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Sebastian Ocklenburg, Patrick Friedrich, Onur Güntürkün, Erhan Genç
Handedness is thought to originate in the brain, but identifying its structural correlates in the cortex has yielded surprisingly incoherent results. One idea proclaimed by several authors is that structural grey matter asymmetries might underlie handedness. While some authors have found significant associations with handedness in different brain areas (e.g. in the central sulcus and precentral sulcus), others have failed to identify such associations. One method used by many researchers to determine structural grey matter asymmetries is voxel based morphometry (VBM)...
September 26, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Silvia Minozzi, Rosella Saulle, Franco De Crescenzo, Laura Amato
BACKGROUND: Psychostimulant misuse is a continuously growing medical and social burden. There is no evidence proving the efficacy of pharmacotherapy. Psychosocial interventions could be a valid approach to help patients in reducing or ceasing drug consumption. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychosocial interventions for psychostimulant misuse in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register (via CRSLive); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science and PsycINFO, from inception to November 2015...
September 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Chuang Qiao, Wen Zhang, Jing-Chun Han, Chuang-Chuang Li
The first and catalytic enantioselective total synthesis of hypocrolide A (>99% ee) in 12 steps, as well as other botryanes, is described. The absolute configurations of these compounds have been unambiguously confirmed or reassigned accordingly. The key reactions in this study include an unusual rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular [4 + 2] cycloaddition and a biomimetic oxidative [3 + 2] cycloaddition based on our revised biogenetic pathway.
October 7, 2016: Organic Letters
Shamay S M Ng, Bobby K C Lau, Gilbert T C Law, Choco W K Wom, Tai-Wa Liu, Eric W C Tam, Mimi M Y Tse, Shirley S M Fong
OBJECTIVES: To investigate (i) the intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of sideways walk test times and counts in individuals with stroke; (ii) their correlations with stroke-specific measures of impairment; (iii) the cut-off sideways walk test times and counts between stroke survivors and healthy controls; and (iv) the minimum detectable changes in the sideways walk test times and counts. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University-based rehabilitation centre...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Donghui Ma, Zhuliang Zhong, Zaimin Liu, Mingjie Zhang, Shiyan Xu, Dengyu Xu, Dengpeng Song, Xingang Xie, Xuegong She
A protecting-group-free route for the total synthesis of (-)-lycopodine was demonstrated in only 8 steps from Wade's fawcettimine enone (12 steps from commercial availiable (R)-(+)-pulegone). The key core of this alkaloid was constructed through a phosphoric acid promoted and highly stereocontrolled alkyne aza-Prins cyclization reaction, synchronously establishing the bridged B-ring and the C13 quaternary stereocenter. Importantly, the synthesis further features a new efficient approach for the preparation of other lycopodine-type alkaloids...
September 2, 2016: Organic Letters
Mohamed Abou-El-Enein, Georg N Duda, Elliott A Gruskin, David W Grainger
Inefficient translational processes for technology-oriented biomedical research have led to some prominent and frequent failures in the development of many leading drug candidates, several designated investigational drugs, and some medical devices, as well as documented patient harm and postmarket product withdrawals. Derisking this process, particularly in the early stages, should increase translational efficiency and streamline resource utilization, especially in an academic setting. In this opinion article, we identify a 12-step guideline for reducing risks typically associated with translating medical technologies as they move toward prototypes, preclinical proof of concept, and possible clinical testing...
August 4, 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
Kosuke Usuda, Tanima Biswas, Takuya Yamaguchi, Yusuke Akagi, Koji Yasui, Motonari Uesugi, Isao Shimizu, Seijiro Hosokawa, Kazuo Nagasawa
1β,3β,25-Dihydroxy-19-norvitamin D3 (4a) and 1α,3α,25-dihydroxy-19-norvitamin D3 (4b) were synthesized by employing a new A-ring synthon, (1R,3S)-3-((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)-5-oxocyclohexyl benzoate (19), which was derived from D-(-)-quinic acid in 12 steps. The A-ring was coupled with the circular dichroism (CD) ring by means of Julia-Kocienski olefination to construct the diene unit. The structures of the products were confirmed by (1)H-NMR and nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments.
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Xiaoyu Liu, Chengsen Tian, Xiaozhen Jiao, Xiaoyu Li, Hongguang Yang, Yangyang Yao, Ping Xie
A novel formal synthesis of Beraprost (1) is described. The tricyclic cyclopent[b]benzofuran core is efficiently prepared from (-)-Corey lactone diol in 12 steps with an overall yield of 37.4%. Key features of the strategy include a ring-closing metathesis reaction and aromatization to form the tricyclic cyclopenta[b]benzofuran framework, and selective halogenation/formylation to install the butyrate side-chain.
August 10, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Benxiang Zhang, Weifeng Zheng, Xiaoqing Wang, Deqian Sun, Chaozhong Li
The total synthesis of the natural indole alkaloids (+)-notoamide F, I, and R and (-)-sclerotiamide is described. The four heptacyclic compounds were synthesized in 10-12 steps in a convergent and highly stereoselective manner from the readily available Seebach acetal. Key steps of the synthesis include a stereoselective oxidative aza-Prins cyclization to construct the bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane, and a cobalt-catalyzed radical cycloisomerization to create the cyclohexenyl ring.
August 22, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Mary Hatch-Maillette, Elizabeth A Wells, Suzanne R Doyle, Gregory S Brigham, Dennis Daley, Jessica DiCenzo, Dennis Donovan, Sharon Garrett, Viviana E Horigian, Lindsay Jenkins, Therese Killeen, Mandy Owens, Harold I Perl
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined the effectiveness of 12-step peer recovery support programs with drug use disorders, especially stimulant use, and it is difficult to know how outcomes related to 12-step attendance and participation generalize to individuals with non-alcohol substance use disorders (SUDs). METHOD: A clinical trial of 12-step facilitation (N=471) focusing on individuals with cocaine or methamphetamine use disorders allowed examination of four questions: Q1) To what extent do treatment-seeking stimulant users use 12-step programs and, which ones? Q2) Do factors previously found to predict 12-step participation among those with alcohol use disorders also predict participation among stimulant users? Q3) What specific baseline "12-step readiness" factors predict subsequent 12-step participation and attendance? And Q4) Does stimulant drug of choice differentially predict 12-step participation and attendance? RESULTS: The four outcomes variables, attendance, speaking, duties at 12-step meetings, and other peer recovery support activities, were not related to baseline demographic or substance problem history or severity...
September 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
John F Kelly, Julie D Yeterian, Julie V Cristello, Yifrah Kaminer, Christopher W Kahler, Christine Timko
Adolescent substance use disorder treatment programs are often based on the 12-step philosophy of Alcoholics Anonymous and/or link adolescents to these free resources. Despite this, no studies have developed and rigorously tested a twelve-step facilitation (TSF) intervention for young people, leaving a significant evidence gap. This study describes the first systematic development of an outpatient adolescent TSF treatment. An integrated twelve-step facilitation (iTSF) treatment incorporated TSF, motivational enhancement therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy elements and was developed in an iterative manner with weekly feedback provided by 36 adolescents (M age 17 years [SD = 1...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Stephen G Post, Maria E Pagano, Matthew T Lee, Byron R Johnson
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) offers a live stage to study how humility is worn by thousands for another day of sobriety and more freedom from the bondage of self. It has been the coauthors' intent to emphasize the significance of humility as a cardinal virtue across the 12-Step program and as essential to all its key elements. The coauthors have placed this emphasis in the context of a wider theological history of thought as this converged on Bill W. and AA. In addition, the coauthors have offered a constructive developmental interpretation of the 12 Steps that relies on a model of four modulations of humility...
2016: Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly
M Smith, A Gonzalez-Estrada, J Fernandez, A Subramanian
The use of MMF has become standard practice in many solid organ transplant recipients due its efficacy and favorable risk profile compared to other immunosuppressants. There has been a single case report of successful MMF desensitization. However, this protocol did not follow current Drug practice parameters. We report a successful desensitization to MMF in a double heart-kidney transplant recipient.
July 2016: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Toyoharu Kobayashi, Ryuta Shioi, Ai Ushie, Hideki Abe, Hisanaka Ito
The first total synthesis of (+)-artalbic acid has been accomplished using asymmetric allylation of an acetoacetate derivative with a phase-transfer catalyst. This synthetic work was completed in 12 steps from isopropyl acetoacetate with high stereocontrol. In addition, the absolute configuration of naturally occurring artalbic acid was determined to be 7S, 9S, and 10S.
July 19, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Benjamin Canha
Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders...
2016: Open Nursing Journal
Rachael A Korcha, Douglas L Polcin, Jason C Bond
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The impetus to abstain from alcohol and drugs is especially robust when individuals seek help. However, motivation to continue abstinence during ongoing recovery is less understood. The present study assessed how social support interacted with motivation to affect abstinence over an 18-monthe time period. METHODS: A sample of 289 residents entering residential recovery homes were recruited and followed at 6-, 12-, and 18-months. Motivation was measured as the perceived costs and benefits of abstinence...
July 2016: Journal of Drug Issues
Annette Mendola, Richard L Gibson
Addiction is a complex phenomenon characterized by a loss of control and compulsive, habitual behavior. Since there is no single, specific cause for addiction, there is no single, standard treatment for it. A variety of approaches are used, including counseling, psychotherapy, medications, and mutual help groups (MHG). The best known and most widely available approach to addiction is 12-step (TS) programs of recovery, a variety of MHG. These have been lauded as lifesaving by some and criticized by others. We argue that TS programs are an appropriate mode of help for those seeking to quit an addiction but should not be the only approach considered...
2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Rakesh K Pai, Michael P Kennedy, Peter Y Hahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Physician Leadership Journal
K Michelle Peavy, Sharon Garrett, Suzanne Doyle, Dennis Donovan
Engagement in 12-step meetings and activities has been shown to be a powerful aid to recovery from substance use disorders. However, only limited attention has been given to ethnic and racial differences in attitudes toward 12-step and involvement. This study utilized data from a large multisite trial testing the effectiveness of a 12-step facilitation therapy with stimulant-dependent treatment seekers. We compared baseline differences and treatment outcomes between African American and Caucasian participants...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
Stephen J Gumbley
Through the "war on drugs," the just-say-no campaign, and into the early years of this century, the overarching approach to substance use disorders (SUDs) called for a single outcome (abstinence) and a single methodology (spiritual connection with a higher power) as the remedy for SUDs. Those who did not become permanently abstinent or rejected the spiritual approach were seen as "not ready" or "in denial."A seismic shift in thinking about "addiction" and "recovery" began in earnest in the 1990s. In 2005, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration brought together leaders of the treatment and recovery field for the historic National Summit on Recovery to develop broad-based consensus on guiding principles for recovery and elements of recovery-oriented systems of care...
April 2016: Journal of Addictions Nursing
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