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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736164/idiothetic-path-integration-in-the-fruit-fly-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Irene S Kim, Michael H Dickinson
After discovering a small drop of food, hungry flies exhibit a peculiar behavior in which they repeatedly stray from, but then return to, the newly discovered resource. To study this behavior in more detail, we tracked hungry Drosophila as they explored a large arena, focusing on the question of how flies remain near the food. To determine whether flies use external stimuli, we individually eliminated visual, olfactory, and pheromonal cues. In all cases, flies still exhibited a centralized search behavior, suggesting that none of these cues are absolutely required for navigation back to the food...
July 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735047/sesamol-exhibits-potent-antimycobacterial-activity-underlying-mechanisms-and-impact-on-virulence-traits
#2
Sandeep Hans, Sharda Sharma, Saif Hameed, Zeeshan Fatima
OBJECTIVES: Novel strategies to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in Tuberculosis (TB) still remain a concern. Usage of natural compounds nowadays to surmount the increasing burden of MDR-TB has shown promising results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimycobacterial potential of sesamol (Ses) a natural phenolic compound against Mycobacterium smegmatis, a surrogate for MTB and its underlying mechanism of action along with its effect on mycobacterial virulence traits. METHODS: Cell surface phenotypes were estimated microscopically and spectrophotometrically respectively...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734024/effect-of-solvent-and-protein-dynamics-in-ligand-recognition-and-inhibition-of-aminoglycoside-adenyltransferase-2%C3%A2-ia
#3
Valjean R Bacot-Davis, Angelia V Bassenden, Tara Sprules, Albert M Berghuis
The aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AME) ANT(2″)-Ia is a significant target for next generation antibiotic development. Structural studies of a related aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme, ANT(3″)(9), revealed this enzyme contains dynamic, disordered, and well-defined segments that modulate thermodynamically before and after antibiotic binding. Characterizing these structural dynamics is critical for in situ screening, design, and development of contemporary antibiotics that can be implemented in a clinical setting to treat potentially lethal, antibiotic resistant, human infections...
July 21, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732064/mechanisms-of-aggregation-in-an-ant-tended-treehopper-attraction-to-mutualists-is-balanced-by-conspecific-competition
#4
Manuel A Morales, Andrew G Zink
Understanding the spatial structure of populations and communities has been a dominant focus of ecological research, and spatial structure is increasingly seen as critical for understanding population dynamics. Habitat (or host) preference is a proximate mechanism that can generate aggregation or overdispersion, lending insight into the ultimate consequences of observed spatial distributions. Publilia concava is a univoltine phloem-feeding insect that forms mutualistic associations with ants, which consume honeydew and protect treehoppers from predation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729606/transcriptome-profiling-of-the-spermatheca-identifies-genes-potentially-involved-in-the-long-term-sperm-storage-of-ant-queens
#5
Ayako Gotoh, Shuji Shigenobu, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Satoru Kobayashi, Fuminori Ito, Kazuki Tsuji
Females of social Hymenoptera only mate at the beginning of their adult lives and produce offspring until their death. In most ant species, queens live for over a decade, indicating that ant queens can store large numbers of spermatozoa throughout their long lives. To reveal the prolonged sperm storage mechanisms, we identified enriched genes in the sperm-storage organ (spermatheca) relative to those in body samples in Crematogaster osakensis queens using the RNA-sequencing method. The genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, proteases, and extracellular matrix-related genes, and novel genes that have no similar sequences in the public databases were identified...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725359/major-benefits-of-guarding-behavior-in-subsocial-bees-implications-for-social-evolution
#6
Michael Mikát, Kateřina Černá, Jakub Straka
Parental care is a behavior that increases the growth and survival of offspring, often at a cost to the parents' own survival and/or future reproduction. In this study, we focused on nest guarding, which is one of the most important types of extended parental care; we studied this behavior in two solitary bee species of the genus Ceratina with social ancestors. We performed the experiment of removing the laying female, who usually guards the nest after completing its provisioning, to test the effects of nest guarding on the offspring survival and nest fate...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721658/microbial-communities-in-different-tissues-of-atta-sexdens-rubropilosa-leaf-cutting-ants
#7
Alexsandro S Vieira, Manuela O Ramalho, Cintia Martins, Vanderlei G Martins, Odair C Bueno
Bacterial endosymbionts are common in all insects, and symbiosis has played an integral role in ant evolution. Atta sexdens rubropilosa leaf-cutting ants cultivate their symbiotic fungus using fresh leaves. They need to defend themselves and their brood against diseases, but they also need to defend their obligate fungus gardens, their primary food source, from infection, parasitism, and usurpation by competitors. This study aimed to characterize the microbial communities in whole workers and different tissues of A...
July 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719666/effects-of-prey-pitcher-age-and-microbes-on-acid-phosphatase-activity-in-fluid-from-pitchers-of-sarracenia-purpurea-sarraceniaceae
#8
Carl S Luciano, Sandra J Newell
Carnivory in pitcher plants generally involves digestion of prey, by the plant itself, by symbionts, or both. While symbionts appear to be important in the digestion of prey in Sarracenia purpurea, the importance of pitcher-derived enzymes is less well documented. Our goal was to reduce microbial numbers in pitcher fluid in order to measure the acid phosphatase activity attributable to the pitchers themselves. Preliminary experiments indicated that various antibiotics were minimally effective at reducing microbial populations and that antibiotic-resistant microbes were easily cultured from pitcher fluid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719018/ante-mortem-csf-tau-levels-correlate-with-post-mortem-tau-pathology-in-ftld
#9
D J Irwin, A Lleó, S X Xie, C T McMillan, D Wolk, E B Lee, V M Van Deerlin, L M Shaw, J Q Trojanowski, M Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1) antemortem cerebrospinal fluid tau levels correlate with postmortem tau pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and 2) tauopathy patients have higher phosphorylated-tau levels compared to TDP-43 proteinopathy patients while accounting for Alzheimer's disease co-pathology. METHODS: Patients had autopsy-confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tauopathy (n=31), TDP-43 proteinopathy (n=49), or Alzheimer's disease (n=26) with antemortem cerebrospinal fluid...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717381/patterns-and-dynamics-of-neutral-lipid-fatty-acids-in-ants-implications-for-ecological-studies
#10
Félix B Rosumek, Adrian Brückner, Nico Blüthgen, Florian Menzel, Michael Heethoff
BACKGROUND: Trophic interactions are a fundamental aspect of ecosystem functioning, but often difficult to observe directly. Several indirect techniques, such as fatty acid analysis, were developed to assess these interactions. Fatty acid profiles may indicate dietary differences, while individual fatty acids can be used as biomarkers. Ants are among the most important terrestrial animal groups, but little is known about their lipid metabolism, and no study so far used fatty acids to study their trophic ecology...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717220/imaging-mass-spectrometry-and-ms-ms-molecular-networking-reveals-chemical-interactions-among-cuticular-bacteria-and-pathogenic-fungi-associated-with-fungus-growing-ants
#11
Cristopher A Boya P, Hermógenes Fernández-Marín, Luis C Mejía, Carmenza Spadafora, Pieter C Dorrestein, Marcelino Gutiérrez
The fungus-growing ant-microbe symbiosis is an ideal system to study chemistry-based microbial interactions due to the wealth of microbial interactions described, and the lack of information on the molecules involved therein. In this study, we employed a combination of MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) and MS/MS molecular networking to study chemistry-based microbial interactions in this system. MALDI IMS was used to visualize the distribution of antimicrobials at the inhibition zone between bacteria associated to the ant Acromyrmex echinatior and the fungal pathogen Escovopsis sp...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716518/virtual-animation-of-victim-specific-3d-models-obtained-from-ct-scans-for-forensic-reconstructions-living-and-dead-subjects
#12
C Villa, K B Olsen, S H Hansen
Post-mortem CT scanning (PMCT) has been introduced at several forensic medical institutions many years ago and has proved to be a useful tool. 3D models of bones, skin, internal organs and bullet paths can rapidly be generated using post-processing software. These 3D models reflect the individual physiognomics and can be used to create whole-body 3D virtual animations. In such way, virtual reconstructions of the probable ante-mortem postures of victims can be constructed and contribute to understand the sequence of events...
July 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715934/-first-1000-days-health-interventions-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-alignment-of-south-african-policies-with-high-quality-evidence
#13
René English, Nazia Peer, Simone Honikman, Aviva Tugendhaft, Karen J Hofman
BACKGROUND: In South Africa (SA), despite adoption of international strategies and approaches, maternal, neonatal and child (MNC) morbidity and mortality rates have not sufficiently declined. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an umbrella review (UR) that identifies interventions in low- and middle-income countries, with a high-quality evidence base, that improve MNC morbidity and mortality outcomes within the first 1000 days of life; and to assess the incorporation of the evidence into local strategies, guidelines and documents...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715473/population-and-colony-structure-and-morphometrics-in-the-queen-dimorphic-little-black-ant-monomorium-sp-az-02-with-a-review-of-queen-phenotypes-in-the-genus-monomorium
#14
Robert A Johnson, Rick P Overson
The North American little black ant, Monomorium sp. AZ-02 (subfamily Myrmicinae), displays a dimorphism that consists of alate (winged) and ergatoid (wingless) queens. Surveys at our field site in southcentral Arizona, USA, demonstrated that only one queen phenotype (alate or ergatoid) occurred in each colony during the season in which reproductive sexuals were produced. A morphometric analysis demonstrated that ergatoid queens retained all specialized anatomical features of alate queens (except for wings), and that they were significantly smaller and had a lower mass than alate queens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712285/freeze-thaw-sample-preparation-method-improves-the-detection-of-volatile-compounds-in-insects-using-headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-hs-spme
#15
Jian Chen
Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is commonly used in analyzing insect volatiles. In order to improve the detection of volatiles in insects, a freeze-thaw method was applied to insect samples before the HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. Insect samples were first frozen at -80 ⁰C for 10 min and then thawed at 25 ⁰C for 5 min before SPME extraction was performed. The freeze-thaw method clearly improved the detection of volatile compounds for all six tested insect species, including red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, black imported fire ants, Solenopsis richteri Forel, little black ants, Monomorium minimum (Buckley), pharaoh ants, Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus); eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar); and spotted lady beetles, Coleomegilla maculate De Geer...
July 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711379/the-attentiontrip-a-game-like-tool-for-measuring-the-networks-of-attention
#16
Raymond M Klein, Tariq Hassan, Graham Wilson, Yoko Ishigami, Jonathan Mulle
BACKGROUND: Recognizing that attention is not a unitary system, the Attention Network Test (ANT) and its variants were developed to measure the efficacy of the multiple components of attention. One potential weakness of these tests (ANTs) is that they are unengaging. This poses a problem when particular groups are tested (e.g., young children), when more stable measures of performance are desirable (and can only be achieved in longer testing sessions) and when repeated testing is necessary...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710280/the-assembly-of-the-plant-urease-activation-complex-and-the-essential-role-of-the-urease-accessory-protein-g-ureg-in-delivery-of-nickel-to-urease
#17
Till Myrach, Anting Zhu, Claus-Peter Witte
Urease is a ubiquitous nickel metalloenzyme. In plants, its activation requires three urease accessory proteins (UAPs), UreD, UreF, and UreG. In bacteria, the UAPs interact with urease and facilitate activation, which involves the channeling of two nickel ions into the active site. So far this process has not been investigated in eukaryotes. Using affinity pull-downs of Strep-tagged UAPs from Arabidopsis and rice transiently expressed in planta, we demonstrate that a urease:UreD:UreF:UreG complex exists in plants and show its stepwise assembly...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709865/overexpression-of-pofut1-and-activated-notch1-may-be-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-breast-cancer
#18
Guoxing Wan, Lin Tian, Yuandong Yu, Fang Li, Xuanbin Wang, Chen Li, Shouheng Deng, Xiongjie Yu, Xiaojun Cai, Zhigang Zuo, Fengjun Cao
PURPOSE: The present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of protein expression of Pofut1 and Notch1 signaling in breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded 314 breast specimens including 174 infiltrating ductal carcinoma(IDC), 50 ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS) and 90 adjacent normal tissue(ANT) were immunohistochemically examined to evaluate the protein expression of Pofut1, activated Notch1(N1IC) and Slug on specimens. Survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional-hazards model...
July 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708520/ovulation-rate-antral-follicle-count-and-circulating-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-in-trio-allele-carriers-a-novel-high-fecundity-bovine-genotype
#19
Alvaro García-Guerra, Jéssica C L Motta, Leonardo F Melo, Brian W Kirkpatrick, Milo C Wiltbank
High fecundity genotypes in sheep are a valuable model to study the physiological mechanisms underlying follicle selection and the control of ovulation rate. Similar genotypes in cattle had not been described until the recent identification of a major bovine allele, termed Trio, which had a large effect on ovulation rate. The present study was designed to evaluate ovulation rate, antral follicle count (AFC), circulating ant-müllerian hormone (AMH), and the association among these measures in unstimulated and superstimulated Trio carrier cattle...
June 3, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706000/absence-of-compensatory-vasodilation-with-perfusion-pressure-challenge-in-exercise-evidence-for-and-implications-of-the-non-compensator-phenotype
#20
Robert F Bentley, Jeremy J Walsh, Patrick J Drouin, Aleksandra Velickovic, Sarah J Kitner, Alyssa M Fenuta, Michael E Tschakovsky
Compromising oxygen delivery (O2D) during exercise requires compensatory vasodilatory and/or pressor responses to protect O2D : demand matching. The purpose of the study was to determine whether compensatory vasodilation is absent in some healthy, young individuals in the face of a sudden reduction in exercising forearm perfusion pressure, and whether this affects the exercise pressor response. 21 healthy, young males (21.6±2.0yrs) completed rhythmic forearm exercise at a work rate equivalent to 70% of their own maximal exercise vasodilation...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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