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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454213/spatio-temporal-comparison-of-neustonic-microplastic-density-in-hong-kong-waters-under-the-influence-of-the-pearl-river-estuary
#1
Pui Kwan Cheung, Lincoln Fok, Pui Lam Hung, Lewis T O Cheung
Rivers are recognised as an important source of plastic debris in the open sea. The Pearl River in China is estimated to transport 0.1milliontonnes of plastic waste to the open sea annually. However, no empirical study has been conducted to assess the plastic contamination levels in the Pearl River Estuary. Hong Kong is situated in the east of the Pearl River Estuary; its western waters are strongly influenced by river discharge, whereas the eastern waters are unaffected by the freshwater plume. In this study, we quantified the neustonic plastic debris density in the western and eastern waters of Hong Kong...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454209/reconciling-discrepancies-in-the-source-characterization-of-vocs-between-emission-inventories-and-receptor-modeling
#2
Jiamin Ou, Junyu Zheng, Zibing Yuan, Dabo Guan, Zhijiong Huang, Fei Yu, Min Shao, Peter K K Louie
Emission inventory (EI) and receptor model (RM) are two of the three source apportionment (SA) methods recommended by Ministry of Environment of China and used widely to provide independent views on emission source identifications. How to interpret the mixed results they provide, however, were less studied. In this study, a cross-validation study was conducted in one of China's fast-developing and highly populated city cluster- the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. By utilizing a highly resolved speciated regional EI and a region-wide gridded volatile organic compounds (VOCs) speciation measurement campaign, we elucidated underlying factors for discrepancies between EI and RM and proposed ways for their interpretations with the aim to achieve a scientifically plausible source identification...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454208/barrier-effects-of-remote-high-mountain-on-atmospheric-metal-transport-in-the-eastern-tibetan-plateau
#3
Haijian Bing, Jun Zhou, Yanhong Wu, Xiaosan Luo, Zhongxiang Xiang, Hongyang Sun, Jipeng Wang, He Zhu
Anthropogenic metals adsorbed on suspended fine particles can be deposited on remote and inaccessible high mountains by long-range atmospheric transport. In this study, we investigated the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the soils, mosses and rainfall of three transects on the Gongga Mountain, eastern Tibetan Plateau, to understand the mountain interception effects on their atmospheric transport. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the soils and mosses displayed a pattern of eastern transect>northern transect>western transect...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454204/scanning-vertical-distributions-of-typical-aerosols-along-the-yangtze-river-using-elastic-lidar
#4
Shidong Fan, Cheng Liu, Zhouqing Xie, Yunsheng Dong, Qihou Hu, Guangqiang Fan, Zhengyi Chen, Tianshu Zhang, Jingbo Duan, Pengfei Zhang, Jianguo Liu
In recent years, China has experienced heavy air pollution, especially haze caused by particulate matter (PM). The compositions, horizontal distributions, transport, and chemical formation mechanisms of PM and its precursors have been widely investigated in China based on near-ground measurements. However, the understanding of the distributions and physical and chemical processes of PM in the vertical direction remains limited. In this study, an elastic lidar was employed to investigate the vertical profiles of aerosols along the Yangtze River during the Yangtze River Campaign of winter 2015...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454154/age-related-functional-changes-in-domain-specific-medial-temporal-lobe-pathways
#5
David Berron, Katja Neumann, Anne Maass, Hartmut Schütze, Klaus Fliessbach, Verena Kiven, Frank Jessen, Magdalena Sauvage, Dharshan Kumaran, Emrah Düzel
There is now converging evidence from studies in animals and humans that the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) harbor anatomically distinct processing pathways for object and scene information. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans suggest that this domain-specific organization may be associated with a functional preference of the anterior-lateral part of the entorhinal cortex (alErC) for objects and the posterior-medial entorhinal cortex (pmErC) for scenes. As MTL subregions are differentially affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases, the question was raised whether aging may affect the 2 pathways differentially...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454082/a-straightforward-sted-background-corrected-fitting-model-for-unbiased-sted-fcs-analyses
#6
Ruixing Wang, Sophie Brustlein, Sébastien Mailfert, Roxane Fabre, Mathieu Fallet, Siddharth Sivankutty, Hervé Rigneault, Didier Marguet
Combining stimulated emission depletion and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (STED-FCS) provides a powerful and sensitive tool for studying the molecular dynamics in live cells with high spatio-temporal resolution. STED-FCS gives access to molecular diffusion characteristic at the nanoscale occurring within short period of times. However due to the incomplete suppression of fluorescence in the STED process, the STED-FCS point spread function (PSF) deviates from a Gaussian shape and challenges the analysis of the auto-correlation curves obtained by FCS...
February 14, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454044/the-expression-patterns-of-vestigial-like-family-member-4-genes-in-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#7
Chang Xue, Hai Hong Wang, Jun Zhu, Jun Zhou
Transcriptional cofactor Vestigial-like 4 (VGLL4) was considered to take part in the early stage of development. Different from human, three paralogs of vgll4 were found in zebrafish, which were vgll4a, vgll4b and vgll4l. However, the expression patterns of the three paralogs during zebrafish development remains unknown. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to elucidate the temporal and spatial expression of zebrafish vgll4 paralogs during normal embryonic and larval development. Similar expression was shown in certain areas at similar stages for the three paralogs...
February 14, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453936/a-new-method-for-the-rapid-characterization-of-root-growth-and-distribution-using-digital-image-correlation
#8
Tan Bao, Garrett W Melenka, Megan K Ljubotina, Jason P Carey, James F Cahill
Rapidly determining root growth patterns is biologically important and technically challenging. Current methods focus on direct observation of roots and require destructive excavations or time-consuming root tracing. We developed a novel methodology based on analyzing soil particle displacement, rather than direct observation of roots. This inferred root growth method uses digital image correlation (DIC) analysis, an established and high-throughput method used in many engineering and science disciplines. By applying DIC analyses to repeated images of plants grown in clear window boxes, we produced visually intuitive and quantifiable strain maps, indicating the magnitude and direction of soil movement...
February 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453885/bacterial-neuraminidase-mediated-erythrocyte-desialylation-provokes-cell-surface-aminophospholipid-exposure
#9
Syed M Qadri, David A Donkor, Ishac Nazy, Donald R Branch, William P Sheffield
BACKGROUND: Surface desialylation is associated with erythrocyte aging and mediates phagocytic recognition and clearance of senescent erythrocytes. Neuraminidases, a family of glycohydrolytic enzymes, cleave the glycosidic linkages between sialic acid and mucopolysaccharides and have previously been implicated in erythrocyte dysfunction associated with sepsis. Erythrocytes in septic patients further display a phenotype of accelerated eryptosis characterized by membrane phospholipid scrambling resulting in phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453821/trends-and-predictors-of-cesarean-birth-in-singapore-2005-2014-a-population-based-cohort-study
#10
Claudia Chi, Deanette Pang, Izzuddin M Aris, Wei Ting Teo, Sarah Weiling Li, Arijit Biswas, Eu Leong Yong, Yap Seng Chong, Kelvin Tan, Michael S Kramer
BACKGROUND: Rates of cesarean birth have continued to rise in many high-income countries. We examined the temporal trends and predictors of cesarean birth in Singapore. METHODS: Linked hospitalization and Birth Registry data were used to examine all live births to Singaporean citizens and permanent residents between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2014 (n = 342 932 births). We calculated cesarean rates and age-adjusted average annual percent change (AAPC) in those rates and used sequential multivariable regression modeling to assess the contribution of changes in predictors to the change in cesarean rates over time...
February 17, 2018: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453679/the-impact-of-timing-of-immunotherapy-with-cranial-irradiation-in-melanoma-patients-with-brain-metastases-intracranial-progression-survival-and-toxicity
#11
Rifaquat Rahman, Alfonso Cortes, Andrzej Niemierko, Kevin S Oh, Keith T Flaherty, Donald P Lawrence, Ryan J Sullivan, Helen A Shih
Immunotherapy (IT) is increasingly incorporated in the management of metastatic melanoma patients with brain metastases, but the impact of timing of IT with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the temporal significance of IT in melanoma patients treated with cranial radiation therapy (RT) with respect to patterns of intracranial progression, overall survival (OS), and toxicity. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive melanoma patients with brain metastases undergoing cranial RT and IT between 2008 and 2015...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453676/properties-of-bacterial-communities-attached-to-artificial-substrates-in-a-hypereutrophic-urban-river
#12
Xianlei Cai, Ling Yao, Qiyue Sheng, Luyao Jiang, Randy A Dahlgren, Ting Wang
Bacterial communities of biofilms growing on artificial substrates were examined at two time periods (7 and 14 days) and two locations (lentic and lotic areas) in a hypereutrophic urban river of eastern China. Previous studies in this river network indicated that variations of microbial communities were the major factor affecting the distribution of antibiotic resistant genes highlighting the importance of understanding controls of microbial communities. Bacterial communities associated with biofilms were determined using epifluorescence microscopy and high-throughput sequencing...
February 16, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453651/neurotrophins-in-asthma
#13
REVIEW
Juliana Barrios, Xingbin Ai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a chronic airway disease that affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Current treatment focuses on symptomatic relief by temporally dampening inflammation and relaxing the airway. Novel combative strategies against asthma and hopefully a cure are yet to be developed. The goal of this review is to summarize recent literature on neurotrophins (NTs) in experimental models and clinical settings of asthma research. RECENT FINDINGS: We highlight studies of early phases of asthma that collectively reveal a profound impact of elevated NT levels following initial detrimental insults on long-term airway dysfunction...
February 16, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453490/goal-directed-reaching-the-allocentric-coding-of-target-location-renders-an-offline-mode-of-control
#14
Joseph Manzone, Matthew Heath
Reaching to a veridical target permits an egocentric spatial code (i.e., absolute limb and target position) to effect fast and effective online trajectory corrections supported via the visuomotor networks of the dorsal visual pathway. In contrast, a response entailing decoupled spatial relations between stimulus and response is thought to be primarily mediated via an allocentric code (i.e., the position of a target relative to another external cue) laid down by the visuoperceptual networks of the ventral visual pathway...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453455/temporal-structure-in-spiking-patterns-of-ganglion-cells-defines-perceptual-thresholds-in-rodents-with-subretinal-prosthesis
#15
Elton Ho, Henri Lorach, Georges Goetz, Florian Laszlo, Xin Lei, Theodore Kamins, Jean-Charles Mariani, Alexander Sher, Daniel Palanker
Subretinal prostheses are designed to restore sight in patients blinded by retinal degeneration using electrical stimulation of the inner retinal neurons. To relate retinal output to perception, we studied behavioral thresholds in blind rats with photovoltaic subretinal prostheses stimulated by full-field pulsed illumination at 20 Hz, and measured retinal ganglion cell (RGC) responses to similar stimuli ex-vivo. Behaviorally, rats exhibited startling response to changes in brightness, with an average contrast threshold of 12%, which could not be explained by changes in the average RGC spiking rate...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453440/allocation-of-photosynthesized-carbon-in-an-intensively-farmed-winter-wheat-soil-system-as-revealed-by-14-co-2-pulse-labelling
#16
Zhaoan Sun, Qing Chen, Xiao Han, Roland Bol, Bo Qu, Fanqiao Meng
Understanding the rhizodeposited carbon (C) dynamics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), is crucial for soil fertility and C sequestration. Pot-grown winter wheat was pulse labelled with 14 CO 2 at the key growth stages. 14 C in the shoots, roots and soil was measured at 5 or 2 days after 14 C-labelling (DAL 5/2) at each growth stage and at harvest. The 14 C in the shoots increased from 4% of the net 14 C recovered (shoots + roots + soil) during tillering to 53% at harvest. Approximately 14-34% of the net 14 C recovered was incorporated into the soil...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453408/biosignals-reflect-pair-dynamics-in-collaborative-work-eda-and-ecg-study-of-pair-programming-in-a-classroom-environment
#17
Lauri Ahonen, Benjamin Ultan Cowley, Arto Hellas, Kai Puolamäki
Collaboration is a complex phenomenon, where intersubjective dynamics can greatly affect the productive outcome. Evaluation of collaboration is thus of great interest, and can potentially help achieve better outcomes and performance. However, quantitative measurement of collaboration is difficult, because much of the interaction occurs in the intersubjective space between collaborators. Manual observation and/or self-reports are subjective, laborious, and have a poor temporal resolution. The problem is compounded in natural settings where task-activity and response-compliance cannot be controlled...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453404/prep1-tumor-suppressor-protects-the-late-replicating-dna-by-controlling-its-replication-timing-and-symmetry
#18
Angela Palmigiano, Francesco Santaniello, Aurora Cerutti, Dmitry Penkov, Divya Purushothaman, Ekta Makhija, Lucilla Luzi, Fabrizio d'Adda di Fagagna, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Viveswara Shivashankar, Gaetano Ivan Dellino, Francesco Blasi
The synthesis of middle-to-late-replicating DNA can be affected independently of the rest of the genome by down-regulating the tumor suppressor PREP1 (PKNOX1). Indeed, DNA combing shows that PREP1 down-regulation affects DNA replication rate, increases the number of simultaneously firing origins and the asymmetry of DNA replication, leading to DNA damage. Genome-wide analysis of replication timing by Repli-seq shows that, upon PREP1 down-regulation, 25% of the genome is replicated earlier in the S-phase. The targeted DNA sequences correspond to Lamin-Associated Domains (LADs), and include late-replicating (LRRs) and temporal transition regions (TTRs)...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453339/a-role-for-tau-in-learning-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity
#19
Fabrizio Biundo, Dolores Del Prete, Hong Zhang, Ottavio Arancio, Luciano D'Adamio
Tau plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders: mutations in the gene encoding for tau (MAPT) are linked to Fronto-temporal Dementia (FTD) and hyper-phosphorylated aggregates of tau forming neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that constitute a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) and FTD. Accordingly, tau is a favored therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. Given the criticality of tau to dementia's pathogenesis and therapy, it is important to understand the physiological function of tau in the central nervous system...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453303/identifying-positively-deviant-elderly-medical-wards-using-routinely-collected-nhs-safety-thermometer-data-an-observational-study
#20
Ruth Baxter, Natalie Taylor, Ian Kellar, Victoria Pye, Mohammed A Mohammed, Rebecca Lawton
OBJECTIVE: The positive deviance approach seeks to identify and learn from exceptional performers. Although a framework exists to apply positive deviance within healthcare organisations, there is limited guidance to support its implementation. The approach has also rarely explored exceptional performance on broad outcomes, been implemented at ward level, or applied within the UK. This study develops and critically appraises a pragmatic method for identifying positively deviant wards using a routinely collected, broad measure of patient safety...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
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