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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778160/food-contamination-as-a-pathway-for-lead-exposure-in-children-during-the-2010-2013-lead-poisoning-epidemic-in-zamfara-nigeria
#1
Simba Tirima, Casey Bartrem, Ian von Lindern, Margrit von Braun, Douglas Lind, Shehu Mohamed Anka, Aishat Abdullahi
In 2010, an estimated 400 to 500 children died of acute lead poisoning associated with artisanal gold mining in Zamfara, Nigeria. Processing of gold ores containing up to 10% lead within residential compounds put residents, especially children, at the highest risk. Principal routes of exposure were incidental ingestion and inhalation of contaminated soil and dusts. Several Nigerian and international health organizations collaborated to reduce lead exposures through environmental remediation and medical treatment...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777590/boosting-mediated-electron-transfer-in-bioelectrochemical-systems-with-tailored-defined-microbial-co-cultures
#2
Simone Schmitz, Miriam A Rosenbaum
Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) hold great promise for sustainable energy generation via a microbial catalyst from organic matter, e.g., from wastewater. In order to improve current generation in BES, understanding the underlying microbiology of the electrode community is essential. Electron mediator producing microorganism like Pseudomonas aeruginosa play an essential role in efficient electricity generation in BES. These microbes enable even non-electroactive microorganism like Enterobacter aerogenes to contribute to current production...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775276/fully-printed-organic-inorganic-nanocomposites-for-flexible-thermoelectric-applications
#3
Canlin Ou, Abhijeet Laxman Sangle, Anuja Datta, Qingshen Jing, Tommaso Busolo, Thomas Chalklen, Vijay Narayan, Sohini Kar-Narayan
Thermoelectric materials, capable of interconverting heat and electricity, are attractive for applications in thermal energy harvesting as a means to power wireless sensors, wearable devices and portable electronics. However, traditional inorganic thermoelectric materials pose significant challenges due to high cost, toxicity, scarcity, as well as brittleness particularly when it comes to applications requiring flexibility. Here, we investigate organic-inorganic nanocomposites that have been developed from bespoke inks which are printed via an aerosol jet printing method onto flexible substrates...
May 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774285/molecular-prevalence-of-babesia-bigemina-in-rhipicephalus-microplus-ticks-infesting-cross-bred-cattle-of-punjab-india
#4
S A Bhat, N K Singh, H Singh, S S Rath
Babesiosis is an economically important tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan disease of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, Rhipicephalus microplus engorged female ticks were collected from 135 apparently healthy cattle from different agro-climatic zones of Punjab, India, to investigate the carrier status of Babesia bigemina infection in vector tick by using microscopy and PCR based assays. PCR when applied on DNA extracted from the egg masses harvested from ticks showed 1.48% (2/135) samples as positive, whereas 4...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773581/dynamic-changes-between-two-lhcx-related-energy-quenching-sites-control-diatom-photoacclimation
#5
Lucilla Taddei, Volha Chukhutsina, Bernard Lepetit, Giulio R Stella, Roberto Bassi, Herbert van Amerongen, Jean-Pierre Bouly, Marianne Jaubert, Giovanni Finazzi, Angela Falciatore
Marine diatoms are prominent phytoplankton organisms, optimally performing photosynthesis in extremely variable environments. Diatoms possess a strong ability to dissipate excess absorbed energy as heat via non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). This process relies on changes in carotenoid pigment composition (xanthophyll cycle) and on specific members of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) family specialized in photoprotection (LHCX), which potentially act as NPQ effectors. However, the link between light stress, NPQ, and the existence of different LHCX isoforms is not understood in these organisms...
May 17, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773477/selenium-bioaccumulation-and-associated-nutraceutical-properties-in-calocybe-indica-mushroom-cultivated-on-se-enriched-wheat-straw
#6
Himanshi Rathore, Abhishek Sharma, Shalinee Prasad, Satyawati Sharma
Calocybe indica was cultivated on wheat straw enriched with various concentrations of sodium selenite (Na2 SeO3 ), (2.5-40 μg/ml). The content of selenium (Se) in fruit bodies increased linearly by increasing the amount of Na2 SeO3 , although the biomass yield inhibited above 5 μg/ml. The fruit bodies accumulated inorganic Se into organic forms by integrating the Se into proteins (56%-68%), polysaccharides (22%-29%), and nucleic acids (1.4%-2.7%). Maximum protein content (25.31 g/100 g) was observed in fruit bodies harvested from the substrate enriched with 10 μg/ml Se...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772265/administration-of-low-dose-triclosan-to-pregnant-ewes-results-in-placental-uptake-and-reduced-estradiol-sulfotransferase-activity-in-fetal-liver-and-placenta
#7
Erin N Jackson, Laura Rowland-Faux, Margaret O James, Charles E Wood
Sulfonation is a major pathway of estrogen biotransformation with a role in regulating estrogen homeostasis in humans and sheep. Previous in vitro studies found that triclosan is an especially potent competitive inhibitor of ovine placental estrogen sulfotransferase, with Kic of <0.1 nM. As the placenta is the main organ responsible for estrogen synthesis in pregnancy in both women and sheep, and the liver is another site of estrogen biotransformation, this study examined the effects of triclosan exposure of pregnant ewes on placental and hepatic sulfotransferase activity...
May 14, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771572/inhibition-of-ubiquitin-activating-enzyme-protects-against-organ-injury-after-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion
#8
Shingo Matsuo, Andrew Chaung, Deanna Liou, Ping Wang, Weng-Lang Yang
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) occurs in various clinical settings, such as transplantation, acute mesenteric arterial occlusion, trauma and shock. I/R injury causes severe systemic inflammation, leading to multiple organ dysfunction associated with high mortality. The ubiquitin proteasome pathway has been indicated in the regulation of inflammation, particularly through NF-κB signaling pathway. PYR-41 is a small molecular compound that selectively inhibits ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. A mouse model of intestinal I/R injury by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 45 minutes was performed to evaluate the effect of PYR-41 treatment on organ injury and inflammation...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768919/molecular-mechanism-of-modified-clay-controlling-the-brown-tide-organism-aureococcus-anophagefferens-revealed-by-transcriptome-analysis
#9
Jianan Zhu, Zhiming Yu, Liyan He, Xihua Cao, Shuya Liu, Xiuxian Song
The data and experiences in mitigating harmful algal blooms (HABs) by modified clay (MC) show that a bloom does not continue after the dispersal of the MC, even though the density of the residual cells in the water is still high, at 20-30% of the initial cell density. This interesting phenomenon indicates that in addition to flocculation, MC has an additional control mechanism. Here, transcriptome sequencing technology was used to study the molecular mechanism of MC in controlling HABs. In residual cells treated with MC, the photosynthetic light reaction was the most affected physiological process...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766571/from-uv-to-near-infrared-light-responsive-metal-organic-framework-composites-plasmon-and-upconversion-enhanced-photocatalysis
#10
Dandan Li, Shu-Hong Yu, Hai-Long Jiang
The exploitation of photocatalysts that harvest solar spectrum as broad as possible remains a high-priority target yet grand challenge. In this work, for the first time, metal-organic framework (MOF) composites are rationally fabricated to achieve broadband spectral response from UV to near-infrared (NIR) region. In the core-shell structured upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)-Pt@MOF/Au composites, the MOF is responsive to UV and a bit visible light, the plasmonic Au nanoparticles (NPs) accept visible light, whereas the UCNPs absorb NIR light to emit UV and visible light that are harvested by the MOF and Au once again...
May 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764513/cellular-therapy-with-human-autologous-adipose-derived-adult-cells-of-stromal-vascular-fraction-for-alopecia-areata
#11
Rami Anderi, Nehman Makdissy, Albert Azar, Francine Rizk, Aline Hamade
BACKGROUND: Most common forms of hair loss (alopecia) are caused by aberrant hair follicle cycling and changes in hair follicle morphology. However, current treatments for alopecia do not specifically target these processes. Adipose-derived stromal vascular cells (ADSVCs) that can be harvested from fat cells are one of the latest breakthroughs in the aesthetic field. The potential use of stem cell-based therapies (SCBT) for the repair and regeneration of various tissues and organs offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions, which can be applied to prevent hair loss...
May 15, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764134/on-the-possibility-of-singlet-fission-in-crystalline-quaterrylene
#12
Xiaopeng Wang, Xingyu Liu, Cameron Cook, Bohdan Schatschneider, Noa Marom
Singlet fission (SF), the spontaneous down-conversion of a singlet exciton into two triplet excitons residing on neighboring molecules, is a promising route to improve organic photovoltaic (OPV) device efficiencies by harvesting two charge carriers from one photon. However, only a few materials have been discovered that exhibit intermolecular SF in the solid state, most of which are acene derivatives. Recently, there has been a growing interest in rylenes as potential SF materials. We use many-body perturbation theory in the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation to investigate the possibility of intermolecular SF in crystalline perylene and quaterrylene...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763358/bone-marrow-stimulation-technique-augmented-by-an-ultrapurified-alginate-gel-enhances-cartilage-repair-in-a-canine-model
#13
Rikiya Baba, Tomohiro Onodera, Masatake Matsuoka, Kazutoshi Hontani, Zenta Joutoku, Shinji Matsubara, Kentaro Homan, Norimasa Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for a medium- or large-sized cartilage lesion is still controversial. Since an ultrapurified alginate (UPAL) gel enhances cartilage repair in animal models, this material is expected to improve the efficacy of the current treatment strategies for cartilage lesions. HYPOTHESIS: The bone marrow stimulation technique (BMST) augmented by UPAL gel can induce hyaline-like cartilage repair. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762131/two-dimensional-self-assembly-zinc-porphyrins-and-zinc-phthalocyanines-heterojunctions-with-record-high-power-conversion-efficiencies
#14
Junting Yu, Zhou Jiang, Yifan Hao, Qianhong Zhu, Mingliang Zhao, Xue Jiang, Jijun Zhao
Compared to inorganic solar cells, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of organic solar cells are much lower, but they are compensated by many merits such as lower cost, less weight, and tunable structures, making them prospective for further applications. Porphyrin and phthalocyanine are the two most significant materials for organic solar cells due to their strong light-absorbing properties and semiconductor characteristics. However, there is little research on the 2D heterojunction solar cells based on these two materials, meanwhile the PCEs of them are still low...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762079/does-reducing-food-losses-and-wastes-in-sub-saharan-africa-make-economic-sense
#15
Emerta Aragie, Jean Balié, Cristian MoralesOpazo
Reducing food losses and waste (FLW) is one of the sustainable ways of closing the food requirement gap in developing countries. However, there is not yet adequate knowledge on the extent of FLW by commodity type and stage of the food supply chain (FSC). Focusing on ten agrarian countries in Africa and building mainly on the Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Balance Sheets (FBSs), this study generates some new insights on the level of FLW by country, FSC and food type. Across the FSC, we find that these countries lose a cumulative amount equivalent to 28% (641 kilocalories per capita per day - kcal/cap/day) of the current calorie intake...
May 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761434/untargeted-analysis-of-semipolar-compounds-by-lc-ms-and-targeted-analysis-of-fatty-acids-by-gc-ms-gc-fid-from-plant-cultivation-to-extract-preparation
#16
Camille Bénard, Sébastien Acket, Yannick Rossez, Olivier Fernandez, Thierry Berton, Yves Gibon, Cécile Cabasson
The way plants are grown and samples are harvested, prepared, and extracted has a profound impact on the output of a metabolomics experiment. In this chapter, we detail the experimental procedures from plant cultivation to extract preparation, in order to avoid difficulties that could result in contamination or undesired changes of the analytes. Two plant organs are mentioned as examples: tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum). Extractions designed for the untargeted analysis of semipolar compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and targeted analysis of fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) are described...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761430/gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-13-c-labeling-studies-in-plant-metabolomics
#17
Valéria F Lima, Leonardo Perez de Souza, Thomas C R Williams, Alisdair R Fernie, Danilo M Daloso
Stable-isotope labeling analysis has been used to discover new metabolic pathways and their key regulatory points in a wide range of organisms. Given the complexity of the plant metabolic network, this analysis provides information complementary to that obtained from metabolite profiling that can be used to understand how plants cope with adverse conditions, and how metabolism varies between different cells, tissues, and organs. Here we describe the experimental procedures from sample harvesting and extraction to mass spectral analysis and interpretation that allow the researcher to perform 13 C-labeling experiments...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755449/immunization-elicits-antigen-specific-antibody-sequestration-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-sensory-neurons
#18
Manojkumar Gunasekaran, Prodyot K Chatterjee, Andrew Shih, Gavin H Imperato, Meghan Addorisio, Gopal Kumar, Annette Lee, John F Graf, Dan Meyer, Michael Marino, Christopher Puleo, Jeffrey Ashe, Maureen A Cox, Tak W Mak, Chad Bouton, Barbara Sherry, Betty Diamond, Ulf Andersson, Thomas R Coleman, Christine N Metz, Kevin J Tracey, Sangeeta S Chavan
The immune and nervous systems are two major organ systems responsible for host defense and memory. Both systems achieve memory and learning that can be retained, retrieved, and utilized for decades. Here, we report the surprising discovery that peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of immunized mice contain antigen-specific antibodies. Using a combination of rigorous molecular genetic analyses, transgenic mice, and adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that DRGs do not synthesize these antigen-specific antibodies, but rather sequester primarily IgG1 subtype antibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755448/low-light-anoxygenic-photosynthesis-and-fe-s-biogeochemistry-in-a-microbial-mat
#19
Sebastian Haas, Dirk de Beer, Judith M Klatt, Artur Fink, Rebecca McCauley Rench, Trinity L Hamilton, Volker Meyer, Brian Kakuk, Jennifer L Macalady
We report extremely low-light-adapted anoxygenic photosynthesis in a thick microbial mat in Magical Blue Hole, Abaco Island, The Bahamas. Sulfur cycling was reduced by iron oxides and organic carbon limitation. The mat grows below the halocline/oxycline at 30 m depth on the walls of the flooded sinkhole. In situ irradiance at the mat surface on a sunny December day was between 0.021 and 0.084 μmol photons m-2 s-1 , and UV light (<400 nm) was the most abundant part of the spectrum followed by green wavelengths (475-530 nm)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754493/exploration-of-near-infrared-emissive-colloidal-multinary-lead-halide-perovskite-nanocrystals-using-an-automated-microfluidic-platform
#20
Ioannis Lignos, Viktoriia Morad, Yevhen Shynkarenko, Caterina Bernasconi, Richard M Maceiczyk, Loredana Protesescu, Federica Bertolotti, Sudhir Kumar, Stefan T Ochsenbein, Norberto Masciocchi, Antonietta Guagliardi, Chih-Jen Shih, Maryna I Bodnarchuk, Andrew J deMello, Maksym V Kovalenko
Hybrid organic-inorganic and fully inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have recently emerged as versatile solution-processable light-emitting and light-harvesting optoelectronic materials. A particularly difficult challenge lies in warranting the practical utility of such semiconductor NCs in the red and infrared spectral regions. In this context, all three archetypal A-site monocationic perovskites-CH3NH3PbI3, CH(NH2)2PbI3, and CsPbI3-suffer from either chemical or thermodynamic instabilities in their bulk form...
May 12, 2018: ACS Nano
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