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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371119/how-to-perform-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-diagnostic-imaging-studies
#1
REVIEW
Paul Cronin, Aine Marie Kelly, Duaa Altaee, Bradley Foerster, Myria Petrou, Ben A Dwamena
A systematic review is a comprehensive search, critical evaluation, and synthesis of all the relevant studies on a specific (clinical) topic that can be applied to the evaluation of diagnostic and screening imaging studies. It can be a qualitative or a quantitative (meta-analysis) review of available literature. A meta-analysis uses statistical methods to combine and summarize the results of several studies. In this review, a 12-step approach to performing a systematic review (and meta-analysis) is outlined under the four domains: (1) Problem Formulation and Data Acquisition, (2) Quality Appraisal of Eligible Studies, (3) Statistical Analysis of Quantitative Data, and (4) Clinical Interpretation of the Evidence...
January 19, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356553/formal-synthesis-of-codeine-by-application-of-temporary-thio-derivatization
#2
Julia Rautschek, Anne Jäger, Peter Metz
Desymmetrization of a p-quinone monoacetal by organocatalytic sulfa-Michael addition provided rapid access to a C-ring building block for a formal synthesis of (-)-codeine. By means of a diastereoselective 1,2-addition for A/C-ring union, an intramolecular nitrone cycloaddition for construction of the phenanthrene core, and a sulfoxide elimination, an enantiopure key intermediate of the authors' previous synthesis of racemic codeine was available in 12 steps from isovanillin.
January 22, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340423/total-synthesis-of-five-natural-eremophilane-type-sesquiterpenoids
#3
Zhe Meng, Bo Liu
The first total syntheses of five natural eremophilane-type sesquiterpenoids were achieved in 4-12 steps via a common synthetic intermediate. The syntheses feature a double Michael addition, Robinson annulation, α-enolization of an unsaturated ketone, and Pd-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction to install the side chain. This synthetic strategy could be easily extended to other eremophilane-type sesquiterpenoids with similar bicyclic skeletons.
January 17, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281282/concise-synthesis-of-natural-phenylphenalenone-phytoalexins-and-a-regioisomer
#4
Ming-Zhong Wang, Chuen-Fai Ku, Tong-Xu Si, Siu-Wai Tsang, Xiao-Meng Lv, Xiao-Wan Li, Zheng-Ming Li, Hong-Jie Zhang, Albert S C Chan
Concise total syntheses of the natural phytoalexins 2-hydroxy-8-(4-hydroxyphenyl)phenalen-1-one (1), 2-hydroxy-8-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)phenalen-1-one (2), and hydroxyanigorufone (4), together with regioisomer 3 are accomplished in 11 or 12 steps. The synthetic strategy features a Friedel-Crafts acylation to construct the 1H-phenalen-1-one tricyclic core followed by a Suzuki cross-coupling to obtain the target compounds.
December 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195590/age-differences-in-outcomes-among-patients-in-the-stimulant-abuser-groups-to-engage-in-12-step-stage-12-intervention
#5
Sharon B Garrett, Suzanne R Doyle, K Michelle Peavy, Elizabeth A Wells, Mandy D Owens, Kathy Shores-Wilson, Jessica DiCenzo, Dennis M Donovan
Emerging adults (roughly 18-29years) with substance use disorders can benefit from participation in twelve-step mutual-help organizations (TSMHO), however their attendance and participation in such groups is relatively low. Twelve-step facilitation therapies, such as the Stimulant Abuser Groups to Engage in 12-Step (STAGE-12), may increase attendance and involvement, and lead to decreased substance use. AIMS: Analyses examined whether age moderated the STAGE-12 effects on substance use and TSMHO meeting attendance and participation...
January 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176448/patients-experiences-of-using-a-cellular-photo-digital-breathalyzer-for-treatment-purposes
#6
Christina Nehlin, Kristina Carlsson, Caisa Öster
OBJECTIVES: The field of eHealth systems is rapidly developing and is now expanding into alcohol treatment settings. Despite a growing public and professional interest, cellular photo digital breathalyzers (CPDBs) have not been investigated in a clinical context so far. In this study, we aimed to investigate the experiences of patients in alcohol treatment who had been using a CPDB-TripleA- for a minimum of three months. What are their personal experiences of using the CPDB? Do the patients think it supports them to change their drinking habits, and if so, in what way? METHODS: A qualitative interview study with individuals who had been using the CPDB TripleA, for at least 3 months as complement to treatment (12-step program or hospital-based outpatient care)...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135783/beyond-the-bottom-of-the-foot-topographic-organization-of-the-foot-dorsum-in-walking
#7
Taryn Klarner, Gregory E P Pearcey, Yao Sun, Trevor S Barss, Chelsea Kaupp, Bridget Munro, Nick Frank, E Paul Zehr
INTRODUCTION: Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. METHODS: Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking...
December 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057032/decreased-drinking-and-alcoholics-anonymous-are-associated-with-different-dimensions-of-spirituality
#8
Amy R Krentzman, Stephen Strobbe, J Irene Harris, Jennifer M Jester, Elizabeth A R Robinson
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is a spiritual program and involvement in it has been associated with increases in spirituality. Some who pursue recovery outside AA also use spirituality for support. Decreasing drinking without AA involvement might result in spiritual change, but this has not been explored in previous research. This study investigates drinking and AA behavior to determine their association with seven dimensions of subsequent spirituality. METHODS: A 30-month panel study recruited 364 individuals with alcohol dependence...
September 2017: Psychology of Religion and Spirituality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048974/strengthening-the-working-alliance-through-a-clinician-s-familiarity-with-the-12-step-approach
#9
Cory B Dennis, Brian D Roland, Barry M Loneck
BACKGROUND: The working alliance plays an important role in the substance use disorder treatment process. Many substance use disorder treatment providers incorporate the 12-Step approach to recovery into treatment. With the 12-Step approach known among many clients and clinicians, it may well factor into the therapeutic relationship. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how, from the perspective of clients, a clinician's level of familiarity with and in-session time spent on the 12-Step approach might affect the working alliance between clients and clinicians, including possible differences based on a clinician's recovery status...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038678/posttraumatic-growth-and-recovery-from-addiction
#10
Eyal Haroosh, Sara Freedman
Background: It is well documented that individuals coping with adverse events report both negative outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress symptoms, as well as positive changes, described as posttraumatic growth. Positive changes are also reported in people who have recovered from substance abuse. It seems plausible from the literature that both of these types of positive changes have elements in common. To date, no published studies have examined positive outcomes among people who have recovered from addiction...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024897/a-framework-for-engaging-stakeholders-on-the-management-of-alien-species
#11
Ana Novoa, Ross Shackleton, Susan Canavan, Cathleen Cybèle, Sarah J Davies, Katharina Dehnen-Schmutz, Jana Fried, Mirijam Gaertner, Sjirk Geerts, Charles L Griffiths, Haylee Kaplan, Sabrina Kumschick, David C Le Maitre, G John Measey, Ana L Nunes, David M Richardson, Tamara B Robinson, Julia Touza, John R U Wilson
Alien species can have major ecological and socioeconomic impacts in their novel ranges and so effective management actions are needed. However, management can be contentious and create conflicts, especially when stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who incur costs. Such conflicts of interests mean that management strategies can often not be implemented. There is, therefore, increasing interest in engaging stakeholders affected by alien species or by their management. Through a facilitated workshop and consultation process including academics and managers working on a variety of organisms and in different areas (urban and rural) and ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic), we developed a framework for engaging stakeholders in the management of alien species...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991468/total-syntheses-of-and-tetrapetalones-a-and-c
#12
Heemal H Dhanjee, Yutaka Kobayashi, Jonas F Buergler, Travis C McMahon, Matthew W Haley, Jennifer M Howell, Koichi Fujiwara, John L Wood
Described herein are syntheses of the naturally occurring polyketides (-)-tetrapetalones A and C and their respective enantiomers. The employed strategy involves initial assembly of a masked N-aryl tetramic acid which is advanced via a highly selective conjugate addition/intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation sequence to deliver a key azepine intermediate. Application of recently developed C-H activation chemistry and subsequent Heck cyclization delivers the aglycone framework in an overall 12 steps. Resolution of the aglycone via stereospecific glycosylation with an enantiopure glycosyl donor followed by separation of the derived diastereomers enables further advancement to either (+)- or (-)-tetrapetalones A and C...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950240/prevalence-and-motivations-for-kratom-use-in-a-sample-of-substance-users-enrolled-in-a-residential-treatment-program
#13
Kirsten Elin Smith, Thomas Lawson
BACKGROUND: Kratom use in the West has increased recently, yet the prevalence and motives for use among individuals with a history of substance use disorder (SUD) have not been fully examined. Kratom has been documented as a means of treating chronic pain, mitigating drug dependence, and easing withdrawal symptoms, yet it is unclear if substance users are utilizing kratom as a self-medication. Abuse liability, side effects, and overall appeal of kratom remain uncertain. METHODS: In April 2017, an anonymous survey regarding kratom use and motivations was completed by clients enrolled in a 12-Step-oriented residential program...
November 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942289/polysubstance-use-by-psychiatry-inpatients-with-co-occurring-mental-health-and-substance-use-disorders
#14
Christine Timko, Mark Ilgen, Marie Haverfield, Alexandra Shelley, Jessica Y Breland
BACKGROUND: Polysubstance use, the consumption of more than one substance over a defined period, is common and associated with psychiatric problems and poor treatment adherence and outcomes. This study examined past-month polysubstance use at intake among psychiatry inpatients with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders, and outcomes 3 months later. METHODS: Participants (n=406 psychiatry inpatients with documented mental health and substance use disorders) completed a baseline and a 3-month follow-up (84%) interview...
September 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853815/a-safe-teaching-protocol-of-lrp-laparoscopic-radical-prostatectomy
#15
Marcos Tobias-Machado, Cristiano Linck Pazeto, Oseas Castro Neves-Neto, Igor Nunes-Silva, Hamilton de Campos Zampolli
PURPOSE: The LRP has a steep learning curve to obtain proficiency during which patient safety may be compromised. We present an adapted modular training system which purpose to optimize the learning curve and perform a safe surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the LRP safe learning protocol applied during a fellowship program over eight years (2008-2015). The surgery was divided in 12 steps and 5 levels of difficulty. A maximum time interval was stipulated in 240 minutes...
August 30, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813187/twelve-steps-two-factors-coping-strategies-moderate-the-association-between-craving-and-daily-12-step-use-in-a-college-recovery-community
#16
Richard P Wiebe, Amanda M Griffin, Yao Zheng, Kitty S Harris, H Harrington Cleveland
BACKGROUND: Affiliating with 12-step groups appears to reduce relapse risk. By relying on between-person designs, extant research has been unable to examine daily mechanisms through which 12-step group affiliation contributes to recovery. OBJECTIVES: To examine the daily use and factor structure of the 12 steps and intrapersonal predictors and moderators of 12-step use. To determine whether the 12 steps were used in response to daily craving and, if so, which steps and in what contexts...
August 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760501/-hypersensitivity-to-platinum-salts-and-taxanes-the-value-of-skin-tests-and-tolerance-induction-procedures
#17
F Brault, J Waton, C Poreaux, J-L Schmutz, A Barbaud
AIM: The rate of hypersensitivity reactions to platinum salts (PS) and taxanes (TX) is on the increase. The aim of our study was to show the value of skin testing and efficacy of rapid drug desensitization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted between January 2007 and February 2016 in patients consulting for immediate or delayed hypersensitivity to PS and TX. Skin prick tests (pT) and intradermal reaction tests (IDR) were performed according to the ENDA/EAACI recommendations...
November 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756030/intensive-referral-to-mutual-help-groups-a-field-trial-of-adaptations-for-rural-veterans
#18
Kathleen M Grant, Lance Brendan Young, Kimberly A Tyler, Jamie L Simpson, R Dario Pulido, Christine Timko
OBJECTIVE: A multisite field trial testing whether improved outcomes associated with intensive referral to mutual help groups (MHGs) could be maintained after the intervention was adapted for the circumstances and needs of rural veterans in treatment for substance use disorder (SUD). METHODS: In three Veterans Affairs treatment programs in the Midwest, patients (N=195) received standard referral (SR) or rural-adapted intensive referral (RAIR) and were measured at baseline and 6-month follow-up...
July 14, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753400/a-model-for-analyzing-disability-policy
#19
Rud Turnbull, Matthew J Stowe
This article describes a 12-step model that can be used for policy analysis. The model encompasses policy development, implementation, and evaluation; takes into account structural foundations of policy; addresses both legal formalism and legal realism; demonstrates contextual sensitivity; and addresses application issues and different conceptualizations of IDD.
July 2017: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748700/wittig-cyclization-of-%C3%AF-hydroxy-hemiacetals-synthesis-of-aspicilin
#20
René Schmidt, Michael Ostermeier, Rainer Schobert
The polyhydroxylated 18-membered lichen macrolide (+)-aspicilin was synthesized in 12 steps and 17% yield (longest linear sequence) starting from d-mannose and (S)-propylene oxide as the source of the stereogenic centers. Key steps were a palladium-catalyzed C(sp3)X-C(sp3)ZnX Negishi cross-coupling affording an ω-hydroxy hemiacetal which was macrocyclized via a domino addition-Wittig olefination reaction with the cumulated ylide Ph3PCCO. This synthetic approach also allowed a regioselective glycosylation of 6-OH of aspicilin with d-desosamine, a quick entry to chimeric macrolides with potential antibiotic activity...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
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