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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118766/the-role-of-endotoxin-in-the-setting-of-cardiorenal-syndrome-type-5
#1
REVIEW
Anna Clementi, Grazia Maria Virzì, Alessandra Brocca, Claudio Ronco
Lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin, the major cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. It is able to activate the host defense system through the interaction with Toll-like receptor 4, thus triggering pro-inflammatory mechanisms. When the production of inflammatory mediators becomes uncontrolled and excessive, septic shock develops with multiple organ dysfunction, such as myocardial and renal impairment, which are hallmarks of cardiorenal syndrome type 5...
October 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111542/a-call-to-action-to-develop-integrated-curricula-in-cardiorenal-medicine
#2
Claudio Ronco, Federico Ronco, Peter A McCullough
With the adoption of the new definition and classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and its relevant subtypes, much attention has been placed on elucidating the mechanisms of heart and kidney interactions. The pathophysiologic pathways are of great interest by which acute heart failure may result in acute kidney injury (AKI; type 1), chronic heart failure accelerates the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD; type 2), AKI provokes cardiac events (type 3), and CKD increases the risk and severity of cardiovascular disease (type 4)...
2017: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111106/2017-comprehensive-update-of-the-canadian-cardiovascular-society-guidelines-for-the-management-of-heart-failure
#3
Justin A Ezekowitz, Eileen O'Meara, Michael A McDonald, Howard Abrams, Michael Chan, Anique Ducharme, Nadia Giannetti, Adam Grzeslo, Peter G Hamilton, George A Heckman, Jonathan G Howlett, Sheri L Koshman, Serge Lepage, Robert S McKelvie, Gordon W Moe, Miroslaw Rajda, Elizabeth Swiggum, Sean A Virani, Shelley Zieroth, Abdul Al-Hesayen, Alain Cohen-Solal, Michel D'Astous, Sabe De, Estrellita Estrella-Holder, Stephen Fremes, Lee Green, Haissam Haddad, Karen Harkness, Adrian F Hernandez, Simon Kouz, Marie-Hélène LeBlanc, Frederick A Masoudi, Heather J Ross, Andre Roussin, Bruce Sussex
Since the inception of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society heart failure (HF) guidelines in 2006, much has changed in the care for patients with HF. Over the past decade, the HF Guidelines Committee has published regular updates. However, because of the major changes that have occurred, the Guidelines Committee believes that a comprehensive reassessment of the HF management recommendations is presently needed, with a view to producing a full and complete set of updated guidelines. The primary and secondary Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF panel members as well as external experts have reviewed clinically relevant literature to provide guidance for the practicing clinician...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107962/apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-inhibition-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-cardiorenal-fibrosis-induced-by-uremic-toxins-implications-for-cardiorenal-syndrome
#4
Feby Savira, Longxing Cao, Ian Wang, Wendi Yang, Kevin Huang, Yue Hua, Beat M Jucker, Robert N Willette, Li Huang, Henry Krum, Zhiliang Li, Qiang Fu, Bing Hui Wang
Intracellular accumulation of protein-bound uremic toxins in the setting of cardiorenal syndrome leads to adverse effects on cardiorenal cellular functions, where cardiac hypertrophy and cardiorenal fibrosis are the hallmarks. In this study, we sought to determine if Apoptosis Signal-Regulated Kinase 1 (ASK1), an upstream regulator of cellular stress response, mediates cardiac hypertrophy and cardiorenal fibrosis induced by indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresol sulfate (PCS) in vitro, and whether ASK1 inhibition is beneficial to ameliorate these cellular effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101178/heart-functional-and-structural-compendium-of-cardiosplenic-and-cardiorenal-networks-in-acute-and-chronic-heart-failure-pathology
#5
Ganesh V Halade, Vasundhara Kain, Kevin A Ingle
Heart failure (HF) secondary to myocardial infarction (MI) is linked to kidney complications that comprise cellular, structural, functional, and survival indicators. However, the HF research is focused on left ventricle (LV) pathology. Here, we determined the comprehensive functional analysis of LV using echocardiography in transition from acute HF (AHF) to progressive CHF pathology and develop a histological compendium of the cardiosplenic and cardiorenal networks in pathological remodeling. In surgically-induced MI using permanent coronary ligation, the LV dysfunction is pronounced, with myocardium necrosis, wall-thinning and 20-30% LV rupture events that indicated AHF and CHF pathological remodeling in C57BL/6 male mice (2-4 months old; n=50)...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075956/visceral-congestion-in-heart-failure-right-ventricular-dysfunction-splanchnic-hemodynamics-and-the-intestinal-microenvironment
#6
REVIEW
Vincenzo B Polsinelli, Arjun Sinha, Sanjiv J Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Visceral venous congestion of the gut may play a key role in the pathogenesis of right-sided heart failure (HF) and cardiorenal syndromes. Here, we review the role of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, visceral congestion, splanchnic hemodynamics, and the intestinal microenvironment in the setting of right-sided HF. We review recent literature on this topic, outline possible mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and discuss potential therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: There are several mechanisms linking RV-gut interactions via visceral venous congestion which could result in (1) hypoxia and acidosis in enterocytes, which may lead to enhanced sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression with increased sodium and fluid retention; (2) decreased luminal pH in the intestines, which could lead to alteration of the gut microbiome which could increase gut permeability and inflammation; (3) alteration of renal hemodynamics with triggering of the cardiorenal syndrome; and (4) altered phosphate metabolism resulting in increased pulmonary artery stiffening, thereby increasing RV afterload...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070522/left-ventricular-assist-devices-and-the-kidney
#7
REVIEW
Daniel W Ross, Gerin R Stevens, Rimda Wanchoo, David T Majure, Sandeep Jauhar, Harold A Fernandez, Massini Merzkani, Kenar D Jhaveri
Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are common and implantation carries risk of AKI. LVADs are used as a bridge to heart transplantation or as destination therapy. Patients with refractory heart failure that develop chronic cardiorenal syndrome and CKD often improve after LVAD placement. Nevertheless, reversibility of CKD is hard to predict. After LVAD placement, significant GFR increases may be followed by a late return to near baseline GFR levels, and in some patients, a decline in GFR. In this review, we discuss changes in GFR after LVAD placement, the incidence of AKI and associated mortality after LVAD placement, the management of AKI requiring RRT, and lastly, we review salient features about cardiorenal syndrome learned from the LVAD experience...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065398/a-call-to-action-to-develop-integrated-curricula-in-cardiorenal-medicine
#8
Claudio Ronco, Federico Ronco, Peter A McCullough
With the adoption of the new definition and classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and its relevant subtypes, much attention has been placed on elucidating the mechanisms of heart and kidney interactions. Of great interest are the pathophysiological pathways by which acute heart failure may result in acute kidney injury (AKI; type 1), chronic heart failure accelerating the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD; type 2), AKI provoking cardiac events (type 3), and CKD increasing the risk and severity of cardiovascular disease (type 4)...
October 25, 2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047216/uteroplacental-insufficiency-in-rats-induces-renal-apoptosis-and-delays-nephrogenesis-completion
#9
James Sm Cuffe, Jessica F Briffa, Shannyn Rosser, Andrew L Siebel, Tania Romano, Deanne H Hryciw, Mary E Wlodek, Karen M Moritz
AIM: Uteroplacental insufficiency in rats reduces nephron endowment, leptin concentrations and programs cardiorenal disease in offspring. Cross-fostering growth restricted (Restricted) offspring onto a mother with normal lactation restores leptin concentrations and nephron endowment. This study aimed to determine if the reduced nephron endowment in Restricted offspring is due to delayed glomerular formation and dysregulation of renal genes regulating branching morphogenesis, apoptosis or leptin signalling...
October 19, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043996/clinical-therapeutic-strategy-of-recombinant-human-brain-natriuretic-peptide-and-dopamine-in-cardiorenal-syndrome-type-4-patients-combined-with-hypotension
#10
Bing Han, Hua Li, Qiaoli Ma
Aim of the present study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) and dopamine combination treatment in patients with cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (CRS4) combined with hypotension. A total of 160 CRS4 patients admitted to our hospital from July 2010 to December 2014 were recruited, and were randomly divided into two groups, the observational group (n=80) and the control group (n=80). CRS4 patients treated with dopamine were recruited into the control group...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021382/sustained-activation-of-guanylate-cyclase-a-with-tdt-a-natriuretic-peptide-derivative-exhibits-cardiorenal-protection-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-hypertensive-rats
#11
Shohei Oishi, Naoko Suzuki, Yuri Hasui, Tsuyoshi Homma, Masanori Obana, Takahiro Nagayama, Yasushi Fujio
Heart failure often presents with prognosis-relevant impaired renal function. To investigate whether the chronic activation of guanylate cyclase-A (GC-A) protects both heart and kidney, we examined the effects of TDT, a neprilysin (NEP)-resistant natriuretic peptide (NP) derivative, on cardiac and renal dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats (DS rats). Pretreatment with NEP or NEP inhibitor did not influence GC-A activation by TDT both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in a long-acting profile of TDT compared to native human atrial NP (hANP)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021350/is-the-way-to-someone-s-heart-through-their-stomach-the-cardiorenal-paradox-of-incretin-based-hypoglycemic-drugs-in-heart-failure
#12
Milton Packer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994186/chronic-kidney-disease-with-comorbid-cardiac-dysfunction-exacerbates-cardiac-and-renal-damage
#13
Shan Liu, Bing H Wang, Darren J Kelly, Henry Krum, Andrew R Kompa
To address the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying chronic kidney disease with comorbid cardiac dysfunction, we investigated renal and cardiac, functional and structural damage when myocardial infarction (MI) was applied in the setting of kidney injury (induced by 5/6 nephrectomy-STNx). STNx or Sham surgery was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with MI or Sham surgery performed 4 weeks later. Rats were maintained for a further 8 weeks. Rats (n = 36) were randomized into four groups: Sham+Sham, Sham+MI, STNx+Sham and STNx+MI...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984663/practical-management-of-concomitant-acute-heart-failure-and-worsening-renal-function-in-the-emergency-department
#14
João Pedro Ferreira, Tahar Chouihed, Pierre Naseyrollas, Bruno Levy, Marie F Seronde, Pascal Bilbault, François Braun, Gérald Roul, David Kénizou, Noura Zannad, Nicolas Girerd, Patrick Rossignol
Worsening renal function (i.e. any increase in creatinine or decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate) is common in patients admitted for acute heart failure in the emergency department. Although worsening renal function (WRF) has been associated with the occurrence of dismal outcomes, this only appears to be the case when associated with clinical deterioration. However, if the clinical status of the patient is improving, a certain increase in serum creatinine may be acceptable. This WRF, which is not associated with clinical deterioration or adverse outcomes (e...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982674/haptoglobin-2-2-phenotype-is-associated-with-increased-acute-kidney-injury-after-elective-cardiac-surgery-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Chenzhuo Feng, Bhiken I Naik, Wenjun Xin, Jennie Z Ma, David C Scalzo, Swapna Thammishetti, Robert H Thiele, Zhiyi Zuo, Jacob Raphael
BACKGROUND: Recent studies reported an association between the 2-2 phenotype of haptoglobin (Hp 2-2) and increased cardiorenal morbidity in nonsurgical diabetic patients. Our goal was to determine whether the Hp 2-2 phenotype was associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) after elective cardiac surgery in patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled 99 diabetic patients requiring elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954981/pharmacological-approach-for-drug-repositioning-against-cardiorenal-diseases
#16
Yoshito Zamami, Masaki Imanishi, Kenshi Takechi, Keisuke Ishizawa
New applications of approved clinically used drugs are being discovered. Drug repositioning is a proposed strategy for developing these drugs as therapeutic agents for different diseases. Currently, approximately 2000 drugs are used in Japan. However, the compound targets and pathways involved in the pharmacological actions of 70-80% of these drugs have not been adequately clarified. Pharmacological examination of approved drugs is an important task in drug repositioning and vital for improving drug development efficiency...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942138/ethnopharmacological-approaches-to-kidney-disease-prospecting-an-indigenous-species-from-brazilian-pantanal
#17
Cleide Adriane Signor Tirloni, Rhanany Alan Calloi Palozi, Thainá de Almeida Tomazetto, Paulo César de Paula Vasconcelos, Roosevelt Isaias Carvalho Souza, Ariany Carvalho Dos Santos, Valter Paes de Almeida, Jane Manfron Budel, Lauro Mera de Souza, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Although Luehea divaricata Mart. (Malvaceae) is popularly used by the population of the Brazilian Pantanal for the treatment of different types of kidney diseases, no study has been carried out to prove this ethnobotanical indication. AIM: To investigate the possible cardiorenal effects of an herbal preparation obtained from L. divaricata leaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, to provide quality control standards, a detailed morphological and microchemical characterization of L...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939714/kidney-disease-measures-and-left-ventricular-structure-and-function-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#18
Kunihiro Matsushita, Lucia Kwak, Yingying Sang, Shoshana H Ballew, Hicham Skali, Amil M Shah, Josef Coresh, Scott Solomon
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is one of the most important complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies comprehensively investigated left ventricular (LV) structure and function in relation to 2 key CKD measures, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR). METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 4175 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) participants (aged 66-90 years during 2011-2013), we quantified the association of eGFR and ACR with echocardiogram parameters of LV mass, size, systolic function, and diastolic function...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937442/orally-active-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-analogs
#19
William B Campbell, John D Imig, James M Schmitz, John R Falck
Biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regioisomers are synthesized from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases of endothelial, myocardial, and renal tubular cells. EETs relax vascular smooth muscle and decrease inflammatory cell adhesion and cytokine release. Renal EETs promote sodium excretion and vasodilation to decrease hypertension. Cardiac EETs reduce infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion injury and decrease fibrosis and inflammation in heart failure. In diabetes, EETs improve insulin sensitivity, increase glucose tolerance, and reduce the renal injury...
October 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931700/peritoneal-dialysis-for-the-treatment-of-cardiorenal-syndrome-type-1-a-prospective-brazilian-study
#20
Daniela Ponce, Cassiana Góes, Mariele Oliveira, Andre Balbi
This study aimed to explore the role of high-volume peritoneal dialysis (HVPD) in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 1 patients in relation to metabolic and fluid control and outcome. Sixty-four patients were treated by HVPD (prescribed Kt/V = 0.50/session), flexible catheter and cycler. Mean age was 68.8 ± 15.4 years, 54.7% needed intravenous inotropic agents and/or intravenous vasodilators, 31.2% were on mechanical ventilation, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was the main cause of acute disease heart failure (ADHF) 48...
September 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
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