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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682888/a-polymeric-immunoglobulin-antigen-fusion-protein-strategy-for-enhancing-vaccine-immunogenicity
#1
Gina R Webster, Craig van Dolleweerd, Thais Guerra, Szymon Stelter, Sven Hofmann, Mi-Young Kim, Audrey Y-H Teh, Gil Reynolds Diogo, Alastair Copland, Mathew Paul, Peter Hart, Rajko Reljic, Julian K-C Ma
In this study, a strategy based on polymeric immunoglobulin G scaffolds (PIGS), was used to produce a vaccine candidate for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A genetic fusion construct comprising genes encoding the mycobacterial Ag85B antigen, an immunoglobulin γ-chain fragment and the tailpiece from immunoglobulin μ chain was engineered. Expression was attempted in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and in Nicotiana benthamiana. The recombinant protein assembled into polymeric structures (TB-PIGS) in N. benthamiana, similar in size to polymeric IgM...
April 23, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681409/recombinant-bcg-rv2645-elicits-enhanced-protective-immunity-compared-to-bcg-in-vivo-with-induced-isgylation-related-genes-and-th1-and-th17-responses
#2
Wei Luo, Zilu Qu, Lingyun Zhang, Yan Xie, Fengling Luo, Yang Tan, Qin Pan, Xiao-Lian Zhang
There is a need to develop protective vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Recently, we identified an immunodominant T-cell antigen, Rv2645, from the region of deletion 13 (RD13) of M. tuberculosis (M. tb) H37Rv, which is absent in Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Here, a recombinant BCG expressing Rv2645, namely, BCG::Rv2645, was constructed. Compared to BCG, we found that BCG::Rv2645 improved the antigen presentation capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) and elicited much stronger Th1 and Th17 responses, higher CD44high CD62low effector memory CD4+ T cells (TEM ), and fewer T regulated cells (Treg) and regulatory B10 in mice...
April 19, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679523/the-incidence-of-tuberculosis-infection-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients-a-retrospective-cohort-study-from-a-center-in-turkey
#3
Şahika Zeynep Akı, Gülsan Türköz Sucak, Özlem Güzel Tunçcan, Nurdan Köktürk, Esin Şenol
Our results question the role of TST due to low specificity and sensitivity in regions where BCG is mandatory and in patients with hematologic malignancies and suggest that these general guidelines do not seem to apply to all situations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 21, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675017/-de-novo-fatty-acid-synthesis-during-mycobacterial-infection-is-a-prerequisite-for-the-function-of-highly-proliferative-t-cells-but-not-for-dendritic-cells-or-macrophages
#4
Philipp Stüve, Lucía Minarrieta, Hanna Erdmann, Catharina Arnold-Schrauf, Maxine Swallow, Melanie Guderian, Freyja Krull, Alexandra Hölscher, Peyman Ghorbani, Jochen Behrends, Wolf-Rainer Abraham, Christoph Hölscher, Tim D Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), the causative agent of human tuberculosis, is able to efficiently manipulate the host immune system establishing chronic infection, yet the underlying mechanisms of immune evasion are not fully understood. Evidence suggests that this pathogen interferes with host cell lipid metabolism to ensure its persistence. Fatty acid metabolism is regulated by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 and 2; both isoforms catalyze the conversion of acetyl-CoA into malonyl-CoA, but have distinct roles...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673906/interest-of-next-generation-sequencing-in-bcg-treated-high-risk-bladder-cancer
#5
C Jungels, N Martinez Chanza, S Albisinni, M Mercier, N d'Haene, S Rorive, T Roumeguère
OBJECTIVES: There are only few predictive factors for response of non-musculo-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy. Our study analyzed the results of the sequencing of new generation (NGS) targeted on 50 genes of oncological interest obtained on bladder resection parts in high-risk NMIBC patients treated with BCG, to describe this population from a molecular point of view and try to correlate these results in patients who present or not recurrence after BCG...
April 16, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673806/the-challenges-of-bacillus-of-calmette-guerin-bcg-therapy-for-high-risk-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-treatment-in-older-patients
#6
Marco Racioppi, Luca Di Gianfrancesco, Mauro Ragonese, Giuseppe Palermo, Emilio Sacco, PierFrancesco Bassi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a tailored endovesical immunotherapy protocol with biweekly BCG for elderly Patients with high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer (HG-NMIBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data from 200 patients older than 80 years newly diagnosed with HG-NMIBC: 100 (group 1) with multiple comorbidities (WHO PS 2-3, ASA score ≥3, Charlson Comorbidity index ≥3, GFR<60 mL/min) were treated with BCG induction course administered biweekly; 100 (group 2) with statistically significant better conditions were treated with standard weekly BCG therapy...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670618/bcg-and-adverse-events-in-the-context-of-leprosy
#7
Renate Richardus, Anouk van Hooij, Susan J F van den Eeden, Louis Wilson, Korshed Alam, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Annemieke Geluk
Background: Notwithstanding its beneficial immunoprophylactic outcomes regarding leprosy and childhood TB, BCG vaccination may cause adverse events, particularly of the skin. However, this local hyper-immune reactivity cannot be predicted before vaccination, nor is its association with protection against leprosy known. In this study we investigated the occurrence of adverse events after BCG (re)vaccination in contacts of leprosy patients and analyzed whether the concomitant systemic anti-mycobacterial immunity was associated with these skin manifestations...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670610/neonatal-immunization-rationale-current-state-and-future-prospects
#8
REVIEW
Elizabeth Whittaker, David Goldblatt, Peter McIntyre, Ofer Levy
Infections take their greatest toll in early life necessitating robust approaches to protect the very young. Here, we review the rationale, current state, and future research directions for one such approach: neonatal immunization. Challenges to neonatal immunization include natural concern about safety as well as a distinct neonatal immune system that is generally polarized against Th1 responses to many stimuli such that some vaccines that are effective in adults are not in newborns. Nevertheless, neonatal immunization could result in high-population penetration as birth is a reliable point of healthcare contact, and offers an opportunity for early protection of the young, including preterm newborns who are deficient in maternal antibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668816/compliance-with-the-vaccination-schedule-in-children-hospitalized-with-pneumonia-and-associated-factors
#9
Amanda Tabosa Pereira da Silva, Eduardo Jorge da Fonseca Lima, Maria de Fátima Costa Caminha, Andresa Tabosa Pereira da Silva, Edil de Albuquerque Rodrigues Filho, Carmina Silva Dos Santos
OBJECTIVE: To verify the adequacy and factors associated with compliance with the immunization schedule (BCG, DTP-Hib, MMR, PCV-10) in children hospitalized with pneumonia at a pediatric referral hospital in Northeast Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study with an analytical component, with a sample of 452 children hospitalized with pneumonia at the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira, between 2010 and 2013. The inclusion criterion was children aged from one month to less than five years of age with proof in the immunization record...
2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668641/comparison-of-10-year-overall-survival-between-patients-with-g1-and-g2-grade-ta-bladder-tumors
#10
Daniel Balan, Orsolya Martha, Calin Bogdan Chibelean, Sabin Tataru, Septimiu Voidezan, Anca Sin, Victor Deliu Matei, Mihai Dorin Vartolomei, Giuseppe Lucarelli, Antonio Cioffi, Francesco Del Giudice, Ettore De Berardinis, Angela Borda, Gian Maria Busetto, Matteo Ferro, Akos Pytel, Daniel Porav-Hodade
To compare long-term overall survival (OS) in patients with G1 and G2 grade Ta bladder cancer after transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBTs). Secondary aim was to investigate clinical and pathologic prognostic factors for OS of Ta patients, except G3/high grade (HG).A total of 243 patients, retrospectively selected, with Ta nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) underwent TURBT between January 2006 and December 2008 (median follow-up 109 months). Inclusion criteria were: Ta at first manifestation, G1 or G2 grade with no associated carcinoma in situ (CIS)...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666128/prognostic-value-of-ki67-in-bcg-treated-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#11
Yuhui He, Ning Wang, Xiaofeng Zhou, Jianfeng Wang, Zhenshan Ding, Xing Chen, Yisen Deng
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the prognostic value of ki67 as a marker in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treated with BCG. METHODS: Studies were systematically retrieved from the relevant databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase), and the expiry date was May 2017. The research steps referred to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies that complied with the inclusion criteria were included...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661928/identification-and-evaluation-of-novel-protective-antigens-for-the-development-of-a-candidate-tb-subunit-vaccine
#12
Elena Stylianou, Rachel Harrington-Kandt, Julia Beglov, Naomi Bull, Nawamin Pinpathomrat, Gwendolyn M Swarbrick, Deborah A Lewinsohn, David M Lewinsohn, Helen McShane
The development of a vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M.tb ), is urgently needed. The only currently available vaccine, BCG, has variable efficacy. One approach in the global vaccine development effort is focused on boosting BCG using subunit vaccines. The identification of novel antigens for inclusion in subunit vaccines is a critical step in the TB vaccine development pathway. We selected four novel mycobacterial antigens recognised during the course of human infection...
April 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659820/recent-mouse-models-and-vaccine-candidates-for-preventing-chronic-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-its-reactivation
#13
César Pedroza-Roldán, Mario Alberto Flores-Valdez
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge in public health worldwide. Until today, the only widely used and approved vaccine is the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG). This vaccine provides a highly variable level of protection against the active, pulmonary form of tuberculosis, and practically none against the latent form of TB infection. This disparity in protection has been extensively studied, and for this reason, several groups have focused their research on the quest for attenuated vaccines based on M...
August 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655632/ag85a-specific-cd4-t-cell-lines-derived-after-boosting-bcg-vaccinated-cattle-with-ad5-85a-possess-both-mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-and-anti-inflammatory-properties
#14
Hannah J Metcalfe, Lucia Biffar, Sabine Steinbach, Efrain Guzman, Tim Connelley, Ivan Morrison, H Martin Vordermeier, Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos
There is a need to improve the efficacy of the BCG vaccine against human and bovine tuberculosis. Previous data showed that boosting bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccinated cattle with a recombinant attenuated human type 5 adenovirally vectored subunit vaccine (Ad5-85A) increased BCG protection and was associated with increased frequency of Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cells post-boosting. Here, the capacity of Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell lines - derived before and after viral boosting - to interact with BCG-infected macrophages was evaluated...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650461/towards-designing-a-synthetic-antituberculosis-vaccine-the-rv3587c-peptide-inhibits-mycobacterial-entry-to-host-cells
#15
Mary Lilian Carabali-Isajar, Marisol Ocampo, Deisy Carolina Rodriguez, Magnolia Vanegas, Hernando Curtidor, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is considered one of the most successful pathogens in the history of mankind, having caused 1.7 million deaths in 2016. The amount of resistant and extensively resistant strains has increased; BCG has been the only vaccine to be produced in more than 100 years though it is still unable to prevent the disease's most disseminated form in adults; pulmonary tuberculosis. The search is thus still on-going for candidate antigens for an antituberculosis vaccine. This paper reports the use of a logical and rational methodology for finding such antigens, this time as peptides derived from the Rv3587c membrane protein...
April 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644393/treatment-of-carcinoma-in-situ-of-the-urinary-bladder-with-an-alpha-emitter-immunoconjugate-targeting-the-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-a-pilot-study
#16
Michael E Autenrieth, Christof Seidl, Frank Bruchertseifer, Thomas Horn, Florian Kurtz, Benedikt Feuerecker, Calogero D'Alessandria, Christian Pfob, Stephan Nekolla, Christos Apostolidis, Saed Mirzadeh, Jürgen E Gschwend, Markus Schwaiger, Klemens Scheidhauer, Alfred Morgenstern
PURPOSE: Patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder refractory to bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treatment are usually treated with cystectomy. Therefore, new treatment options with preservation of the urinary bladder are needed. The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of a novel targeted alpha-emitter immunotherapy for CIS after BCG treatment failure. METHODS: A pilot study was conducted in 12 patients (age range 64-86 years, ten men, two women) with biopsy-proven CIS of the bladder refractory to BCG treatment...
April 11, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627232/protective-efficacy-of-recombinant-bcg-over-expressing-protective-stage-specific-antigens-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#17
Claudio Counoupas, Rachel Pinto, Gayathri Nagalingam, Warwick J Britton, James A Triccas
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, yet current control strategies, including the existing BCG vaccine, have had little impact on disease control. CysVac2, a fusion protein comprising stage-specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, provided superior protective efficacy against chronic M. tuberculosis infection in mice, compared to BCG. To determine if the delivery of CysVac2 in the context of BCG could improve BCG-induced immunity and protection, we generated a recombinant strain of BCG overexpressing CysVac2 (rBCG:CysVac2)...
April 4, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627126/vaccination-against-tuberculosis
#18
Carlos Martin, Nacho Aguilo, Jesús Gonzalo-Asensio
BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccination is included in the immunization schedule for tuberculosis endemic countries with a global coverage at birth close to 90% worldwide. BCG was attenuated from Mycobacterium bovis almost a century ago, and provides a strong protection against disseminated forms of the disease, though very limited against pulmonary forms of tuberculosis, responsible for transmission. Novel prophylactic tuberculosis vaccines are in clinical development either to replace BCG or to improve its protection against respiratory forms of the disease...
April 4, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620541/screening-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-health-care-workers-working-in-hajj-pilgrimage-area-in-saudi-arabia-using-interferon-gamma-release-assay-and-tuberculin-skin-test
#19
Zakeya A Bukhary, Soliman M Amer, Magdy M Emara, Mohammad E Abdalla, Sahar A Ali
BACKGROUND: Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) is highly specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is the preferred test in BCG-vaccinated individuals. The few studies that have screened health care workers (HCWs) in Saudi Arabia for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) using IGRA have varied in agreement with the traditional tuberculin skin test (TST). OBJECTIVE: Assess the prevalence of LTBI among HCWs working in the Hajj pilgrimage using IGRA and TST and measuring their agreement...
March 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620231/granuloma-formation-in-the-liver-is-relatively-delayed-although-sustained-in-bcg%C3%A2-infected-mice-co%C3%A2-infected-with-plasmodium
#20
Bayaer Nashun, Jianlan You, Musi Ji, Siting Zhao, Li Qin, Xiaoping Chen
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of Plasmodium on the process of granuloma formation in Bacille Calmette‑Guerin (BCG)‑infected mice. Female six‑week‑old BALB/c mice were co‑infected with BCG and Plasmodium. The liver index, pathological alterations and quantity of granulomas in the mice were observed when the mice were co‑injected with BCG and Plasmodium. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) analysis...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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