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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053932/the-patterns-of-in-vitro-cell-death-and-inflammatory-cytokines-induced-by-distinct-bcg-vaccine-strains-are-differentially-induced-in-human-mononuclear-cells
#1
C Ponte, M Hacker, M Moraes, L Castello-Branco, F Silva, P Antas
Tuberculosis (TB) remains among the world's leading cause of mortality. For its control, studies of TB vaccines are needed. Since live-attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only TB vaccine currently in use, studies on the protective role of BCG are required. In this study, we analyzed host cells purified directly from whole blood of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative volunteers, comprising adult healthy donors (HD) and neonates (umbilical cord bloods, UCB), with the aim to directly compare in vitro immune responses with distinct BCG strains in human mononuclear cells...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051764/polyfunctional-cd4-t-cells-as-targets-for-tuberculosis-vaccination
#2
REVIEW
Deborah A Lewinsohn, David M Lewinsohn, Thomas J Scriba
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite the widespread use of the only licensed vaccine, Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). Eradication of TB will require a more effective vaccine, yet evaluation of new vaccine candidates is hampered by lack of defined correlates of protection. Animal and human studies of intracellular pathogens have extensively evaluated polyfunctional CD4(+) T cells producing multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) as a possible correlate of protection from infection and disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050759/modeling-tuberculosis-pathogenesis-through-ex-vivo-lung-tissue-infection
#3
Pilar Carranza-Rosales, Irma Edith Carranza-Torres, Nancy Elena Guzmán-Delgado, Gerardo Lozano-Garza, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Carmen Molina-Torres, Javier Vargas Villarreal, Lucio Vera-Cabrera, Jorge Castro-Garza
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Several in vitro and in vivo experimental models have been used to study TB pathogenesis and induction of immune response during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Precision cut lung tissue slices (PCLTS) is an experimental model, in which all the usual cell types of the organ are found, the tissue architecture and the interactions amongst the different cells are maintained. PCLTS in good physiological conditions, monitored by MTT assay and histology, were infected with either virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv or the TB vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049231/dose-duration-and-strain-of-bacillus-calmette-guerin-in-the-treatment-of-nonmuscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#4
Yongjun Quan, Chang Wook Jeong, Cheol Kwak, Hyeon Hoe Kim, Hyung Suk Kim, Ja Hyeon Ku
BACKGROUND: Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillation is widely used as an adjuvant therapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in patients with intermediate- and high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, the effective dose, duration, and strain of BCG have not yet been clearly determined. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between dose, duration, and strain of BCG and clinical outcomes in NMIBC patients treated with TURBT. METHODS: We conducted a literature search in Embase, Scopus, and PubMed databases for all relevant articles published up to October 2016 in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis guidelines...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048475/in-vitro-infection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induces-a-distinct-immunological-pattern-in-blood-from-healthy-relatives-of-tuberculosis-patients
#5
Javier Juan-García, Silvia García-García, José Manuel Guerra-Laso, Sara Raposo-García, Cristina Diez-Tascón, Teresa Nebreda-Mayoral, Eduardo López-Fidalgo, Ramiro López-Medrano, Araceli Fernández-Maraña, Octavio Miguel Rivero-Lezcano
Part of the susceptibility to tuberculosis has a genetic basis, which is clear in primary immunodeficiencies, but is less evident in apparently immunocompetent subjects. Immune responses were analysed in blood samples from tuberculosis patients and their healthy first-degree relatives who were infected in vitro with mycobacteria (either Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. bovis BCG). The antimicrobial activity against M. tuberculosis in blood from relatives was significantly lower than that observed in healthy controls...
October 10, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048388/regulatory-t-cells-and-tumor-associated-macrophages-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-in-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-treated-with-intravesical-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-a-long-term-follow-up-study-of-a-japanese-cohort
#6
Makito Miyake, Yoshihiro Tatsumi, Daisuke Gotoh, Sayuri Ohnishi, Takuya Owari, Kota Iida, Kenta Ohnishi, Shunta Hori, Yosuke Morizawa, Yoshitaka Itami, Yasushi Nakai, Takeshi Inoue, Satoshi Anai, Kazumasa Torimoto, Katsuya Aoki, Keiji Shimada, Noboru Konishi, Nobumichi Tanaka, Kiyohide Fujimoto
The clinical significance of regulatory T cells (Treg) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in the tumor microenvironment of human bladder cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study is to explore their relevance to oncological features in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We carried out immunohistochemical analysis of forkhead box P3 (FOXP3, Treg maker), CD204 (TAM marker), and interleukin-6 (IL6) using surgical specimens obtained from 154 NMIBC patients. The Treg and TAM counts surrounding the cancer lesion and IL6-positive cancer cell counts were evaluated against clinicopathological variables...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046306/a-novel-yeast-based-therapeutic-vaccine-for-tuberculosis-gi-19007
#7
Thomas H King, Crystal A Shanley, Zhimin Guo, Donald Bellgrau, Timothy Rodell, Synthia Furney, Marcela Henao-Tamayo, Ian M Orme
As yet, very few vaccine candidates with activity in animals against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection have been tested as therapeutic "post-exposure" vaccines. We recently described two pools of mycobacterial proteins with this activity and here we describe further studies in which four of these proteins (Rv1738, Rv2032, Rv3130, and Rv3841) were generated as a fusion polypeptide, and then delivered in a novel yeast-based platform ("Tarmogen®") which itself has immunostimulatory properties including activation of Toll-like receptors...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034222/risk-factor-assessment-in-high-risk-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-treated-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#8
Serge Holz, Simone Albisinni, Jacques Gilsoul, Michel Pirson, Véronique Duthie, Thierry Quackels, Marc Vanden Bossche, Thierry Roumeguère
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk factors associated with recurrence, progression and survival in high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and validate the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and Spanish Urological Club for Oncological Treatment (CUETO) scores. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all BCG-treated NMIBC patients from 1998 to 2012. Multiple variables were tested as risk factors for recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival (PFS)...
2017: Research and Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034213/a-promising-listeria-vectored-vaccine-induces-th1-type-immune-responses-and-confers-protection-against-tuberculosis
#9
Yuelan Yin, Kai Lian, Dan Zhao, Chengwu Tao, Xiang Chen, Weijun Tan, Xiaobo Wang, Zhengzhong Xu, Maozhi Hu, Yan Rao, Xiaohui Zhou, Zhiming Pan, Xiaoming Zhang, Xin'an Jiao
Deaths associated with tuberculosis (TB) is rising and accounted for 1.4 million deaths in 2015 many of which were due to drug-resistant bacteria. Vaccines represent an important medical intervention, but the current Bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is not ideal for the protection of teenagers and adults. Therefore, a safe and effective vaccine is urgently needed. In this study, we designed a novel vaccine using an attenuated Listeria monocytogenes strain carrying fusion antigen FbpB-ESAT-6 (rLM) and characterized its safety and protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034173/mycobacteria-bovis-osteomyelitis-following-intravesical-bcg-for-bladder-cancer
#10
Karan Seegobin, Satish Maharaj, Cherisse Baldeo, Carmen Isache, Bharatsinh Gharia, Lara Zuberi
Mycobacteria Bovis osteomyelitis is a rare adverse effect after Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) intravesical therapy. A 62-year-old male presented with acute spinal cord compression three months after completing his second course of therapy for bladder cancer. The first course with intravesical BCG was complicated with an episode of hematuria. He reported intermittent subjective fever for 3 weeks thereafter which resolved with Tylenol. Interferon-α2 B was added to the second cycle of intravesical BCG with the indication here being residual tumor, and was tolerated well...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030566/unobtrusive-nocturnal-heartbeat-monitoring-by-a-ballistocardiographic-sensor-in-patients-with-sleep-disordered-breathing
#11
Matthias Daniel Zink, Christoph Brüser, Björn-Ole Stüben, Andreas Napp, Robert Stöhr, Steffen Leonhardt, Nikolaus Marx, Karl Mischke, Jörg B Schulz, Johannes Schiefer
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is known for fluctuating heart rates and an increased risk of developing arrhythmias. The current reference for heartbeat analysis is an electrocardiogram (ECG). As an unobtrusive alternative, we tested a sensor foil for mechanical vibrations to perform a ballistocardiography (BCG) and applied a novel algorithm for beat-to-beat cycle length detection. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between beat-to-beat cycle length detection by the BCG algorithm and simultaneously recorded ECG...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029943/bcg-immune-activation-reduces-growth-and-angiogenesis-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Carolina Sánchez-Rodríguez, Keyliz Peraza Cruces, Juan Riestra Ayora, Eduardo Martín-Sanz, Ricardo Sanz-Fernández
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide and is associated with poor survival and significant treatment morbidity. The immune profile in patients with HNSCC is immunosuppressive and presents cytokine-mediated adaptive immune responses, triggered apoptosis of T cells, and alterations in antigen processing machinery. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy has been used successfully as a treatment for several types of cancer. In the present study, we sought to determine the antitumor effect of soluble mediators from peripheral blood mononuclear immune cells (PBMCs) activated with BCG vaccine in a three-dimensional coculture model of HNSCC growth using FaDu hypopharynx carcinoma squamous cells...
October 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028973/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-newborn-mva85a-vaccination-and-selective-delayed-bacille-calmette-guerin-bcg-for-infants-of-hiv-infected-mothers-a-phase-2-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Elisa Nemes, Anneke C Hesseling, Michele Tameris, Katya Mauff, Katrina Downing, Humphrey Mulenga, Penelope Rose, Marieke van der Zalm, Sharon Mbaba, Danelle Van As, Willem A Hanekom, Gerhard Walzl, Thomas J Scriba, Helen McShane, Mark Hatherill
Background: Vaccination of HIV-infected infants with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is contraindicated. HIV-exposed newborns need a new tuberculosis (TB) vaccination strategy that protects against TB early in life; and avoids the potential risk of BCG disease until after HIV infection has been excluded. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial compared newborn MVA85A prime vaccination (1 x10 8 PFU) vs. Candin® control, followed by selective deferred BCG vaccination at 8 weeks of age for HIV-uninfected infants, and 12 months follow-up for safety and immunogenicity...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026546/systemic-bcg-osis-following-intravesical-bcg-instillation-for-bladder-carcinoma
#14
Frank Liaw, Yan Yu Tan, David Hendry
Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to be an effective form of immunotherapy for bladder cancer. This case report describes a patient who develops systemic BCG-osis following intravesical BCG instillation and demonstrates the importance of being aware of more severe complications associated with BCG immunotherapy.
October 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025965/inherited-il-12r%C3%AE-1-deficiency-in-a-child-with-bcg-adenitis-and-oral-candidiasis-a-case-report
#15
Nevin Hatipoglu, B Haluk Güvenç, Caroline Deswarte, Kaya Koksalan, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jacinta Bustamante
Tuberculosis is a major worldwide problem, and protection from it is achieved mainly by live attenuated bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine, which is capable of causing disease in immunocompromised host. Oral thrush is abnormal in healthy children, which suggests an underlying immunodeficiency. Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by a selective predisposition to weakly virulent Mycobacteria and Salmonella and also predisposition to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis...
October 12, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025083/the-duration-of-protection-of-school-aged-bcg-vaccination-in-england-a-population-based-case-control-study
#16
Punam Mangtani, Patrick Nguipdop-Djomo, Ruth H Keogh, Jonathan A C Sterne, Ibrahim Abubakar, Peter G Smith, Paul E M Fine, Emilia Vynnycky, John M Watson, David Elliman, Marc Lipman, Laura C Rodrigues
Background: Evidence of protection from childhood Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) against tuberculosis (TB) in adulthood, when most transmission occurs, is important for TB control and resource allocation. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study of protection by BCG given to children aged 12-13 years against tuberculosis occurring 10-29 years later. We recruited UK-born White subjects with tuberculosis and randomly sampled White community controls...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019177/long-term-survival-after-complete-surgical-resection-and-adjuvant-immunotherapy-for-distant-melanoma-metastases
#17
Mark B Faries, Nicola Mozzillo, Mohammed Kashani-Sabet, John F Thompson, Mark C Kelley, Ronald C DeConti, Jeffrey E Lee, James F Huth, Jeffrey Wagner, Angus Dalgleish, Daniel Pertschuk, Christopher Nardo, Stacey Stern, Robert Elashoff, Guy Gammon, Donald L Morton
BACKGROUND: This phase III study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an allogeneic whole-cell vaccine (Canvaxin™) plus bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) after complete resection of stage IV melanoma. METHODS: After complete resection of ≤5 distant metastases, patients were randomly assigned to BCG+Canvaxin (BCG/Cv) or BCG+placebo (BCG/Pl). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS), and immune response measured by skin test (ClinicalTrials...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994883/long-term-outcome-of-intravesical-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-therapy-with-maintenance-for-urinary-bladder-carcinoma-in-situ-about-47-cases
#18
Sataa Sallami, Hassen Khouni, Mahmoud Ben Atta, Sana Abou El Makarim, Mohamed Bechir Zouari, Sami Ben Rhouma
INTRODUCTION: Data concerning the efficacy of intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) on carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder are limited. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed long-term outcomes of instillation therapy with BCG to treat bladder CIS, evaluated its effectiveness and safety and searched for prognostic factors that could predict disease recurrence and progression. METHODS: Between March 1994 and December 2010, 47 patients (male: 40; female: 7) with median age of 59,5 years (range 40-76 years), diagnosed with bladder CIS underwent weekly BCG instillations (75 mg of Pasteur strain) for six weeks followed by 6 monthly instillations...
December 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993696/an-eqtl-variant-of-zxdc-is-associated-with-ifn-%C3%AE-production-following-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigen-specific-stimulation
#19
Fabienne Jabot-Hanin, Aurélie Cobat, Jacqueline Feinberg, Marianna Orlova, Jonathan Niay, Caroline Deswarte, Christine Poirier, Ioannis Theodorou, Jacinta Bustamante, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Alexandre Alcaïs, Eileen G Hoal, Christophe Delacourt, Erwin Schurr, Laurent Abel
There is a large inter-individual variability in the response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In previous linkage analyses, we identified a major locus on chromosome region 8q controlling IFN-γ production after stimulation with live BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin), and a second locus on chromosome region 3q affecting IFN-γ production triggered by the 6-kDa early secretory antigen target (ESAT-6), taking into account the IFN-γ production induced by BCG (IFNγ-ESAT6BCG). High-density genotyping and imputation identified ~100,000 variants within each linkage region, which we tested for association with the corresponding IFN-γ phenotype in families from a tuberculosis household contact study in France...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991455/pyrazinoic-acid-inhibits-mycobacterial-coenzyme-a-biosynthesis-by-binding-to-aspartate-decarboxylase-pand
#20
Pooja Gopal, Wilson Nartey, Priya Ragunathan, Jansy Passiflora Sarathy, Firat Kaya, Michelle Yee, Claudia Setzer, Malathy Sony Subramanian Manimekalai, Veronique Dartois, Gerhard Grüber, Thomas Dick
Previously, we showed that a major in vitro and in vivo mechanism of resistance to pyrazinoic acid (POA), the bioactive component of the critical tuberculosis (TB) prodrug pyrazinamide (PZA), involves missense mutations in the aspartate decarboxylase PanD, an enzyme required for coenzyme A biosynthesis. What is the mechanism of action of POA? Upon demonstrating that treatment of M. bovis BCG with POA resulted in a depletion of intracellular coenzyme A and confirming that this POA-mediated depletion is prevented by either missense mutations in PanD or exogenous supplementation of pantothenate, we hypothesized that POA binds to PanD and that this binding blocks the biosynthetic pathway...
October 9, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
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