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Samuel P Scott, Laura E Murray-Kolb, Michael J Wenger, Shobha A Udipi, Padmini S Ghugre, Erick Boy, Jere D Haas
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency remains the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency globally, but few studies have examined how iron status relates to cognition in adolescents. Iron biofortification of staple food crops is being scaled up, yet it is unknown whether consuming biofortified crops can benefit cognition. Objective: Our objective was to determine the efficacy of iron-biofortified pearl millet in improving attention and memory in Indian school-going adolescents...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Mario Alberto Sandoval-Molina, Hilda Araceli Zavaleta-Mancera, Héctor Javier León-Solano, Lupita Tzenyatze Solache-Ramos, Bartosz Jenner, Simón Morales-Rodríguez, Araceli Patrón-Soberano, Mariusz Krzysztof Janczur
To our knowledge, there are no studies about the structure and ecological function of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in Opuntia robusta. This is the first description of EFNs in O. robusta, where young spines have an interesting structure and a secreting function, which are different from EFNs described in other Cactaceae species. We used light, scanning-electron, and transmission-electron microscopy to examine morphology, anatomy, and ultrastructure of the secretory spines in areoles in female and hermaphrodite individuals of O...
2018: PloS One
Frederick R Adler, Sean Quinonez, Nicola Plowes, Eldridge S Adams
Territory size in social insects depends on the rules by which border conflicts are resolved. We present three mechanistic mathematical models of conflict, inspired by the behavior of the pavement ant Tetramorium immigrans, to predict the advantage of larger colonies in pairwise contests and the resulting scaling of territory size with worker force. The models track the number of ants in the nest traveling to and from the boundary or engaged at the boundary. Ants at the boundary base their recruitment response on the relative numbers of ants from the two colonies...
August 2018: American Naturalist
Yun Feng, Yu-Wei Dong, Yun-Na Song, Jun-Hua Xiao, Xing-Ya Guo, Wei-Liang Jiang, Lun-Gen Lu
An early diagnosis of colitis‑associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is important for its clinical management. However, it is currently difficult to distinguish the different stages of CAC development. MicroRNA dysregulation is common in human colorectal disorders, however little is known regarding whether miRNA affects tumor progression by regulating inflammation. In the present study, we identified a novel miRNA (miR‑449a), the expression of which was significantly reduced in CAC tissues than in paired adjacent non‑cancerous tissues (ANTs)...
July 12, 2018: Oncology Reports
T D Naidoo, J Moodley
BACKGROUND: Occult anal sphincter disruption, following childbirth may contribute to the development of anal incontinence (AI). The type and mechanism of injury may differ between first and subsequent deliveries. OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of pregnancy and delivery on the endosonographic morphology of the anal sphincter and on anal sphincter pressures, and to highlight any differences in these between nulliparous and multiparous Black African and Indian women...
June 2018: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
Ante Vujić, Snežana Radenković, Laura Likov
This revision of material belonging to the Merodon desuturinus group from the Palaearctic Region resulted in the delimitation of four species: Merodon cabanerensis Marcos-García, Vujić & Mengual, 2007; Merodon desuturinus Vujić, Šimić & Radenković, 1995; Merodon neolydicus Vujić, nom. n. ; and Merodon murorum Fabricius, 1794. Merodon murorum is redescribed. A neotype for Merodon auripilus Meigen, 1830 is designated, which is a new junior synonym of Merodon murorum . The related Afrotropical species Merodon cuthbertsoni Curran, 1939 is re-evaluated and compared to its sibling Palaearctic taxon Merodon desuturinus ...
2018: ZooKeys
HeeSun Choi, Jonathan Kasko, Jing Feng
Background and Objectives : Mobility is a critical factor that influences older adults' independence and well-being. Older drivers may experience increased crash risks due to age-related cognitive declines. Ensuring safe driving practices among older drivers is important to maintain their mobility without sacrificing safety. Investigations for an effective assessment technology that can inform older drivers' risks associated with cognitive declines are warranted. This study aims to identify attentional deteriorations that may underlie crashes in various situations...
July 10, 2018: Gerontologist
Mayra C Vidal, Sebastián F Sendoya, Lydia F Yamaguchi, Massuo J Kato, Rafael S Oliveira, Paulo S Oliveira
Sit-and-wait predators use different strategies to encounter potential prey. Rhinoleucophenga myrmecophaga Vidal et (Vidal et Vilela; Diptera: Drosophilidae) larvae build sticky shelters on top of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of Qualea grandiflora Mart (Vochysiaceae), a common plant in the Brazilian cerrado savanna. Although larval shelters block the EFNs, nectar production is not obstructed and is used by the larvae to attract and trap nectar-gathering ants that are eventually eaten by the dipteran. Here we describe the natural history of R...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Mónica G Malmierca, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Jesús Martín, Fernando Reyes, Carmen Méndez, Carlos Olano, José A Salas
Macrolactams comprise a family of natural compounds with important bioactivities such as antibiotic, antifungal or antiproliferative. Sipanmycins A and B are two novel members of this family with two sugar moieties attached to the aglycon. In the related macrolactam vicenistatin, the sugar moiety has been proved essential for cytotoxicity. In this work, the gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of sipanmycins ( sip cluster) in Streptomyces sp. CS149 is described and the steps involved in the glycosylation of the final compounds unraveled...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Shangce Gao, MengChu Zhou, Yirui Wang, Jiujun Cheng, Hanaki Yachi, Jiahai Wang
An artificial neural network (ANN) that mimics the information processing mechanisms and procedures of neurons in human brains has achieved a great success in many fields, e.g., classification, prediction, and control. However, traditional ANNs suffer from many problems, such as the hard understanding problem, the slow and difficult training problems, and the difficulty to scale them up. These problems motivate us to develop a new dendritic neuron model (DNM) by considering the nonlinearity of synapses, not only for a better understanding of a biological neuronal system, but also for providing a more useful method for solving practical problems...
July 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Amaury Avril, Jessica Purcell, Alan Brelsford, Michel Chapuisat
Non-recombining genomic variants underlie spectacular social polymorphisms, from bird mating systems to ant social organization. Because these "social supergenes" affect multiple phenotypic traits linked to survival and reproduction, explaining their persistence remains a substantial challenge. Here, we investigate how large non-recombining genomic variants relate to colony social organization, mating system and dispersal in the Alpine silver ant, Formica selysi. The species has colonies headed by a single queen (monogynous) and colonies headed by multiple queens (polygynous)...
July 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Caitlin A Kelly, M Deane Bowers
Many insect herbivores are dietary specialists capable of sequestering the secondary metabolites produced by their host plants. These defensive compounds have important but complex implications for tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. The sequestration of host plant secondary metabolites defends herbivores from attack by generalist predators, but may also compromise the immune response, making insect herbivores more vulnerable to parasitism. Here, we investigate the role of plant secondary metabolites in mediating interactions between a specialist herbivore and its natural enemies...
July 12, 2018: Oecologia
Michael Staab, Francisco Hita Garcia, Cong Liu, Zheng-Hui Xu, Evan P Economo
The genus Proceratium Roger, 1863 contains cryptic, subterranean ants that are seldom sampled and rare in natural history collections. Furthermore, most Proceratium specimens are extremely hairy and, due to their enlarged and curved gaster, often mounted suboptimally. As a consequence, the poorly observable physical characteristics of the material and its scarcity result in a rather challenging alpha taxonomy of this group. In this study, the taxonomy of the Chinese Proceratium fauna is reviewed and updated by combining examinations of traditional light microscopy with x-ray microtomography (micro-CT)...
2018: ZooKeys
Qian Ding, Bing Cui, Jingjuan Li, Huayin Li, Yihui Zhang, Xiaohui Lv, Nianwei Qiu, Lifeng Liu, Fengde Wang, Jianwei Gao
The AINTEGUMENTA-like (AIL) family plays a central role in regulating the growth and development of organs in many plants. However, little is known about the characteristics and functions of the AIL family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). In this study, a genome-wide analysis was performed to identify the members of the AIL family in Chinese cabbage. We identified three ANT genes and six ANT-like genes of Chinese cabbage, most of which were differentially expressed in different organs or tissues...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sven Seiwerth, Rudolf Rucman, Branko Turkovic, Marko Sever, Robert Klicek, Bozo Radic, Domagoj Drmic, Mirjana Stupnisek, Marija Misic, Lovorka Batelja Vuletic, Katarina Horvat Pavlov, Ivan Barisic, Antonio Kokot, Mladen Japjec, Alenka Boban Blagaic, Ante Tvrdeic, Dinko Stancic Rokotov, Hrvoje Vrcic, Mario Staresinic, Bozidar Sebecic, Predrag Sikiric
Commonly, the angiogenic growth factors signify healing. However, gastrointestinal ulceration is still poorly understood particularly with respect to a general pharmacological/pathophysiological role of various angiogenic growth factors implemented in growth factors wound healing concept. Thereby, we focused on the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, a peptide given always alone vs. standard peptidergic angiogenic growth factors (EGF, FGF, VEGF), and numerous carriers. Further, we reviewed how the gastrointestinal tract healing could be generally perceived (i) in terms of angiogenic growth factors, and/or (ii) through the healing of extra-gastrointestinal tissues healing, such as tendon, ligament, muscle and bone, and vice versa...
July 11, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
A G Rocha, B M S Oliveira, C R Melo, T S Sampaio, A F Blank, A D Lima, R S Nunes, A P A Araújo, P F Cristaldo, L Bacci
Leaf-cutting ants belonging to the genus Atta (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) are important pests in agricultural and forest environments. In the present study, we evaluated the formicidal activity of the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin and its nanoformulation on the leaf-cutting ants: Atta opaciceps (Borgmeier, 1939), Atta sexdens (Linnaeus, 1758), and Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908. The nanoformulation was developed by magnetic stirring using polyoxyethylene (36%), pure ethanol (36%), essential oil of P...
July 11, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Enas M F El Houby
Early detection of cancer can increase patients' survivability and treatment options. Medical images such as Mammogram, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and microscopic images are the common method for cancer diagnosis. Recently, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been used to help physicians in cancer diagnosis so that the diagnosis accuracy can be improved. CAD can help in decreasing missed cancer lesions due to physician fatigue, reducing the burden of workload and data overloading, and decreasing variability of inter- and intra-readers of images...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Zong-Gan Chen, Zhi-Hui Zhan, Ying Lin, Yue-Jiao Gong, Tian-Long Gu, Feng Zhao, Hua-Qiang Yuan, Xiaofeng Chen, Qing Li, Jun Zhang
Cloud workflow scheduling is significantly challenging due to not only the large scale of workflow but also the elasticity and heterogeneity of cloud resources. Moreover, the pricing model of clouds makes the execution time and execution cost two critical issues in the scheduling. This paper models the cloud workflow scheduling as a multiobjective optimization problem that optimizes both execution time and execution cost. A novel multiobjective ant colony system based on a co-evolutionary multiple populations for multiple objectives framework is proposed, which adopts two colonies to deal with these two objectives, respectively...
May 18, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Hao Zhang, Grace J Gang, Hao Dang, J Webster Stayman
Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods have demonstrated great potential for radiation dose reduction in computed tomography (CT) applications. PIBR methods take ad-vantage of shared anatomical information between sequential scans by incorporating a patient-specific prior image into the re-construction objective function, often as a form of regularization. However, one major challenge with PIBR methods is how to opti-mally determine the prior image regularization strength which balances anatomical information from the prior image with data fitting to the current measurements...
June 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Conor Fahy, Shengxiang Yang, Mario Gongora
A data stream is a continuously arriving sequence of data and clustering data streams requires additional considerations to traditional clustering. A stream is potentially unbounded, data points arrive online and each data point can be examined only once. This imposes limitations on available memory and processing time. Furthermore, streams can be noisy and the number of clusters in the data and their statistical properties can change over time. This paper presents an online, bio-inspired approach to clustering dynamic data streams...
May 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
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