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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346717/characterization-of-two-novel-antimicrobial-peptides-from-the-cuticular-extracts-of-the-ant-trichomyrmex-criniceps-mayr-hymenoptera-formicidae
#1
Nagachaitanya Bhagavathula, Venkateshwarlu Meedidoddi, Simon Bourque, Reshmy Vimaladevi, Santoshkumar Kesavakurup, Dayanandan Selvadurai, Sameer Shrivastava, Chandrashekara Krishnappa
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from cuticular extracts of worker ants of Trichomyrmex criniceps (Mayr, Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were isolated and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Eight peptides ranging in mass from 804.42 to 1541.04 Da were characterized using a combination of analytical and bioinformatics approach. All the eight peptides were novel with no similarity to any of the AMPs archived in the Antimicrobial Peptide Database. Two of the eight novel peptides, the smallest and the largest by mass were named Crinicepsin-1 and Crinicepsin-2 and were chemically synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis...
March 27, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346497/determinants-of-infant-nutritional-status-in-dabat-district-north-gondar-ethiopia-a-case-control-study
#2
Amarech Asratie Wubante
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is the top cause of global burden of disease, disability and mortality among infants. Over two-thirds of deaths of children globally occur during the first year of life (infancy). Malnutrition among infants is substantially high in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess determinants of infant nutritional status. METHODS: A community based nested case-control study was conducted from February to June 2013 in Dabat district. A total of 80 cases and 320 controls (1:4 ratios) were studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343967/evolutionary-history-of-the-hymenoptera
#3
Ralph S Peters, Lars Krogmann, Christoph Mayer, Alexander Donath, Simon Gunkel, Karen Meusemann, Alexey Kozlov, Lars Podsiadlowski, Malte Petersen, Robert Lanfear, Patricia A Diez, John Heraty, Karl M Kjer, Seraina Klopfstein, Rudolf Meier, Carlo Polidori, Thomas Schmitt, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis
Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, and bees) are one of four mega-diverse insect orders, comprising more than 153,000 described and possibly up to one million undescribed extant species [1, 2]. As parasitoids, predators, and pollinators, Hymenoptera play a fundamental role in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems and are of substantial economic importance [1, 3]. To understand the diversification and key evolutionary transitions of Hymenoptera, most notably from phytophagy to parasitoidism and predation (and vice versa) and from solitary to eusocial life, we inferred the phylogeny and divergence times of all major lineages of Hymenoptera by analyzing 3,256 protein-coding genes in 173 insect species...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343579/combined-effects-of-temperature-and-interspecific-competition-on-the-mortality-of-the-invasive-garden-ant-lasius-neglectus-a-laboratory-study
#4
Filippo Frizzi, Viola Bartalesi, Giacomo Santini
The invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus, is a dominant species due to its capacity to form large supercolonies. This species was assumed to possess a wide thermal niche since it is able to adapt to cold climates, which is a factor that boosted its rapid expansion from south to many central-northern European Countries. However, the effect of variations in environmental temperatures on its competitive ability against other species has still not been investigated. In this paper, we analyzed the change in survival ability of Lasius neglectus during encounters with two Mediterranean dominant ants (Crematogaster scutellaris and Tapinoma nigerrimum) at four different temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30°C)...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342283/effects-of-predatory-ants-within-and-across-ecosystems-in-bromeliad-food-webs
#5
Ana Z Gonçalves, Diane S Srivastava, Paulo S Oliveira, Gustavo Q Romero
Predation is one of the most fundamental ecological processes affecting biotic communities. Terrestrial predators that live at ecosystem boundaries may alter the diversity of terrestrial organisms, but they may also have cross-ecosystem cascading effects when they feed on organisms with complex life cycles (i.e., organisms that shift from aquatic juvenile stages to terrestrial adult stages) or inhibit female oviposition in the aquatic environment. The predatory ant Odontomachus hastatus establishes its colonies among roots of Vriesea procera, an epiphytic bromeliad species with water-filled tanks that shelters many terrestrial and aquatic organisms...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341706/partner-abundance-controls-mutualism-stability-and-the-pace-of-morphological-change-over-geologic-time
#6
Guillaume Chomicki, Susanne S Renner
Mutualisms that involve symbioses among specialized partners may be more stable than mutualisms among generalists, and theoretical models predict that in many mutualisms, partners exert reciprocal stabilizing selection on traits directly involved in the interaction. A corollary is that mutualism breakdown should increase morphological rates of evolution. We here use the largest ant-plant clade (Hydnophytinae), with different levels of specialization for mutualistic ant symbionts, to study the ecological context of mutualism breakdown and the response of a key symbiosis-related trait, domatium entrance hole size, which filters symbionts by size...
March 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340792/in-situ-quantitative-and-visual-investigation-of-the-retention-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-on-the-root-surface-of-kandelia-obovata-using-a-microscopic-fluorescence-spectral-analysis-method
#7
Huadong Tan, Ruilong Li, Yaxian Zhu, Yong Zhang
A novel approach for in situ determination of individual benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), pyrene (Pyr) and anthracene (Ant) on the root surface micro-zone (0.960mm(2)) of Kandelia obovata (K. obovata) was established using a microscopic fluorescence spectral analysis (MFSA) system. The detection limits for the three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were 44.2, 59.7 and 36.3ngg(-1) on lateral roots and were 42.8, 62.4 and 39.1ngg(-1) on taproots of the K. obovata root micro-zone. Using the established MFSA method, retention of the PAHs on the K...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336341/visuospatial-information-processing-load-and-the-ratio-between-parietal-cue-and-target-p3-amplitudes-in-the-attentional-network-test
#8
Dimitri M Abramov, Monique Pontes, Adailton T Pontes, Carlos A Mourao-Junior, Juliana Vieira, Carla Quero Cunha, Tiago Tamborino, Paulo R Galhanone, Leonardo C deAzevedo, Vladimir V Lazarev
In ERP studies of cognitive processes during attentional tasks, the cue signals containing information about the target can increase the amplitude of the parietal cue P3 in relation to the 'neutral' temporal cue, and reduce the subsequent target P3 when this information is valid, i.e. corresponds to the target's attributes. The present study compared the cue-to-target P3 ratios in neutral and visuospatial cueing, in order to estimate the contribution of valid visuospatial information from the cue to target stages of the task performance, in terms of cognitive load...
March 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336272/apigenin-7-diglucuronide-protects-retinas-against-bright-light-induced-photoreceptor-degeneration-through-the-inhibition-of-retinal-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#9
Minjuan Bian, Yong Zhang, Xiaoye Du, Jing Xu, Jingang Cui, Jiangping Gu, Weiliang Zhu, Teng Zhang, Yu Chen
Vision impairment in retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration is primarily associated with photoreceptor degeneration, in which oxidative stress and inflammatory responses are mechanistically involved as central players. Therapies with photoreceptor protective properties remain to be developed. Apigenin-7-diglucuronide (A7DG), a flavonoid glycoside, is present in an assortment of medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory or ant-oxidant activities. However, the pharmacological significance of A7DG remains unknown in vivo...
March 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334289/oecophylla-longinoda-hymenoptera-formicidae-lead-to-increased-cashew-kernel-size-and-kernel-quality
#10
F M Anato, A A C Sinzogan, J Offenberg, A Adandonon, R B Wargui, J M Deguenon, P M Ayelo, J-F Vayssières, D K Kossou
Weaver ants, Oecophylla spp., are known to positively affect cashew, Anacardium occidentale L., raw nut yield, but their effects on the kernels have not been reported. We compared nut size and the proportion of marketable kernels between raw nuts collected from trees with and without ants. Raw nuts collected from trees with weaver ants were 2.9% larger than nuts from control trees (i.e., without weaver ants), leading to 14% higher proportion of marketable kernels. On trees with ants, the kernel: raw nut ratio from nuts damaged by formic acid was 4...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334265/evaluation-of-malaise-and-yellow-pan-trap-performance-to-assess-velvet-ant-hymenoptera-mutillidae-diversity-in-a-neotropical-savanna
#11
C R Vieira, C Waichert, K A Williams, J P Pitts
Given the global biodiversity crisis, it is crucial to identify methods best suited for conducting inventories. We evaluated the relative merits of Malaise traps (MT) and ground-level yellow pan traps (YPT) to sample male velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) in a Neotropical savanna biodiversity hotspot. We compared richness, number of captures, evenness, composition, and body size of male velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) sampled with both methods in four sites at Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros, central Brazil, during 19 d...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334221/enhanced-pest-ant-control-with-hydrophobic-bait
#12
R K Vander Meer, D E Milne
The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren), left most of its natural enemies behind in South America when it arrived in Mobile, AL, in the 1930s and spread rapidly throughout the southeastern United States, reaching population levels up to 10 times those found in South America. The large population densities and propensity for disturbed habitats led to direct conflict with human activities. Bait control methods were first developed for fire ants in the early 1960s and little has changed in the subsequent decades, despite the drawback that the bait carrier rapidly breaks down when wet...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334211/effect-of-sweeteners-on-the-survival-of-solenopsis-invicta-hymenoptera-formicidae
#13
Xiaoqiang Zhang, Siqi Chen, Zhiqiang Li, Yijuan Xu
The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, is a serious agricultural, ecological, and public health pest in its invaded range. Chemical insecticides have been widely used for the prevention and control of this notorious pest. To search for novel, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly materials for fire ant control, we tested various sweeteners for their toxicity to S. invicta. The S. invicta that were fed erythritol, aspartame, and saccharin exhibited significantly higher mortality rates than those fed other sweeteners...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334021/the-effect-of-remnant-forest-on-insect-successional-response-in-tropical-fire-impacted-peatland-a-bi-taxa-comparison
#14
Kok-Boon Neoh, Lee-Jin Bong, Ahmad Muhammad, Masayuki Itoh, Osamu Kozan, Yoko Takematsu, Tsuyoshi Yoshimura
Fire has become a common feature in tropical drained peatlands, and it may have detrimental impacts on the overall biodiversity of the forest ecosystem. We investigated the effect of fire on termite and ant assemblages and the importance of remnant forest in restoring species diversity in fire-impacted tropical peat swamp forests. The species loss of both termites and ants was as high as 50% in some fire-impacted peats compared to remnant forests, but in most cases the species richness for termites and ants was statistically equal along the land uses surveyed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333289/the-role-of-daf-21-hsp90-in-mouth-form-plasticity-in-pristionchus-pacificus
#15
Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Gabriel V Markov, Hanh Witte, Ralf J Sommer
Phenotypic plasticity is increasingly recognized to facilitate adaptive change in plants and animals, including insects, nematodes and vertebrates. Plasticity can occur as continuous or discrete (polyphenisms) variation. In social insects, e.g. in ants, some species have workers of distinct size classes while in other closely related species variation in size may be continuous. Despite the abundance of examples in nature, how discrete morphs are specified remains currently unknown. In theory, polyphenisms might require robustness, whereby the distribution of morphologies would be limited by the same mechanisms that execute buffering from stochastic perturbations, a function attributed to heat-shock proteins of the Hsp90 family...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331802/molecular-epidemiology-and-pathology-of-spirorchiid-infection-in-green-sea-turtles-chelonia-mydas
#16
Phoebe A Chapman, Helen Owen, Mark Flint, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães, Rebecca J Traub, Thomas H Cribb, Myat T Kyaw-Tanner, Paul C Mills
Spirorchiid blood fluke infections affect endangered turtle populations globally, and are reported as a common cause of mortality in Queensland green sea turtles. Both the flukes and their ova are pathogenic and can contribute to the stranding or death of their host. Of particular interest are ova-associated brain lesions, which have been associated with host neurological deficits. Accurate estimations of disease frequency and the relative effect of infection relating to different spirorchiid species are made difficult by challenges in morphological identification of adults of some genera, and a lack of species-level identifying features for ova...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331577/conservative-whole-organ-scaling-contrasts-with-highly-labile-suborgan-scaling-differences-among-compound-eyes-of-closely-related-formica-ants
#17
Craig D Perl, Sergio Rossoni, Jeremy E Niven
Static allometries determine how organ size scales in relation to body mass. The extent to which these allometric relationships are free to evolve, and how they differ among closely related species, has been debated extensively and remains unclear; changes in intercept appear common, but changes in slope are far rarer. Here, we compare the scaling relationships that govern the structure of compound eyes of four closely related ant species from the genus Formica. Comparison among these species revealed changes in intercept but not slope in the allometric scaling relationships governing eye area, facet number, and mean facet diameter...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328931/x-ray-microtomography-for-ant-taxonomy-an-exploration-and-case-study-with-two-new-terataner-hymenoptera-formicidae-myrmicinae-species-from-madagascar
#18
Francisco Hita Garcia, Georg Fischer, Cong Liu, Tracy L Audisio, Gary D Alpert, Brian L Fisher, Evan P Economo
We explore the potential of x-ray micro computed tomography (μCT) for the field of ant taxonomy by using it to enhance the descriptions of two remarkable new species of the ant genus Terataner: T. balrog sp. n. and T. nymeria sp. n.. We provide an illustrated worker-based species identification key for all species found on Madagascar, as well as detailed taxonomic descriptions, which include diagnoses, discussions, measurements, natural history data, high-quality montage images and distribution maps for both new species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327806/invasive-fungal-infection-in-patients-with-hematologic-disorders-in-a-brazilian-tertiary-care-hospital
#19
Milton Camplesi, Hildene Meneses Silva, Adriano Moraes Arantes, Carolina Rodrigues Costa, Fábio Silvestre Ataides, Thaisa Cristina Silva, Maysa de Paula Costa Dos Reis, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important complication in immunocompromised individuals, particularly neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. In this study, we aimed to verify the epidemiology and diagnosis of IFIs in patients with hematologic problems at a tertiary hospital in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. METHODS: Data from 117 patients, involving 19 cases of IFIs, were collected. The collected data included diagnosis methods, demographics, clinical characteristics, and in vitro susceptibility to different antifungal agents...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325980/baby-killers-documentation-and-evolution-of-scuttle-fly-diptera-phoridae-parasitism-of-ant-hymenoptera-formicidae-brood
#20
Brian V Brown, John M Hash, Emily A Hartop, Wendy Porras, Dalton de Souza Amorim
BACKGROUND: Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. NEW INFORMATION: We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema humile (Mayr) species group while they are carrying brood, and ovipositing directly onto brood in the nest...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
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