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major depression & suicide & epigenetics

E Rizos, N Siafakas, E Skourti, C Papageorgiou, J Tsoporis, T H Parker, D I Christodoulou, D A Spandidos, E Katsantoni, V Zoumpourlis
Schizophrenia (SZ) and cancer (Ca) have a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes and a complex biological background, implicating a large number of genetic and epigenetic factors. SZ is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder signified by an increase in the expression of apoptotic molecular signals, whereas Ca is conversely characterized by an increase in appropriate molecular signaling that stimulates uncontrolled cell proliferation. The rather low risk of developing Ca in patients suffering from SZ is a hypothesis that is still under debate...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Corina Nagy, Susana G Torres-Platas, Naguib Mechawar, Gustavo Turecki
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with dysfunctional astrocytic networks. The underlying causes, extent, and consequences of such dysfunctions remain to be characterized. Astrocyte-astrocyte communication occurs principally through gap junction channels primarily formed by connexin 30 and 43 (CX30 and CX43). We previously reported decreased connexin expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of depressed suicides. In the present study, we investigated whether these changes are mediated by epigenetic regulation, and expanded gene expression quantifications to other cortical and subcortical regions to assess the regional distribution of connexion disruptions in depressed suicides...
August 11, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Chun-Lin Su, Chun-Wei Su, Ya-Hsin Hsiao, Po-Wu Gean
Major depressive disorder (MDD), one of the most common mental disorders, is a significant risk factor for suicide and causes a low quality of life for many people. However, the causes and underlying mechanism of depression remain elusive. In the current work, we investigated epigenetic regulation of BDNF in the learned helplessness-induced animal model of depression. Mice were exposed to inescapable stress and divided into learned helplessness (LH) and resilient (LH-R) groups depending on the number they failed to escape...
May 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Fatemeh Haghighi, Hanga Galfalvy, Sean Chen, Yung-Yu Huang, Thomas B Cooper, Ainsley K Burke, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, M Elizabeth Sublette
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and risk of suicide. Long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) are obtained in the diet or produced by sequential desaturation and elongation of shorter-chain precursor fatty acids linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). We compared DNA methylation patterns in genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in major depressive disorder (MDD) with (n = 22) and without (n = 39) history of suicide attempt, and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 59)...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
Fatemeh Haghighi, Yurong Xin, Benjamin Chanrion, Anne H O'Donnell, Yongchao Ge, Andrew J Dwork, Victoria Arango, J John Mann
Clinical studies find that childhood adversity and stressful life events in adulthood increase the risk for major depression and for suicide. The predispositions to either major depression or suicide are thought to depend on genetic risk factors or epigenetic effects. We investigated DNA methylation signatures postmortem in brains of suicides with diagnosis of major depressive disorder. DNA methylation levels were determined at single C-phosphate-G (CpG) resolution sites within ventral prefrontal cortex of 53 suicides and nonpsychiatric controls, aged 16 to 89 years...
September 2014: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Emma L Dempster, Chloe C Y Wong, Kathryn J Lester, Joe Burrage, Alice M Gregory, Jonathan Mill, Thalia C Eley
BACKGROUND: Adolescent depression is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that often continues into adulthood and is associated with a wide range of poor outcomes including suicide. Although numerous studies have looked at genetic markers associated with depression, the role of epigenetic variation remains relatively unexplored. METHODS: Monozygotic (MZ) twins were selected from an adolescent twin study designed to investigate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the development of emotional and behavioral difficulties...
December 15, 2014: Biological Psychiatry
Kyoung-Sae Na, Hun Soo Chang, Eunsoo Won, Kyu-Man Han, Sunyoung Choi, Woo Suk Tae, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Yong-Ku Kim, Sook-Haeng Joe, In-Kwa Jung, Min-Soo Lee, Byung-Joo Ham
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation in the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) is closely associated with childhood adversity and suicide. However, few studies have examined NR3C1 methylation in relation to major depressive disorder (MDD) and hippocampal subfield volumes. We investigated the possible association between NR3C1 methylation and structural brain alterations in MDD in comparison with healthy controls. METHODS: We compared the degree of NR3C1 promoter methylation in the peripheral blood of non-psychotic outpatients with MDD and that of healthy controls...
2014: PloS One
Pavo Filaković, Anamarija Petek Erić
The psychopathological dynamics in suicidality overcomes actual diagnostic distribution therefore pharmacotherapy has restricted role in overall prevention of suicidal behaviour among mentally ill and is demanding for clinician. This role is achieved through reduction and alleviation of suicidal risk with rational and individual pharmacotherapeutic approach emphasising effective, safe and tolerable treatment. The genetic and epigenetic factors, dysfunction of neurotransmitter, neuroendocrine system and stress response system has been determining for neurobiology of suicidality...
September 2013: Collegium Antropologicum
Hee-Ju Kang, Jae-Min Kim, Ju-Yeon Lee, Seon-Young Kim, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Sung-Wan Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Hye-Ran Kim, Myung-Geun Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a major health problem, and depression is a major psychiatric cause of suicide. Suicide is influenced by the multifactorial interaction of many risk factors. Therefore, epigenetic research may lead to understandings that are applicable to suicide. This study investigated whether epigenetic changes are associated with suicidal behavior and evaluated the treatment outcome of suicidal ideation in depressive patients. METHODS: In 108 patients with major depression, the promoter methylation of the gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was measured...
November 2013: Journal of Affective Disorders
Martin H Teicher, Jacqueline A Samson
OBJECTIVE: Childhood maltreatment increases risk for psychopathology. For some highly prevalent disorders (major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder) a substantial subset of individuals have a history of maltreatment and a substantial subset do not. The authors examined the evidence to assess whether those with a history of maltreatment represent a clinically and biologically distinct subtype. METHOD: The authors reviewed the literature on maltreatment as a risk factor for these disorders and on the clinical differences between individuals with and without a history of maltreatment who share the same diagnoses...
October 2013: American Journal of Psychiatry
Milica Pjevac, Peter Pregelj
It is known that suicidal behaviour has multiple causes. If triggers could be mainly attributed to environmental factors, predisposition could be associated with early stressors on one side such as childhood adversities and genetic predisposition. No convincing animal model of suicide has been produced to date. The study of endophenotypes has been proposed as a good strategy to overcome the methodological difficulties. However, research in suicidal behaviours using endophenotypes entrails important methodological problems...
October 2012: Psychiatria Danubina
Gabriele Masi, Paola Brovedani
Depression is a prevalent, highly debilitating mental disorder affecting up to 15% of the population at least once in their lifetime, with huge costs for society. Neurobiological mechanisms of depression are still not well known, although there is consensus about interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Antidepressant medications are frequently used in depression, but at least 50% of patients are poor responders, even to more recently discovered medications. Furthermore, clinical response only occurs following weeks to months of treatment and only chronic treatment is effective, suggesting that actions beyond the rapidly occurring effect of enhancing monoaminergic systems, such as adaptation of these systems, are responsible for the effects of antidepressants...
November 1, 2011: CNS Drugs
Anita E Autry, Lisa M Monteggia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2009: Biological Psychiatry
Yogesh Dwivedi
Depression and suicidal behavior have recently been shown to be associated with disturbances in structural and synaptic plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the major neurotrophic factors, plays an important role in the maintenance and survival of neurons and in synaptic plasticity. Several lines of evidence suggest that BDNF is involved in depression, such that the expression of BDNF is decreased in depressed patients. In addition, antidepressants up-regulate the expression of BDNF...
2009: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Timothy A Klempan, Carl Ernst, Vesselina Deleva, Benoit Labonte, Gustavo Turecki
BACKGROUND: A number of studies have suggested deficits in myelination and glial gene expression in different psychiatric disorders. We examined the brain expression and genetic/epigenetic regulation of QKI, an oligodendrocyte-specific RNA binding protein important for cell development and myelination. METHODS: The microarray-based expression of QKI was evaluated in cortical and subcortical brain regions from suicide victims with a diagnosis of major depression (n = 16) and control subjects (n = 13)...
November 1, 2009: Biological Psychiatry
Michael O Poulter, Lisheng Du, Ian C G Weaver, Miklós Palkovits, Gábor Faludi, Zul Merali, Moshe Szyf, Hymie Anisman
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the reprogramming of gene expression in response to stressful stimuli. This investigation determined whether epigenetic phenomena might similarly be associated with suicide/depression. METHODS: The expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) mRNA was assessed in several brain regions of individuals who had committed suicide and had been diagnosed with major depression relative to that of individuals who had died suddenly as a result of factors other than suicide...
October 15, 2008: Biological Psychiatry
M Feldman, A Wilson
OBJECTIVE: This research investigates personality variables--aggression and disorders of conduct, depression, and separation anxiety--mediating suicidal behavior in psychiatrically hospitalized urban minority adolescents. METHOD: Four matched groups of 26 subjects (N = 104) participated: suicidal adolescents with, and suicidal adolescents without, a conduct disorder diagnosis, nonsuicidal adolescents with a conduct disorder diagnosis, and a nonpsychiatric control group...
January 1997: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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