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Pericytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215724/pericytes-modulate-myelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#1
Patrick O Azevedo, Isadora F G Sena, Julia P Andreotti, Juliana Carvalho-Tavares, José C Alves-Filho, Thiago M Cunha, Fernando Q Cunha, Akiva Mintz, Alexander Birbrair
Multiple sclerosis is a highly prevalent chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Remyelination is the major therapeutic goal for this disorder. The lack of detailed knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in myelination restricts the design of effective treatments. De La Fuente et al. (2017) by using state-of-the-art techniques, including pericyte-deficient mice in combination with induced demyelination, reveal that pericytes participate in central nervous system regeneration...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212800/extracellular-retention-of-pdgf-b-directs-vascular-remodeling-in-mouse-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#2
Philip Tannenberg, Ya-Ting Chang, Lars Muhl, Bàrbara Laviña, Hanna Gladh, Guillem Genové, Christer Betsholtz, Erika Folestad, Karin Tran-Lundmark
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a lethal condition and current vasodilator therapy has limited effect. Anti-proliferative strategies targeting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, such as imatinib, have generated promising results in animal studies. Imatinib is however a non-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor and has in clinical studies caused unacceptable adverse events. Further studies are needed on the role of PDGF signaling in PH. Here, mice expressing a variant of PDGF-B with no retention motif (Pdgfbret/ret), resulting in defective binding to extracellular matrix, were studied...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211719/inhibition-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-prevents-diabetic-retinopathy
#3
Jiong Hu, Sarah Dziumbla, Jihong Lin, Sofia-Iris Bibli, Sven Zukunft, Julian de Mos, Khader Awwad, Timo Frömel, Andreas Jungmann, Kavi Devraj, Zhixing Cheng, Liya Wang, Sascha Fauser, Charles G Eberhart, Akrit Sodhi, Bruce D Hammock, Stefan Liebner, Oliver J Müller, Clemens Glaubitz, Hans-Peter Hammes, Rüdiger Popp, Ingrid Fleming
Diabetic retinopathy is an important cause of blindness in adults, and is characterized by progressive loss of vascular cells and slow dissolution of inter-vascular junctions, which result in vascular leakage and retinal oedema. Later stages of the disease are characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue destruction and neovascularization. Here we identify soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) as a key enzyme that initiates pericyte loss and breakdown of endothelial barrier function by generating the diol 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid, derived from docosahexaenoic acid...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210074/white-matter-degeneration-in-vascular-and-other-ageing-related-dementias
#4
REVIEW
Yoshika Hase, Karen Horsburgh, Masafumi Ihara, Raj N Kalaria
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled greater understanding of the progression of cerebral degenerative processes associated with ageing-related dementias. Leukoaraiosis or rarefied white matter (WM) originally described on computed tomography is one of the most prominent changes which occurs in older age. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) evident on magnetic resonance imaging have become commonplace to describe WM changes in relation to cognitive dysfunction, types of stroke injury, cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209878/cell-type-specific-spatiotemporal-expression-of-creatine-biosynthetic-enzyme-s-adenosylmethionine-guanidinoacetate-n-methyltransferase-in-developing-mouse-brain
#5
Masanori Tachikawa, Masahiko Watanabe, Masahiro Fukaya, Kazuhisa Sakai, Tetsuya Terasaki, Ken-Ichi Hosoya
Creatine is synthesized by S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT), and the creatine/phosphocreatine shuttle system mediated by creatine kinase (CK) is essential for storage and regeneration of high-energy phosphates in cells. Although the importance of this system in brain development is evidenced by the hereditary nature of creatine deficiency syndrome, the spatiotemporal cellular expression patterns of GAMT in developing brain remain unknown. Here we show that two waves of high GAMT expression occur in developing mouse brain...
December 5, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209018/novel-mechanism-of-the-pericyte-myofibroblast-transition-in-renal-interstitial-fibrosis-core-fucosylation-regulation
#6
Nan Wang, Yiyao Deng, Anqi Liu, Nan Shen, Weidong Wang, Xiangning Du, Qingzhu Tang, Shuangxin Li, Zach Odeh, Taihua Wu, Hongli Lin
Pericytes have been identified as a major source of myofibroblasts in renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). The overactivation of several signaling pathways, mainly the TGF-β and PDGF pathways, initiates the pericyte-myofibroblast transition during RIF. Key receptors in these two pathways have been shown to be modified by fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8), the enzyme that catalyzes core fucosylation. This study postulated that core fucosylation might play an important role in regulating the pericyte transition in RIF...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197029/vasculogenic-and-angiogenic-potential-of-adipose-stromal-vascular-fraction-cell-populations-in-vitro
#7
Joseph S Zakhari, Jacob Zabonick, Brian Gettler, Stuart K Williams
Adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) is a heterogeneous cell source that contains endothelial cells, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, stem cells, and other accessory immune and stromal cells. The SVF cell population has been shown to support vasculogenesis in vitro as well vascular maturation in vivo. Matrigel, an extracellular matrix (ECM) mixture has been utilized in vitro to evaluate tube formation of purified endothelial cell systems. We have developed an in vitro system that utilizes freshly isolated SVF and ECM molecules both in pure form (fibrin, laminin, collagen) as well as premixed form (Matrigel) to evaluate endothelial tip cell formation, endothelial stalk elongation, and early stages of branching and inosculation...
December 1, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192539/experimental-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-results-in-decreased-pericyte-coverage-and-increased-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-the-corpus-callosum
#8
Qinghai Liu, Ryan Radwanski, Robin Babadjouni, Arati Patel, Drew M Hodis, Peter Baumbacher, Zhen Zhao, Berislav Zlokovic, William J Mack
Murine chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) results in white matter (WM) injury and behavioral deficits. Pericytes influence blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and cerebral blood flow. Under hypoxic conditions, pericytes detach from perivascular locations increasing vessel permeability and neuronal injury. This study characterizes the time course of BBB dysfunction and pericyte coverage following murine experimental CCH secondary to bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). Mice underwent BCAS or sham operation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191403/laminin-deficient-muscular-dystrophy-molecular-pathogenesis-and-structural-repair-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Peter D Yurchenco, Karen K McKee, Judith R Reinhard, Markus A Rüegg
Laminins are large heterotrimers composed of the α, β and γ subunits with distinct tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression patterns. The laminin-α2 subunit, encoded by the LAMA2 gene, is mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve and astrocytes and pericytes of the capillaries in the brain. Mutations in LAMA2 cause the most common type of congenital muscular dystrophies, called LAMA2 MD or MDC1A. The disorder manifests mostly as a muscular dystrophy but slowing of nerve conduction contributes to the disease...
November 27, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187438/functional-characterization-of-vegf-and-fgf-induced-tumor-blood-vessel-models-in-human-cancer-xenografts
#10
Yusaku Hori, Ken Ito, Shusei Hamamichi, Yoichi Ozawa, Junji Matsui, Izumi O Umeda, Hirofumi Fujii
BACKGROUND/AIM: Tumor angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and/or fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plays an important role in tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. However, the characteristics of tumor vessels derived from these angiogenic factors have not been fully explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To functionally examine tumor vessels, we developed in vivo VEGF- and FGF-induced tumor blood vessel models. We performed immunohistochemistry and Hoechst perfusion assay to elucidate histopathological differences between the derived tumor vessels...
December 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183378/vascular-abnormalities-and-development-of-hypoxia-in-microscopic-melanoma-xenografts
#11
Jon-Vidar Gaustad, Trude G Simonsen, Lise Mari K Andersen, Einar K Rofstad
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the oxygenation status and the development of hypoxia in microscopic tumors are sparse. The purpose of this study was to measure the extent of hypoxia in microscopic melanoma xenografts and to search for possible mechanisms leading to the development of hypoxia in these tumors. METHODS: A-07, D-12, R-18, and U-25 human melanoma xenografts grown in dorsal window chambers or as flank tumors were used as preclinical tumor models. Morphologic and functional parameters of vascular networks were assessed with intravital microscopy, and the expression of angiogenesis-related genes was assessed with quantitative PCR...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182023/pdgfr%C3%AE-specific-affibody-directed-delivery-of-a-photosensitizer-ir700-is-efficient-for-vascular-targeted-photodynamic-therapy-of-colorectal-cancer
#12
Qiuxiao Shi, Ze Tao, Hao Yang, Qing Fan, Danfeng Wei, Lin Wan, Xiaofeng Lu
Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an important strategy for cancer therapy. Conventional vascular-targeted PDT has been achieved by passive photosensitizer (PS) delivery, which involves a high risk of adverse effects. Active PS delivery is urgently required for vascular-targeted PDT. Although endothelial cells and pericytes are major cellular components of tumor blood vessels, little attention has been paid to pericyte-targeted PDT for cancer therapy. PDGFRβ is abundantly expressed in the pericytes of various tumors...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173896/the-apkc-cbp-pathway-regulates-post-stroke-neurovascular-remodeling-and-functional-recovery
#13
Ayden Gouveia, Matthew Seegobin, Timal S Kannangara, Ling He, Fredric Wondisford, Cesar H Comin, Luciano da F Costa, Jean-Claude Béïque, Diane C Lagace, Baptiste Lacoste, Jing Wang
Epigenetic modifications have emerged as attractive molecular substrates that integrate extrinsic changes into the determination of cell identity. Since stroke-related brain damage releases micro-environmental cues, we examined the role of a signaling-induced epigenetic pathway, an atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-mediated phosphorylation of CREB-binding protein (CBP), in post-stroke neurovascular remodeling. Using a knockin mouse strain (CbpS436A) where the aPKC-CBP pathway was defective, we show that disruption of the aPKC-CBP pathway in a murine focal ischemic stroke model increases the reprogramming efficiency of ischemia-activated pericytes (i-pericytes) to neural precursors...
November 17, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171223/-recent-advances-on-pericytes-in-microvascular-dysfunction-and-traditional-chinese-medicine-prevention
#14
REVIEW
Lei Liu, Jian-Xun Liu, Hao Guo, Jian-Xun Ren
Pericytesis a kind of widespread vascular mural cells embedded within the vascular basement membrane of blood microvessels, constituting the barrier of capillaries and tissue spaces together with endothelial cells. Pericytes communicate with microvascular endothelial cells through cell connections or paracrine signals, playing an important role in important physiological processes such as blood flow, vascular permeability and vascular formation. Pericytes dysfunction may participate in some microvascular dysfunction, and also mediate pathological repair process, therefore pericytes attracted more and more attention...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155002/pdgf-in-organ-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Barbara Mara Klinkhammer, Jürgen Floege, Peter Boor
Fibrosis is part of a tissue repair response to injury, defined as increased deposition of extracellular matrix. In some instances, fibrosis is beneficial; however, in the majority of diseases fibrosis is detrimental. Virtually all chronic progressive diseases are associated with fibrosis, representing a huge number of patients worldwide. Fibrosis occurs in all organs and tissues, becomes irreversible with time and further drives loss of tissue function. Various cells types initiate and perpetuate pathological fibrosis by paracrine activation of the principal cellular executors of fibrosis, i...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147666/sympathetic-denervation-accelerates-wound-contraction-but-inhibits-reepithelialization-and-pericyte-proliferation-in-diabetic-mice
#16
Zhifang Zheng, Yu Wan, Yishu Liu, Yu Yang, Jianbing Tang, Wenhua Huang, Biao Cheng
Previous studies focused on the effects of sympathetic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on nondiabetic wounds, but the effects of 6-OHDA on diabetic wounds have not been previously reported. In this study, treated mice received intraperitoneal 6-OHDA, and control mice received intraperitoneal injections of normal saline. Full-thickness wounds were established on the backs of mice. The wounds were sectioned (four mice per group) for analysis at 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 days after injury. The wound areas in the control group were larger than those in the treatment group...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146905/pericytes-regulate-vegf-induced-endothelial-sprouting-through-vegfr1
#17
Hanna M Eilken, Rodrigo Diéguez-Hurtado, Inga Schmidt, Masanori Nakayama, Hyun-Woo Jeong, Hendrik Arf, Susanne Adams, Napoleone Ferrara, Ralf H Adams
Pericytes adhere to the abluminal surface of endothelial tubules and are required for the formation of stable vascular networks. Defective endothelial cell-pericyte interactions are frequently observed in diseases characterized by compromised vascular integrity such as diabetic retinopathy. Many functional properties of pericytes and their exact role in the regulation of angiogenic blood vessel growth remain elusive. Here we show that pericytes promote endothelial sprouting in the postnatal retinal vasculature...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143947/connexin-30-is-expressed-in-a-subtype-of-mouse-brain-pericytes
#18
Noémie Mazaré, Alice Gilbert, Anne-Cécile Boulay, Nathalie Rouach, Martine Cohen-Salmon
Pericytes are mural cells of blood microvessels which play a crucial role at the neurovascular interface of the central nervous system. They are involved in the regulation of blood-brain barrier integrity, angiogenesis, clearance of toxic metabolites, capillary hemodynamic responses, and neuroinflammation, and they demonstrate stem cell activity. Morphological and molecular studies to characterize brain pericytes recently pointed out some heterogeneity in pericyte population. Nevertheless, a clear definition of pericyte subtypes is still lacking...
November 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140882/extravascular-migratory-metastasis-pericytic-mimicry-in-sarcomatoid-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-vulva-a-report-of-2-cases
#19
M H Eleanor Koay, Colin J R Stewart
Extravascular migratory metastasis (EVMM), also known as pericytic mimicry or angiotropism, is a mechanism of angiocentric tumor spread that has been investigated mainly in cutaneous malignant melanoma where it has been associated with an increased risk of metastasis. In EVMM, the tumor cells spread along the external (ablumenal) aspect of vessels without breaching the endothelium, a process that is therefore distinct from the more widely recognized intraluminal invasion. Although EVMM has also been reported in a limited range of other tumor types, to our knowledge it has not been described in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135875/cochlear-pericytes-are-capable-of-reversibly-decreasing-capillary-diameter-in-vivo-after-tumor-necrosis-factor-exposure
#20
Mattis Bertlich, Friedrich Ihler, Bernhard G Weiss, Saskia Freytag, Michael Strupp, Martin Canis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its neutralization with etanercept on the capability of cochlear pericytes to alter capillary diameter in the stria vascularis. METHODS: Twelve Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Each group was treated either with placebo and then placebo, TNF and then placebo, or TNF and then etanercept. Cochlear pericytes were visualized using diaminofluorescein-2-diacetate and intravasal blood flow by fluorescein-dextrane...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
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