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Autoimmune optic neuropathy

Peyman Petramfar, Farideh Hosseinzadeh, S Saeed Mohammadi
INTRODUCTION: Pseudo-Foster Kennedy syndrome is a triad consisting of ipsilateral optic atrophy, contralateral optic disc edema, and ipsilateral anosmia in the absence of an intracranial mass. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis, and its deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, myeloneuropathy, and, very rarely, optic neuropathy. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we describe a 34-year-old male who presented with progressive loss of visual acuity and field...
June 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
J Lenk, C Hermann, E Matthé, L E Pillunat, D Sandner
Background: Optic nerve disease can occur from a variety of different causes, with vascular, inflammatory or toxic pathologies. In such cases, it is hardly possible to clarify the aetiology. These diseases of the optic nerve are usually accompanied by progressive loss of visual field and visual impairment. Patient: We report a case of a 74-year-old woman complaining of loss of visual acuity, visual and blurred vision in the left eye in 2010. We made the diagnosis of non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION)...
August 10, 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Maria Ida Rizzo, Antonio Greco, Armando De Virgilio, Andrea Gallo, Luciano Taverniti, Massimo Fusconi, Michela Conte, Giulio Pagliuca, Rosaria Turchetta, Marco de Vincentiis
Glaucomatous optic neuropathy is the most commonly acquired optic neuropathy encountered in clinical practice. It is the second leading cause of blindness globally, after cataracts, but it presents a greater public health challenge than cataracts, because the blindness it causes is irreversible. It has pathogenesis still largely unknown and no established cure. Alterations in serum antibody profiles, upregulation, and downregulation have been described, but it still remains elusive if the autoantibodies seen in glaucoma are an epiphenomenon or causative...
July 30, 2016: Immunologic Research
Caroline W Vargason, James G Chelnis, Behin I Barahimi, Louise A Mawn
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an inflammatory, autoimmune orbitopathy with multifactorial etiology. Clinical presentation of TED spans a range from mild surface irritation to vision threatening compressive optic neuropathy. Potential vision loss underscores the importance of understanding genetic and environmental factors influencing the severity of TED presentation. This review will describe the classic risk factors for TED, outline treatments for Graves' disease (GD) and TED, and describe newer evidence of socioeconomic disparities in TED presentation...
2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Antonio Greco, Maria Ida Rizzo, Armando De Virgilio, Andrea Gallo, Massimo Fusconi, Marco de Vincentiis
Glaucoma is the most commonly acquired optic neuropathy. It represents a public health challenge because it causes an irreversible blindness. Emerging evidence indicates that the pathogenesis of glaucoma depends on several interacting pathogenetic mechanisms, which include mechanical effects by an increased intraocular pressure, decreased neutrophine-supply, hypoxia, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and the involvement of autoimmune processes. In particular, alterations in serum antibody profiles have been described...
September 2016: American Journal of Medicine
David Papke, Patricia J McNussen, Mehmoodur Rasheed, Michael S Tsipursky, Leanne T Labriola
The influenza vaccination has greatly benefited public health, leading to significant reductions in flu season hospitalizations and deaths. However, with more widespread administration of this vaccine, it is expected that the absolute number of patients that present with unusual, adverse reactions will increase. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old woman who developed a progressive optic neuropathy and severe visual loss associated with optic disc edema following influenza virus vaccination. Our patient also experienced other concurrent symptoms, including bilateral knee effusions, muscle spasms and a facial rash...
April 28, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Axel Petzold, Sui Wong, Gordon T Plant
There are a number of autoimmune disorders which can affect visual function. There are a very large number of mechanisms in the visual pathway which could potentially be the targets of autoimmune attack. In practice it is the retina and the anterior visual pathway (optic nerve and chiasm) that are recognised as being affected in autoimmune disorders. Multiple Sclerosis is one of the commonest causes of visual loss in young adults because of the frequency of attacks of optic neuritis in that condition, however the basis of the inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis and the confirmation of autoimmunity is lacking...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Dinushi Weerasinghe, Christian Lueck
Optic neuritis is a common problem and most neurologists are familiar with it. Recent studies have suggested that it can be overdiagnosed in as many as 10% of cases. The major reasons for this relate to confusion regarding terminology and lack of familiarity with common mimics. This article covers typical 'idiopathic' demyelinating optic neuropathy (IDON) and several possible variations in the way it can present (chameleons). We then discuss several conditions that can mimic IDON, including neuromyelitis optica, sarcoidosis, chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy, anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, infectious/parainfectious optic neuropathy, neuroretinitis, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, and some 'ocular' mimics including autoimmune retinopathy and central serous choroidoretinopathy...
April 2016: Practical Neurology
Eric K Chin, David R P Almeida, Khoa V Lam, John L Keltner, Charles E Thirkill
Auto-antibodies assist with the diagnosis of ocular paraneoplastic syndromes and autoimmune ocular conditions; however, the frequency of positive test results as a possible precursor to future disease is unknown. The frequency of positive antibodies in heavy smokers who may be at risk for autoimmune-related retinopathy and optic neuropathy was evaluated. Serum antibody activity was evaluated through the use of Western blot reactions from pig retina and optic nerve extract. Fifty-one patients were included: 35 patients were smokers (average: 40...
November 2015: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Rachana Dubey, Biswaroop Chakrabarty, Lokesh Saini, Priyanka Madaan, Sheffali Gulati
BACKGROUND: In children, migraine with or without aura is a common entity, however variants like recurrent painful optic neuropathy (RPON) is rarely encountered. CASE RESULT: A 9 year old boy presented with headache for 1 week and restricted movements and drooping in both eyes for last 3 days. On examination he had bilateral ophthalmoplegia and ptosis. History of migrainous headache was present in the patient as well as his mother. His MRI brain with venogram, serum autoimmune markers, serum and urine toxicology screen and repetitive nerve stimulation test were normal...
May 2016: Brain & Development
V G Likhvantseva, S I Kharlap, E V Korosteleva, M V Solomatina, M V Mel'nikova, S V Budanova, A Ben Regeb, V A Vygodin
AIM: to investigate the contribution of various hemodynamic disturbances in magistral vessels to optic neuropathy (ON) progression and ocular tension changes in endocrine ophthalmopathy (EOP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 39 patients (78 eyes) with subclinical EOP (clinical activity score, CAS ≤ 2) associated with Graves' disease (n = 32, 64 eyes) or autoimmune thyroiditis (n = 7, 14 eyes) were examined. Orbit echography was performed in all patients. Blood flow was assessed with a Voluson 730 PRO ultrasound diagnostic system ("Kretz", Austria) in triplex mode (B-scan, color Doppler flow mapping in combination with pulse-wave Doppler)...
July 2015: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Carolina Mendoza F, Patricia Lacourt R
Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is rare in pediatric patients, however is the most common extrathyroid manifestation of Graves’ disease (GD), being present in 30-67% of patients. GO is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder involving orbital connective and fatty tissues as well as the extraocular muscles. In children, GO is less common and less severe than in adults. The most common symptoms are upper eyelid retraction, conjunctival injection, and proptosis and periorbital edema. Severe complications include dysthyroid optic neuropathy, corneal ulceration and eyeball subluxation...
August 2015: Revista Médica de Chile
Yan Zhang, Xiaolei Liang, Shihui Wei, Hongyang Li
PURPOSE: To analyze clinical features and main causes of multiple sclerosis-related optic neuritis (MS-ON), providing evidence for the differential diagnosis of MS-ON. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 527 patients, 123 males and 404 females, diagnosed with MS-ON between June 2008 and June 2013. Visual acuity, optometry, visual field, slit-lamp microscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy (20D), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed...
March 2015: Eye Science
Jesús Barrio-Barrio, Alfonso L Sabater, Elvira Bonet-Farriol, Álvaro Velázquez-Villoria, Juan C Galofré
Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder associated with thyroid disease which affects ocular and orbital tissues. GO follows a biphasic course in which an initial active phase of progression is followed by a subsequent partial regression and a static inactive phase. Although the majority of GO patients have a mild, self-limiting, and nonprogressive ocular involvement, about 3-7% of GO patients exhibit a severe sight-threatening form of the disease due to corneal exposure or compressive optic neuropathy...
2015: Journal of Ophthalmology
Rao V Chundury, Adam C Weber, Julian D Perry
PURPOSE: To review the current literature summarizing the state of knowledge on the use of orbital radiation therapy (ORT) in thyroid eye disease. METHODS: A systematic review and analysis of the literature were performed. MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library databases, SCOPUS, and recent relevant journal articles were searched. RESULTS: Thyroid eye disease is an autoimmune disorder that has the propensity to affect multiple orbital tissues and can cause permanent vision loss...
March 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Shoichi Sasaki, Daisuke Asahara, Kaichi Kaneko, Satoru Komatsumoto
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune optic neuropathy is optic neuropathy caused by an autoimmune mechanism. As treatment, steroid is usually used. If steroid is ineffective to improve visual function, other immunosuppressive agents are used as needed. Rituximab is one of molecular target agents and is now used as treatment for several types of autoimmune disorders. CASE REPORT: A 77-year-old woman presented with vision loss in her left eye. Her past medical history included disturbances of multiple organs...
2015: American Journal of Case Reports
Alexandra E Levitt, Katherine T McManus, Allison L McClellan, Janet L Davis, Raquel Goldhardt, Anat Galor
PURPOSE: This retrospective cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the frequency and types of inflammatory ocular manifestations of specific systemic autoimmune diseases in a South Florida Veterans Affairs Hospital population. METHODS: Demographic and medical diagnosis information was extracted from the Veterans Administration database for 1225 patients. These patients were seen in Miami and Broward Veterans Affairs hospitals between April 18, 2008, and April 17, 2013, and were diagnosed with at least 1 of the following: systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoid, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, Kawasaki disease, polyarteritis nodosa, Buerger disease, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, Behcet syndrome, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, other polyarteritis nodosa-associated vasculitides, or arteritis not otherwise specified...
July 2015: Cornea
Tayyaba Gul Malik, Muhammad Khalil, Asad Ullah Ijaz, Muhammad Moeen Bhatti
Ocular Ischemic Syndrome (OIS) is a disorder, which consists of constellation of signs and symptoms secondary to chronic ocular hypoperfusion. We report a case of 35 years old Pakistani female who presented to us with gradual fall of vision in both eyes. On examination, she had bilateral OIS and ischemic optic neuropathy. The patient had past history of transient ischemic attack and facial palsy almost 20 years back. We referred her to physician for the diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis associated with relapsing polychondritis...
April 2015: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Irmina Jankowska-Lech, Barbara Terelak-Borys, Iwona Grabska-Liberek, Witold Palasik, Wojciech Bik, Ewa Wolińska-Witort
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with possible involvement of vascular dysregulation secondary to endothelial dysfunction caused by destruction of the vessel wall. Vascular dysregulation leads to excessive vasoconstriction or insufficient vasodilatation, resulting in vasospasm mediated by endothelin-1 (ET-1), the most potent and long-lasting mediator. Vascular dysregulation can play an important role in the pathogenesis of some eye disorders and it has been hypothesized that it is a vascular risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy...
2015: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Amina Malik, Maryam Ahmed, Karl Golnik
CONTEXT: Optic neuritis (ON) is defined as inflammation of the optic nerve and can have various etiologies. The most common presentation in the US is demyelinating, or "typical" ON, usually associated with multiple sclerosis. This is in contrast to "atypical" causes of ON, which differ in their clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. These atypical cases are characterized by lack of eye pain, exudates, and hemorrhages on exam, very severe, bilateral or progressive visual loss, or with failure to recover vision...
October 2014: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
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