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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226280/development-of-electrochemical-biosensor-for-detection-of-pathogenic-microorganism-in-asian-dust-events
#1
Min-Sang Yoo, Minguk Shin, Younghun Kim, Min Jang, Yoon-E Choi, Si Jae Park, Jonghoon Choi, Jinyoung Lee, Chulhwan Park
We developed a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-based electrochemical biosensor for the detection of Bacillus subtilis, one of the microorganisms observed in Asian dust events, which causes respiratory diseases such as asthma and pneumonia. SWCNTs plays the role of a transducer in biological antigen/antibody reaction for the electrical signal while 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester (1-PBSE) and ant-B. subtilis were performed as a chemical linker and an acceptor, respectively, for the adhesion of target microorganism in the developed biosensor...
February 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225155/remotely-supervised-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-increases-the-benefit-of-at-home-cognitive-training-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Leigh Charvet, Michael Shaw, Bryan Dobbs, Ariana Frontario, Kathleen Sherman, Marom Bikson, Abhishek Datta, Lauren Krupp, Esmail Zeinapour, Margaret Kasschau
OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy of remotely-supervised transcranial direct current stimulation (RS-tDCS) paired with cognitive training (CT) exercise in participants with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In a feasibility study of RS-tDCS in MS, participants completed ten sessions of tDCS paired with CT (1.5 mA × 20 min, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex montage). RS-tDCS participants were compared to a control group of adults with MS who underwent ten 20-min CT sessions through the same remotely supervised procedures...
February 22, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222676/meta-analysis-of-the-utility-of-culture-biopsy-and-direct-koh-examination-for-the-diagnosis-of-onychomycosis
#3
Verónica Velasquez-Agudelo, Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias
BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is a highly prevalent disease worldwide. There is no standard test for its diagnosis, which remains costly, wasteful, and is sometimes delayed. The diagnostic tests for this disease are few and discordant. The objective was to evaluate the diagnostic validity, performance, and accuracy of culture, nail clipping with Periodic Acid-Schiff -PAS- staining (biopsy), and direct potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination for the study of onychomycosis. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted via meta-analysis using 5 databases and 21 search strategies...
February 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222345/dc-eeg-recordings-of-mindfulness
#4
Ernst Rodin, Harald Bornfleth, Michael Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency spectrum of the normal waking human eyes-closed EEG while concentrating on a mental task. METHODS: Ten adult normal volunteers listened to a CD encouraging mindfulness for one hour and five minutes while their EEG was recorded on a 128 channel DC based ANT system. The software package BESA Research version 6.1 was used for data analysis. The data were subjected to topographic display, frequency as well as independent component analysis...
January 26, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222290/insect-navigation-what-backward-walking-reveals-about-the-control-of-movement
#5
Matthew Collett, Paul Graham, Thomas S Collett
Ants often walk backwards to drag large prey to their nest. New experiments show how they can use information from retinotopically encoded views to follow visual routes even while moving backwards. The mechanisms enabling ants to decouple body orientation and the control of travel direction are likely to be shared with other, flying, insects.
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220980/the-fire-ant-social-chromosome-supergene-variant-sb-shows-low-diversity-but-high-divergence-from-sb
#6
Rodrigo Pracana, Anurag Priyam, Ilya Levantis, Richard A Nichols, Yannick Wurm
Variation in social behavior is common yet little is known about the genetic architectures underpinning its evolution. A rare exception is in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta: Alternative variants of a supergene region determine whether a colony will have exactly one or up to dozens of queens. The two variants of this region are carried by a pair of "social chromosomes", SB and Sb, which resemble a pair of sex chromosomes. Recombination is suppressed between the two chromosomes in the supergene region. While the X-like SB can recombine with itself in SB/SB queens, recombination is effectively absent in the Y-like Sb because Sb/Sb queens die before reproducing...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220339/triphenyltin-hydroxide-induces-changes-in-the-oxidative-stress-parameters-of-fish
#7
Bárbara Clasen, Alexssandro G Becker, Thais Lópes, Camila R Murussi, Fabiane G Antes, Roberta C Horn, Érico M M Flores, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Valderi L Dressler, Vania L Loro
Among all organotin compounds , triphenyltin hydroxide (TPhTH) is widely used as fungicide and moluscicide in Brazil. However, the effects of TPhTH on the biochemical parameters of non-target organisms, such as fish, are little known. The aim of the present study is to assess the possible toxic effects of different concentrations of waterborne TPhTH on silver catfish belonging to species Rhamdia quelen. The fish were exposed to two different concentrations of TPhTH (1.08 and 1.70 µg/L as Sn) for 15 days and then compared to the control group (triplicate, n = 3)...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219341/integrating-genetic-maps-in-bambara-groundnut-vigna-subterranea-l-verdc-and-their-syntenic-relationships-among-closely-related-legumes
#8
Wai Kuan Ho, Hui Hui Chai, Presidor Kendabie, Nariman Salih Ahmad, Jaeyres Jani, Festo Massawe, Andrzej Kilian, Sean Mayes
BACKGROUND: Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.] is an indigenous legume crop grown mainly in subsistence and small-scale agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa for its nutritious seeds and its tolerance to drought and poor soils. Given that the lack of ex ante sequence is often a bottleneck in marker-assisted crop breeding for minor and underutilised crops, we demonstrate the use of limited genetic information and resources developed within species, but linked to the well characterised common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genome sequence and the partially annotated closely related species; adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) and mung bean (Vigna radiata)...
February 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218372/chronological-changes-in-functional-cup-position-at-10-years-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#9
Yusuke Okanoue, Masahiko Ikeuchi, Shogo Takaya, Masashi Izumi, Koji Aso, Teruhiko Kawakami
PURPOSE: This study aims to clarify the chronological changes in functional cup position at a minimum follow-up of 10 years after total hip arthroplasty (THA), and to identify the risk factors influencing a significant difference in functional cup position during the postoperative follow-up period. METHODS: We evaluated the chronological changes in functional cup position at a minimum follow-up of 10 years after THA in 58 patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis...
February 15, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215859/evaluation-of-molecular-methods-for-the-field-study-of-the-natural-history-of-dicrocoelium-dendriticum
#10
Gillian Mitchell, Grace Cuthill, Alex Haine, Ruth Zadoks, Umer Chaudhry, Philip Skuce, Neil Sargison
There is a need for improved methods for the study of the impacts of climatic and livestock management change on the epidemiology of production-limiting helminth parasitic diseases. In this study we report the application of molecular methods to describe the natural history of the small lancet fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum on Machair pastures on the Inner Hebridean Isle of Coll. Our results build upon those of the only previous historic field study of D. dendriticum in the British Isles that had been undertaken on the same study site...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215553/organization-of-rescue-behaviour-sequences-in-ants-cataglyphis-cursor-reflects-goal-directedness-plasticity-and-memory
#11
Thierry Duhoo, Jean-Luc Durand, Karen L Hollis, Elise Nowbahari
The experimental study of rescue behaviour in ants, behaviour in which individuals help entrapped nestmates in distress, has revealed that rescuers respond to victims with very precisely targeted behaviour. In Cataglyphis cursor, several different components of rescue behaviour have been observed, demonstrating the complexity of this behaviour, including sand digging and sand transport to excavate the victim, followed by pulling on the victim's limbs as well as the object holding the victim in place, behaviour that serves to free the victim...
February 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213012/evaluating-and-improving-terminal-hygiene-practices-on-broiler-farms-to-prevent-campylobacter-cross-contamination-between-flocks
#12
Tara Battersby, D Walsh, P Whyte, D Bolton
The objectives of this study were to evaluate current cleaning practices in broiler houses by testing a range of sites after cleaning and disinfection and to test the efficacy of the most commonly used methods in a commercial broiler house after flock harvesting. Cleaning procedures on 20 broiler houses (10 separate farms) were examined by testing a range of sampling points (feeders, drinkers, walls, etc.) for total viable count (TVC), total Enterobacteriaceae count (TEC) and Campylobacter spp. after cleaning and disinfection, using culture based methods...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212984/hiv-1-vpr-disrupts-mitochondria-axonal-transport-and-accelerates-neuronal-aging
#13
Ying Wang, Maryline Santerre, Italo Tempera, Kayla Martin, Ruma Mukerjee, Bassel E Sawaya
Disruption of mitochondria axonal transport, essential for the maintenance of synaptic and neuronal integrity and function, has been identified in neurodegenerative diseases. Whether HIV-1 viral proteins affect mitochondria axonal transport is unknown, albeit HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders occur in around half of the patients living with HIV. Therefore, we sought to examine the effect of HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) on mitochondria axonal transport. Using mice primary neuronal cultures, we demonstrated that 4-day Vpr treatment reduced the ratio of moving mitochondria associated with (i) less energy (ATP) supply, (ii) reduction in Miro-1 and (iii) increase of α-synuclein which led to loss of microtubule stability as demonstrated by inconsecutive distribution of acetylated α-tubulin along the axons...
February 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212663/isolation-of-primary-microglia-from-the-human-post-mortem-brain-effects-of-ante-and-post-mortem-variables
#14
Mark R Mizee, Suzanne S M Miedema, Marlijn van der Poel, Adelia, Karianne G Schuurman, Miriam E van Strien, Jeroen Melief, Joost Smolders, Debbie A Hendrickx, Kirstin M Heutinck, Jörg Hamann, Inge Huitinga
Microglia are key players in the central nervous system in health and disease. Much pioneering research on microglia function has been carried out in vivo with the use of genetic animal models. However, to fully understand the role of microglia in neurological and psychiatric disorders, it is crucial to study primary human microglia from brain donors. We have developed a rapid procedure for the isolation of pure human microglia from autopsy tissue using density gradient centrifugation followed by CD11b-specific cell selection...
February 17, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211758/life-cycle-host-utilization-and-ecological-fitting-for-invasive-lancet-liver-fluke-dicrocoelium-dendriticum-emerging-in-southern-alberta-canada
#15
Bradley van Paridon, John S Gilleard, Douglas D Colwell, Cameron P Goater
The expansion of parasite distributions outside of their native host and geographical ranges has occurred repeatedly over evolutionary time. Contemporary examples include emerging infectious diseases (EID's), many of which pose threats to human, domestic animal, and wildlife populations. Theory predicts that parasites with complex life cycles will be rare as EID's due to constraints imposed by host specialization at each life-cycle stage. In contrast to predictions of this theory, we report 2 new intermediate hosts in the 3-host life cycle of the liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum in Cypress Hills Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209975/the-attention-network-changes-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-evidence-from-an-arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-study
#16
Xingui Chen, Xiaoxuan He, Longxiang Tao, Huaidong Cheng, Jingjing Li, Jingjie Zhang, Bensheng Qiu, Yongqiang Yu, Kai Wang
To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying attention deficits that are related to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with cerebral perfusion. Thirty one patients with breast cancer who were scheduled to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 34 healthy control subjects were included. The patients completed two assessments of the attention network tasks (ANT), neuropsychological background tests, and the arterial spin labeling scan, which were performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after completing chemotherapy...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205519/mitochondrial-atp-transporter-depletion-protects-mice-against-liver-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#17
Joonseok Cho, Yujian Zhang, Shi-Young Park, Anna-Maria Joseph, Chul Han, Hyo-Jin Park, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Sung-Kook Chun, Drake Morgan, Jae-Sung Kim, Shinichi Someya, Clayton E Mathews, Young Jae Lee, Stephanie E Wohlgemuth, Nishanth E Sunny, Hui-Young Lee, Cheol Soo Choi, Takayuki Shiratsuchi, S Paul Oh, Naohiro Terada
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disorder in obese individuals. Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) exchanges ADP/ATP through the mitochondrial inner membrane, and Ant2 is the predominant isoform expressed in the liver. Here we demonstrate that targeted disruption of Ant2 in mouse liver enhances uncoupled respiration without damaging mitochondrial integrity and liver functions. Interestingly, liver specific Ant2 knockout mice are leaner and resistant to hepatic steatosis, obesity and insulin resistance under a lipogenic diet...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205050/composite-electrospun-scaffold-derived-from-recombinant-fibroin-of-weaver-ant-oecophylla-smaragdina-as-cell-substratum
#18
Arunrat Khamhaengpol, Sineenat Siri
Unlike silkworm (Bombyx mori) fibroin (SF), weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) fibroin (WAF) is much less studied. Due to differences in amino acid composition and protein structure, this work aimed to produce the recombinant WAF protein, designated as WAF1, and investigated on its potential application as a biomaterial for producing a cell-substratum. The composite electrospun scaffolds derived from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), WAF1, and extracted SF were produced by electrospinning. SEM images revealed non-woven and smooth fibers of PVA, PVA-WAF1, and PVA-SF scaffolds with the average diameters of 204...
February 15, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203653/isolation-of-a-chiral-anthracene-cation-radical-x-ray-crystallography-and-computational-interrogation-of-its-racemization
#19
Maxim V Ivanov, Khushabu Thakur, Anshul Bhatnagar, Rajendra Rathore
Chiral cation-radical salts hold significant promise as charge-transfer materials, chiroptical switches, and electron-transfer catalysts for enantioselective synthesis. Herein we demonstrate that the readily-available chiral 9,10-diphenyleanthracene derivative (i.e.(S)ANT) forms a robust cation radical, whose structure was elucidated by X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations. While (S)ANT was observed to racemize on a timescale (t1/2) of 1.1 hours, a computational conformational search and kinetic analysis of the racemization pathway led us to identify a simple methyl substituted (S)ANT derivative, which does not racemize (racemization t1/2 10(13)-10(17) years)...
February 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202653/argentine-ants-linepithema-humile-use-adaptable-transportation-networks-to-track-changes-in-resource-quality
#20
Tanya Latty, Michael J Holmes, James C Makinson, Madeleine Beekman
Transportation networks play a crucial role in human and animal societies. For a transportation network to be efficient, it must have adequate capacity to meet traffic demand. Network design becomes increasingly difficult in situations where traffic demand can change unexpectedly. In humans, network design is often constrained by path dependency because it is difficult to move a road once it is built. A similar issue theoretically faces pheromone-trail-laying social insects; once a trail has been laid, positive feedback makes re-routing difficult because new trails cannot compete with continually reinforced pre-existing trails...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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