 increases mitochondrial proton leak in MIN6 cells. However, our comprehensive analysis of pancreatic islet bioenergetics reveals that Drp1 does not control insulin secretion via its effect on proton leak but instead via modulation of glucose-fuelled respiration...
February 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173848/inhibition-of-dynamin-related-protein-1-protects-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-diabetic-mice
#10
Mingge Ding, Qianqian Dong, Zhenghua Liu, Zheng Liu, Yinxian Qu, Xing Li, Cong Huo, Xin Jia, Feng Fu, Xiaoming Wang
BACKGROUND: Many cardioprotective pharmacological agents failed to exert their protective effects in diabetic hearts subjected to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R). Identify the molecular basis linking diabetes with MI/R injury is scientifically important and may provide effective therapeutic approaches. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission plays an important role in MI/R injury under non-diabetic conditions. Importantly, recent studies indicated that Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission is enhanced in the myocardium of diabetic mice...
February 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154412/superresolution-imaging-identifies-that-conventional-trafficking-pathways-are-not-essential-for-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-outer-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-transport
#11
Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K Jaiswal, Anamaris M Colberg-Poley
Most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins traffic from the cytosol to mitochondria. Some of these proteins localize at mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), where mitochondria are closely apposed with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that the human cytomegalovirus signal-anchored protein known as viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we have examined the host pathways by which vMIA traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the OMM...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154157/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-neuronal-injury-development-and-plasticity
#12
REVIEW
Kyle H Flippo, Stefan Strack
Mitochondria fulfill numerous cellular functions including ATP production, Ca(2+) buffering, neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation, ROS production and sequestration, apoptosis and intermediate metabolism. Mitochondrial dynamics, a collective term for the processes of mitochondrial fission, fusion and transport, governs mitochondrial function and localization within the cell. Correct balance of mitochondrial dynamics is especially important in neurons as mutations in fission and fusion enzymes cause peripheral neuropathies and impaired development of the nervous system in humans...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153522/cdk5-inhibitors-prevent-astroglial-apoptosis-and-reactive-astrogliosis-by-regulating-pka-and-drp1-phosphorylations-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#13
Hye-Won Hyun, Su-Ji Min, Ji-Eun Kim
Status epilepticus (SE) results in the unique pattern of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)-mediated mitochondrial dynamics, which is associated with astroglial apoptosis and reactive astrogliosis in the regional-specific pattern representing the differential astroglial properties. However, less defined are the epiphenomena/upstream effecters for DRP1 phosphorylation in this process. Since cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is involved in reactive astrogliosis, CDK5 is one of the possible upstream regulators for DRP1 phosphorylation...
January 30, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146064/pm2-5-induced-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-damage-in-the-nasal-mucosa-of-rats
#14
Zhiqiang Guo, Zhicong Hong, Weiyang Dong, Congrui Deng, Renwu Zhao, Jian Xu, Guoshun Zhuang, Ruxin Zhang
Exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm) increases the risk of nasal lesions, but the underlying mechanisms, especially the mechanisms leading to mitochondrial damage, are still unclear. Thus, we investigated the in vivo effects of PM2.5 exposure on the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, the enzyme activities of Na⁺K⁺-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase, and the morphology and function of mitochondria in the nasal mucosa of rats. Exposure to PM2.5 occurred through inhalation of a PM2.5 solution aerosol...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139514/pim-1-kinase-regulating-dynamics-related-protein-1-mediates-sevoflurane-postconditioning-induced-cardioprotection
#15
Jin-Dong Liu, Hui-Juan Chen, Da-Liang Wang, Hui Wang, Qian Deng
BACKGROUND: It is well documented that sevoflurane postconditioning (SP) has a significant myocardial protection effect. However, the mechanisms underlying SP are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the Pim-1 kinase played a key role in SP-induced cardioprotection by regulating dynamics-related protein 1 (Drp1). METHODS: A Langendorff model was used in this study. Seventy-two rats were randomly assigned into six groups as follows: CON group, ischemia reperfusion (I/R) group, SP group , SP+proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (Pim-1) inhibitor II group, SP+dimethylsufoxide group, and Pim-1 inhibitor II group (n = 12, each)...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132899/pathological-consequences-of-micu1-mutations-on-mitochondrial-calcium-signalling-and-bioenergetics
#16
Gauri Bhosale, Jenny Sharpe, Amanda Koh, Antonina Kouli, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Michael R Duchen
Loss of function mutations of the protein MICU1, a regulator of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, cause a neuronal and muscular disorder characterised by impaired cognition, muscle weakness and an extrapyramidal motor disorder. We have shown previously that MICU1 mutations cause increased resting mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]m). We now explore the functional consequences of MICU1 mutations in patient derived fibroblasts in order to clarify the underlying pathophysiology of this disorder. We propose that deregulation of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake through loss of MICU1 raises resting [Ca(2+)]m, initiating a futile Ca(2+) cycle, whereby continuous mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx is balanced by Ca(2+) efflux through the sodium calcium exchanger (NLCXm)...
January 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131843/inhibition-of-drp1-attenuates-mitochondrial-damage-and-myocardial-injury-in-coxsackie-virus-b3-induced-myocarditis
#17
Lin Lin, Ming Zhang, Rui Yan, Hu Shan, Jiayu Diao, Jin Wei
Viral myocarditis (VMC) is closely related to apoptosis, oxidative stress, innate immunity, and energy metabolism, which are all linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. A close nexus between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiovascular disease with mitochondrial dysfunction has been deeply researched, but there is still no relevant report in viral myocarditis. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-linked mitochondrial fission in VMC. Mice were inoculated with the Coxsackie virus B3 virus (CVB3) and treated with mdivi1 (a Drp1 inhibitor)...
January 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131082/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-type-2-diabetes-pathophysiological-implications
#18
REVIEW
Susana Rovira-Llopis, Celia Bañuls, Noelia Diaz-Morales, Antonio Hernandez-Mijares, Milagros Rocha, Victor M Victor
Mitochondria play a key role in maintaining cellular metabolic homeostasis. These organelles have a high plasticity and are involved in dynamic processes such as mitochondrial fusion and fission, mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction, high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and low levels of ATP. Mitochondrial fusion is modulated by different proteins, including mitofusin-1 (MFN1), mitofusin-2 (MFN2) and optic atrophy (OPA-1), while fission is controlled by mitochondrial fission 1 (FIS1), dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) and mitochondrial fission factor (MFF)...
January 16, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117823/using-scaffold-liposomes-to-reconstitute-lipid-proximal-protein-protein-interactions-in-vitro
#19
Ryan W Clinton, Jason A Mears
Studies of integral membrane proteins in vitro are frequently complicated by the presence of a hydrophobic transmembrane domain. Further complicating these studies, reincorporation of detergent-solubilized membrane proteins into liposomes is a stochastic process where protein topology is impossible to enforce. This paper offers an alternative method to these challenging techniques that utilizes a liposome-based scaffold. Protein solubility is enhanced by deletion of the transmembrane domain, and these amino acids are replaced with a tethering moiety, such as a His-tag...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117804/studying-mitochondrial-structure-and-function-in-drosophila-ovaries
#20
Danitra J Parker, Aida Moran, Kasturi Mitra
Analysis of the mitochondrial structure-function relationship is required for a thorough understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of mitochondrial functionality. Fluorescence microscopy is an indispensable tool for the direct assessment of mitochondrial structure and function in live cells and for studying the mitochondrial structure-function relationship, which is primarily modulated by the molecules governing fission and fusion events between mitochondria. This paper describes and demonstrates specific methods for studying mitochondrial structure and function in live as well as in fixed tissue in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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