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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932219/the-effects-of-long-term-management-on-patterns-of-carbon-storage-in-a-northern-highbush-blueberry-production-system
#1
Denise Nemeth, John G Lambrinos, Bernadine C Strik
Perennial crops potentially provide a sink for atmospheric carbon. However, there is a poor understanding of how perennial crops differ in their carbon allocation patterns, and few studies have tested how agronomic practices such as fertilization influence long-term patterns of carbon allocation in actual production systems. In this study, we report results of a long-term field experiment that tested the individual and combined effects of organic matter incorporation and nitrogen fertilization on carbon allocation...
December 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931516/expansion-of-hair-follicle-stem-cells-sticking-to-isolated-sebaceous-glands-to-generate-in-vivo-epidermal-structures
#2
Huishan Zhang, Huashan Zhao, Jingqiao Qiao, Shoubing Zhang, Shuang Liu, Na Li, Xiaohua Lei, Lina Ning, Yujing Cao, Enkui Duan
Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are considered one of the useful donor cell types for skin regenerative medicine owing to their robust proliferative capacity and multipotency. However, methods for easily and effectively obtaining HFSCs from a limited skin biopsy are still lacking. Here we report a novel approach for obtaining a subpopulation of HFSCs from a small skin sample from the rat tail, which uses the sebaceous glands (SGs) to capture the adjacent HFSCs. By means of organ culture, keratinocytes were expanded from the detached SGs, which also included adherent HFSCs from the hair follicle that could be passaged at the single-cell level...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931379/bioenergy-from-biofuel-residues-and-wastes
#3
B S Choudri, Mahad Baawain
This review includes works published in the general scientific literature during 2015 on the production of bioenergy and biofuel from waste residues generated during bioethanol and biodiesel production with a brief overview of current and emerging feedstocks. A section of this review summarizes literature on culturing algae for biofuels including bioreactors and open pond cultivation systems with the utilization of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients. New methods applicable to the mass culture of algae are highlighted...
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930831/nutrient-limitation-in-tropical-secondary-forests-following-different-management-practices
#4
R Chelsea Nagy, Edward B Rastetter, Christopher Neill, Stephen Porder
Secondary forests now make up more than half of all tropical forests, and constraints on their biomass accumulation will influence the strength of the terrestrial carbon (C) sink in the coming decades. However the variance in secondary tropical forest biomass for a given stand age and climate is high and our understanding of why is limited. We constructed a model of terrestrial C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling to examine the influence of disturbance and management practices on nutrient limitation and biomass recovery in secondary tropical forests...
December 8, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930823/cultivable-microbiome-of-fresh-white-button-mushrooms
#5
Werner Rossouw, Lise Korsten
Microbial dynamics on commercially grown white button mushrooms is of importance in terms of food safety assurance and quality control. The purpose of this study was to establish the microbial profile of fresh white button mushrooms. The total microbial load was determined through standard viable counts. Presence and isolation of gram-negative bacteria including coagulase positive Staphylococci were performed using a selective enrichment approach. Dominant and presumptive organisms were confirmed using molecular methods...
December 8, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928494/synthetically-tuneable-biomimetic-artificial-photosynthetic-reaction-centres-that-closely-resemble-the-natural-system-in-purple-bacteria
#6
Sai-Ho Lee, Iain M Blake, Allan G Larsen, James A McDonald, Kei Ohkubo, Shunichi Fukuzumi, Jeffrey R Reimers, Maxwell J Crossley
Porphyrin-based photosynthetic reaction centre (PRC) mimics, ZnPQ-Q2HP-C60 and MP2Q-Q2HP-C60 (M = Zn or 2H), designed to have a similar special-pair electron donor and similar charge-separation distances, redox processes and photochemical reaction rates to those in the natural PRC from purple bacteria, have been synthesised and extensive photochemical studies performed. Mechanisms of electron-transfer reactions are fully investigated using femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. In benzonitrile, all models show picosecond-timescale charge-separations and the final singlet charge-separations with the microsecond-timescale...
October 19, 2016: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924528/mycotoxins-an-underhand-food-problem
#7
Antonio Moretti, Antonio F Logrieco, Antonia Susca
Among the food safety issues, the occurrence of fungal species able to produce toxic metabolites on the agro-food products has acquired a general attention. These compounds, the mycotoxins, generally provided of low molecular weight, are the result of the secondary metabolism of the toxigenic fungi. They may have toxic activity toward the plants, but mostly represent a serious risk for human and animal health worldwide, since they can be accumulated on many final crop products and they have a broad range of toxic biological activities...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920379/domestication-impacts-on-plant-herbivore-interactions-a-meta-analysis
#8
Susan R Whitehead, Martin M Turcotte, Katja Poveda
For millennia, humans have imposed strong selection on domesticated crops, resulting in drastically altered crop phenotypes compared with wild ancestors. Crop yields have increased, but a long-held hypothesis is that domestication has also unintentionally decreased plant defences against herbivores. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis comparing insect herbivore resistance and putative plant defence traits between crops and their wild relatives. Our database included 2098 comparisons made across 73 crops in 89 studies...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920373/human-influences-on-evolution-and-the-ecological-and-societal-consequences
#9
Andrew P Hendry, Kiyoko M Gotanda, Erik I Svensson
Humans have dramatic, diverse and far-reaching influences on the evolution of other organisms. Numerous examples of this human-induced contemporary evolution have been reported in a number of 'contexts', including hunting, harvesting, fishing, agriculture, medicine, climate change, pollution, eutrophication, urbanization, habitat fragmentation, biological invasions and emerging/disappearing diseases. Although numerous papers, journal special issues and books have addressed each of these contexts individually, the time has come to consider them together and thereby seek important similarities and differences...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918939/the-shady-side-of-leaf-development-the-role-of-the-revoluta-kanadi1-module-in-leaf-patterning-and-auxin-mediated-growth-promotion
#10
REVIEW
Paz Merelo, Esther Botterweg Paredes, Marcus G Heisler, Stephan Wenkel
Leaves are present in all land plants and are specialized organs for light harvesting. They arise at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and develop into lamina structures that exhibit adaxial/abaxial (upper/lower side of the leaf) polarity. At the molecular level, an intricate regulatory network determines ad-/abaxial polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, where the Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-ZIPIII) and KANADI (KAN) proteins are key mediators. The HD-ZIPIII REVOLUTA (REV) is expressed in the adaxial domain of lateral organs, whereas KAN1 is involved in abaxial differentiation...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914642/chemical-and-physical-properties-of-biomass-burning-aerosols-and-their-ccn-activity-a-case-study-in-beijing-china
#11
Zhijun Wu, Jing Zheng, Yu Wang, Dongjie Shang, Zhoufei Du, Yuanhang Zhang, Min Hu
Biomass burning emits large amounts of both trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. It plays a profound role in regional air quality and climate change. In the present study, an intensive campaign was carried out at an urban site in Beijing, China, in June 2014, which covered the winter wheat harvest season over the North China Plain (NCP). Meanwhile, two evident biomass-burning events were observed. A clear burst in ultrafine particles (below 100nm in diameter, PM1) and subsequent particle growth took place during the events...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914476/lidocaine-relaxation-in-isolated-rat-aortic-rings-is-enhanced-by-endothelial-removal-possible-role-of-kv-katp-channels-and-a2a-receptor-crosstalk
#12
Aryadi Arsyad, Geoffrey P Dobson
BACKGROUND: Lidocaine is an approved local anesthetic and Class 1B antiarrhythmic with a number of ancillary properties. Our aim was to investigate lidocaine's vasoreactivity properties in intact versus denuded rat thoracic aortic rings, and the effect of inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO), prostenoids, voltage-dependent Kv and KATP channels, membrane Na(+)/K(+) pump, and A2a and A2b receptors. METHODS: Aortic rings were harvested from adult male Sprague Dawley rats and equilibrated in an organ bath containing oxygenated, modified Krebs-Henseleit solution, pH 7...
December 3, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911923/morphology-and-hydraulic-architecture-of-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-syrah-and-torront%C3%A3-s-riojano-plants-are-unaffected-by-variations-in-red-to-far-red-ratio
#13
Carina Verónica González, María Florencia Jofré, Hernán F Vila, Markus Stoffel, Rubén Bottini, Carla Valeria Giordano
Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909623/distribution-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-bladders-of-fetal-rats-with-retinoic-acid-induced-myelomeningocele
#14
Ali Tekin, Osman Zeki Karakuş, Gülce Hakgüder, Oğuz Ateş, Erdener Özer, Mustafa Olguner, Feza Miraç Akgür
OBJECTIVE: Myelomeningocele (MMC) is one of the most common reason of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in children. Although neurogenic bladder dysfunction occurrence is related with bladder innervation, also there are some changes seen in the smooth muscle and neural cells of the bladder. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are the pacemaker cells found in organs with peristaltic activity. Although it has been shown that ICC are diminished in the rat urinary bladder with traumatic spinal cord injury, there is no data about ICC in fetal rat bladders with MMC...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909293/major-losses-of-nutrients-following-a-severe-drought-in-a-boreal-forest
#15
Daniel Houle, Geneviève Lajoie, Louis Duchesne
Because of global warming, the frequency and severity of droughts are expected to increase, which will have an impact on forest ecosystem health worldwide(1). Although the impact of drought on tree growth and mortality is being increasingly documented(2-4), very little is known about the impact on nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Here, based on long-term monitoring data, we report nutrient fluxes in a boreal forest before, during and following a severe drought in July 2012. During and shortly after the drought, we observed high throughfall (rain collected below the canopy) concentrations of nutrient base cations (potassium, calcium and magnesium), chlorine, phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), differing by one to two orders of magnitude relative to the long-term normal, and resulting in important canopy losses...
November 28, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907093/mangrove-crab-ucides-cordatus-removal-does-not-affect-sediment-parameters-and-stipule-production-in-a-one-year-experiment-in-northern-brazil
#16
Nathalie Pülmanns, Ulf Mehlig, Inga Nordhaus, Ulrich Saint-Paul, Karen Diele
Mangrove crabs influence ecosystem processes through bioturbation and/or litter feeding. In Brazilian mangroves, the abundant and commercially important crab Ucides cordatus is the main faunal modifier of microtopography establishing up to 2 m deep burrows. They process more than 70% of the leaf litter and propagule production, thus promoting microbial degradation of detritus and benefiting microbe-feeding fiddler crabs. The accelerated nutrient turn-over and increased sediment oxygenation mediated by U. cordatus may enhance mangrove tree growth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902726/a-landscape-view-of-agricultural-insecticide-use-across-the-conterminous-us-from-1997-through-2012
#17
Timothy D Meehan, Claudio Gratton
Simplification of agricultural landscapes is expected to have positive effects on many crop pests and negative effects on their natural enemies, potentially leading to increased pest pressure, decreased crop yield, and increased insecticide use. While many intermediate links in this causal chain have empirical support, there is mixed evidence for ultimate relationships between landscape simplification, crop yield, and insecticide use, especially at large spatial and temporal scales. We explored relationships between landscape simplification (proportion of a county in harvested cropland) and insecticide use (proportion of harvested cropland treated with insecticides), using county-level data from the US Census of Agriculture and a variety of standard and spatiotemporal regression techniques...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900719/changes-of-soil-bacterial-activities-and-functions-after-different-n-additions-in-a-temperate-forest
#18
Peng Guo, Tiwen Han, Li Zhang, Shushan Li, Dongzhu Ma, Yuhan Du
It has been shown that different nitrogen (N) addition led to various influences on soil microbial activities in forest ecosystems; however, the changes of bacteria were still unclear. In this work, inorganic N (NH4NO3) and organic N (urea and glycine) were fertilized with different ratios (5:0, 1:4, 3:2, 2:3, and 1:4) on temperate forest soils, while fungicide (cycloheximide) was simultaneously added on half of each treatment to inhibit fungal activities (leaving only bacteria). After a 3-year field experiment, soil samples were harvested, then microbial enzymatic activities involved in carbon (C), and N and phosphorus (P) cycles were determined...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900511/non-doped-deep-blue-and-doped-white-electroluminescence-devices-based-on-phenanthroimidazole-derivative
#19
Shuo Chen, Yukun Wu, Shoucheng Hu, Yi Zhao, Daining Fang
A novel deep-blue emitter PhImPOTD based on phenathroimidazole was synthesized, which is incorporated by an electron-donating dibenzothiophene unit and electron-withdrawing phenanthroimidazole and diphenylphosphine oxide moieties. Furthermore, the weak π-π stacking and intermolecular aggregation render the photoluminescence quantum yield is as high as 0.34 in the solid state. Non-doped organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on PhImPOTD emitter exhibits a low turn-on voltage of 3.6 V, a favorable efficiency of 1...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898862/the-influence-of-supplemental-zn-amino-acid-complex-and-ractopamine-hydrochloride-feeding-duration-on-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-finishing-beef-cattle
#20
O N Genther-Schroeder, M E Branine, S L Hansen
Previous research indicates that finishing steer ADG and G:F increases linearly with increasing dietary Zn-amino acid complex (ZnAA) supplementation in cattle fed ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of supplemental Zn-amino acid complex on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing steers fed RAC for 0, 28, or 42 d prior to harvest. This study was organized as 2 groups (GRP) of steers fed concurrently, for 91 (GRP 1) or 84 d (GRP 2). A total of 324 steers (463 ± 23...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
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