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Lucy P Allen, Jorge Baez, Mary Elizabeth C Stern, Ken Takahashi, Frank George
Although some countries have reduced asbestos consumption and instituted bans, other countries continue to produce and consume asbestos even as asbestos-related deaths mount and the associated societal costs are high. Asbestos production and consumption has declined globally; the number of bans has increased; and the speed at which countries have tapered off consumption has increased. Using country-level data, we study the economic impact of historical changes in the production and use of asbestos. We compare changes in gross domestic product (GDP) following the enactment of asbestos bans...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
JooYeon Jhun, Seung Hoon Lee, Soon Kyu Lee, Hee Yeon Kim, Eun Sun Jung, Dong Goo Kim, JeongWon Choi, Si Hyun Bae, Seung Kew Yoon, Byung Ha Chung, Chul Woo Yang, Mi-La Cho, Jong Young Choi
Recipients of liver transplantation (LT) require long-term immunosuppressive drug treatment, but lifelong immunosuppressive treatment has severe side effects. It is known that some LT recipients develop immune tolerance, and although the development of such operational tolerance should allow a decrease in the burden of immunosuppressive drug treatment, the factors that indicate operational tolerance are not clear. This study aimed to monitor immunological markers over time in LT recipients to identify those markers indicating the development of operational tolerance...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Aekaansh Verma, Mahdi Esmaily, Jessica Shang, Richard Figliola, Jeffrey A Feinstein, Tain-Yen Hsia, Alison L Marsden
BACKGROUND: First-stage single-ventricle palliation is challenging to manage, and significant interstage morbidity and mortality remain. Prior computational and in vitro studies of the assisted bidirectional Glenn (ABG), a novel first-stage procedure that has shown potential for early conversion to a more stable augmented Glenn physiology, demonstrated increased pulmonary flow and oxygen delivery while decreasing cardiac work, as compared to conventional stage-1 alternatives. This study aims to identify optimal shunt designs for the ABG to improve pulmonary flow while maintaining or decreasing superior vena caval (SVC) pressure...
March 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Afshin Khoshand, Ali Fathi, Milad Zoghi, Hamidreza Kamalan
One of the most common and economical methods for waste disposal is landfilling. The landfill cover system is one of the main components of landfills which prevents waste exposure to the environment by creating a barrier between the waste and the surrounding environment. The stability and integrity of the landfill cover system is a fundamental part of the design, construction, and maintenance of landfills. A reinforced tapered landfill cover system can be considered as a practical method for improving its stability; however, the simultaneous effects of seismic and seepage forces in the reinforced tapered landfill cover system have not been studied...
March 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Lone Baandrup, Bjørn H Ebdrup, Jesper Ø Rasmussen, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud, Birte Y Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Prolonged treatment with benzodiazepines is common practice despite clinical recommendations of short-term use. Benzodiazepines are used by approximately 4% of the general population, with increased prevalence in psychiatric populations and the elderly. After long-term use it is often difficult to discontinue benzodiazepines due to psychological and physiological dependence. This review investigated if pharmacological interventions can facilitate benzodiazepine tapering. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological interventions to facilitate discontinuation of chronic benzodiazepine use...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bing Sun, Fang Fang, Zuxing Zhang, Jing Xu, Lin Zhang
A high-sensitivity and low-temperature fiber-optic magnetic field sensor based on a tapered two-mode fiber (TTMF) sandwiched between two single-mode fibers has been proposed and demonstrated. The section of TTMF has a specifically designed transition region as an efficient tool to filter higher-order modes, where the uniform modal interferometer just involved with LP01 and LP11 modes is achieved. The transmission spectral characteristics and the magnetic response of the proposed sensors have been investigated...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Orrin Devinsky, Anup D Patel, Elizabeth A Thiele, Matthew H Wong, Richard Appleton, Cynthia L Harden, Sam Greenwood, Gilmour Morrison, Kenneth Sommerville
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and preliminary pharmacokinetics of a pharmaceutical formulation of purified cannabidiol (CBD) in children with Dravet syndrome. METHODS: Patients aged 4-10 years were randomized 4:1 to CBD (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/d) or placebo taken twice daily. The double-blind trial comprised 4-week baseline, 3-week treatment (including titration), 10-day taper, and 4-week follow-up periods. Completers could continue in an open-label extension. Multiple pharmacokinetic blood samples were taken on the first day of dosing and at end of treatment for measurement of CBD, its metabolites 6-OH-CBD, 7-OH-CBD, and 7-COOH-CBD, and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs; clobazam and metabolite N -desmethylclobazam [N-CLB], valproate, levetiracetam, topiramate, and stiripentol)...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
Gin S Malhi, Tim Outhred, Grace Morris, Philip M Boyce, Richard Bryant, Paul B Fitzgerald, Malcolm J Hopwood, Bill Lyndon, Roger Mulder, Greg Murray, Richard J Porter, Ajeet B Singh, Kristina Fritz
In December 2015, the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists published a comprehensive set of mood disorder clinical practice guidelines for psychiatrists, psychologists and mental health professionals. This guideline summary, directed broadly at primary care physicians, is an abridged version that focuses on bipolar disorder. It is intended as an aid to the management of this complex disorder for primary care physicians working in collaboration with psychiatrists to implement successful long term management...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Pengfei Wang, Haiyan Zhao, Xianfan Wang, Gerald Farrell, Gilberto Brambilla
In recent years, tapered optical fibers (TOFs) have attracted increasing interest and developed into a range of devices used in many practical applications ranging from optical communication, sensing to optical manipulation and high-Q resonators. Compared with conventional optical fibers, TOFs possess a range of unique features, such as large evanescent field, strong optical confinement, mechanical flexibility and compactness. In this review, we critically summarize the multimode interference in TOFs and some of its applications with a focus on our research project undertaken at the Optoelectronics Research Centre of the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom...
March 14, 2018: Sensors
Emmanuelle Jaillette, Benoit Voisin, Anahita Rouzé, Saad Nseir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Adham M Alifarag, Christopher D Lopez, Rodrigo Neiva, Nick Tovar, Lukasz Witek, Paulo G Coelho
Osseointegration, the direct functional and structural connection between device and bone is influenced by multiple factors such as implant macrogeometry and surgical technique. This study investigated the effects of osseodensification drilling techniques on implant stability and osseointegration using trabecular metal (TM) and tapered-screw vent (TSV) implants in a low-density bone. Six skeletally mature sheep were used where six osteotomy sites were prepared in each of the ilia, (n = 2/technique: regular [R] (subtractive), clockwise [CW], and counterclockwise [CCW])...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Isobel Ramsay, Nicholas M Brown, David A Enoch
Recurrence occurs in approximately 25% of all cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and poses a unique clinical challenge. Traditionally, treatment options of CDI have been limited to regimes of established antibiotics (eg, pulsed/tapered vancomycin) but faecal transplantation is emerging as a useful alternative. In recent years, promising new strategies have emerged for effective prevention of recurrent CDI (rCDI) including new antimicrobials (eg, fidaxomicin) and monoclonal antibodies (eg, bezlotoxumab)...
2018: Infectious Diseases
Marco Pisanello, Filippo Pisano, Leonardo Sileo, Emanuela Maglie, Elisa Bellistri, Barbara Spagnolo, Gil Mandelbaum, Bernardo L Sabatini, Massimo De Vittorio, Ferruccio Pisanello
Optogenetic control of neural activity in deep brain regions ideally requires precise and flexible light delivery with non-invasive devices. To this end, Tapered Optical Fibers (TFs) represent a versatile tool that can deliver light over either large brain volumes or spatially confined sub-regions, while being sensibly smaller than flat-cleaved optical fibers. In this work, we report on the possibility of further extending light emission length along the taper in the range 0.4 mm-3.0 mm by increasing the numerical aperture of the TFs to NA = 0...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Valessa F Carvalho, Priscilla Bf Soares, Crisnicaw Verissimo, Roberto S Pessoa, Antheunis Versluis, Carlos J Soares
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate mouthguard shock absorption ability, strain, and stress generation during impact on dental implants placed in the anterior maxilla. The mouthguard material was also characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty experimental models were created and divided into six groups (n = 10): implant type, external hexagon (EH) and Morse taper (MT); without and with two mouthguards (MTG), EVA custom-fitted (Ct-MTG) and standard self-adapted (St-MTG)...
March 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Renato Sussumu Nishioka, Leandro Ruivo De Santis, Gabriela Nogueira De Melo Nishioka, Alberto Noriyuki Kojima, Francisley Ávila Souza
PURPOSE: This in vitro study assessed the accuracy of multiple implant-level impression techniques (open tray and closed tray) for the fabrication of 3-unit implant prostheses with strain gauge (SG) analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A polyurethane master model was designed to simulate a clinical situation. Two rigid custom trays were fabricated for the model. The impression material used was polysulfide. Transfer implant impressions were made using 2 techniques; ten tapered copings not splinted (custom closed tray) and ten square copings splinted with acrylic-resin (custom open tray)...
March 9, 2018: Implant Dentistry
Bálint Tordai, Károly Schreindorfer, Edina Lempel, Károly Krajczár
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to investigate the clinical value of two-dimensional radiographs and different radiographic measurement techniques before instrument removal with a microsonic technique. The aim was to find an easy-to-use technique for predicting the success of removal and case evaluation. Additionally the quality of root canal filling after instrument removal was assessed. METHOD AND MATERIALS: This retrospective study analyzed patients' records and preoperative and postoperative periapical radiographs made using the paralleling technique...
2018: Quintessence International
Laura Murphy, Roshina Babaei-Rad, Donna Buna, Pearl Isaac, Andrea Murphy, Karen Ng, Loren Regier, Naomi Steenhof, Maria Zhang, Beth Sproule
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
Myreen E Tomas, Thriveen S C Mana, Brigid M Wilson, Michelle M Nerandzic, Joussef Samira, Miguel Quinones-Mateu, Curtis J Donskey
Vancomycin taper regimens are commonly used for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. One rationale for tapering and pulsing of the dose at the end of therapy is to reduce the selective pressure of vancomycin on the indigenous intestinal microbiota. Here, we used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that the indigenous microbiota that provide colonization resistance against C. difficile and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is re-populated during tapering courses of vancomycin. Mice were treated orally with vancomycin daily for 10 days, vancomycin in a tapering dose for 42 days, fidaxomicin for 10 days, or saline...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Matthew J Grosso, Eugene S Jang, Jason Longaray, Sezen Buell, Edward Alfonso, Roshan P Shah
BACKGROUND: This study investigates if the placement of femoral heads (trials and actual implants) using varying impaction forces causes physical compromise to the trunnion. METHODS: Trunnion and head taper wear patterns were evaluated after impaction and removal of new femoral stem trunnions and ceramic heads at various impaction loads (2 kN, 4 kN, or 6 kN, n = 6/group). In addition, trunnion wear patterns were measured after plastic trials were hand-placed on new trunnions and underwent range of motion testing in a Hip Simulator (n = 5)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Eli M Miloslavsky, John L Niles, Zachary S Wallace, Frank B Cortazar, Ana Fernandes, Karen Laliberte, John H Stone
OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic advances in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) have improved patient survival, but mortality rates remain higher than the general population. Glucocorticoids contribute to AAV morbidity and mortality. We examined whether an 8-week glucocorticoid course in combination with rituximab (RTX) would induce disease remission in patients with AAV. METHODS: Patients with active AAV received an 8-week prednisone taper and RTX 375mg/m2 weekly for 4 weeks...
February 3, 2018: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
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