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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224248/is-there-a-pathogenetic-link-between-frontal-fibrosing-alopecia-androgenetic-alopecia-and-fibrosing-alopecia-in-a-pattern-distribution
#1
A Katoulis, K Diamanti, D Sgouros, A I Liakou, E Bozi, G Avgerinou, I Panayiotides, D Rigopoulos
Frequent coexistence of frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) and androgenetic alopecia (AGA) has been reported in the literature, but little attention has been given to the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this potential association. FFA is characterized by progressive cicatricial fronto-temporal hairline recession, mostly affecting peri-menopausal women. Immune mechanisms seem to play a pivotal pathogenetic role. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 10, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224137/considerations-for-design-and-analysis-of-dna-methylation-studies
#2
Karin B Michels, Alexandra M Binder
The number of epigenetic studies is exponentially increasing. There is anticipation that DNA methylation may close gaps in our understanding of disease etiology, and how certain risk factors affect health and disease, but also that it has potential as a biomarker for disease. Human DNA methylation studies require careful considerations for design and analysis including population and tissue selection, population stratification, cell heterogeneity, confounding, temporality, sample size, appropriate statistical analysis, and validation of results...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224005/evidence-of-osteoclastic-activity-in-the-human-temporal-bone
#3
Takefumi Kamakura, Joseph B Nadol
Bone remodeling within the otic capsule has been reported to be inhibited especially at or near the cochlea, except under some pathological conditions such as otosclerosis, Paget's disease, or mastoiditis, when bone remodeling can occur. Microcavitations found in periosteal and endosteal layers of human temporal bone specimens without otosclerosis, Paget's disease, or inflammation as reported in the current study are consistent with osteoclastic bone resorption. Thirty-three temporal bones from 33 patients were prepared for light microscopy and classified into 4 groups: histologically proven dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal (SSCD) (n = 3, group 1), age 20 years or younger (n = 10, group 2), age 90 years or older and with otosclerosis (n = 10, group 3), and age 90 years or older without otosclerosis (n = 10, group 4)...
December 9, 2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223933/task-based-and-resting-state-fmri-reveal-compensatory-network-changes-following-damage-to-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus
#4
Glyn P Hallam, Hannah E Thompson, Mark Hymers, Rebecca E Millman, Jennifer M Rodd, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex in stroke aphasia is associated with semantic deficits reflecting poor control over conceptual retrieval, as opposed to loss of knowledge. However, little is known about how functional recruitment within the semantic network changes in patients with executive-semantic deficits. The current study acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 14 patients with semantic aphasia, who had difficulty with flexible semantic retrieval following left prefrontal damage, and 16 healthy age-matched controls, allowing us to examine activation and connectivity in the semantic network...
October 17, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223919/-temporal-diversity-dynamics-of-the-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-of-larrea-tridentata-sesse-mocino-ex-dc-coville-in-a-semi-arid-ecosystem
#5
Genoveva Hernández-Zamudio, Jorge Sáenz-Mata, Alejandro Moreno-Reséndez, Gamaliel Castañeda-Gaytán, Alfredo Ogaz, Santos Carballar-Hernández, Laura Hernández-Cuevas
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of arid and semiarid ecosystems are important for the development of plants that grow under biotic stress in wild or in agro-ecosystems. There is little information on the temporal diversity of these organisms in perennial plants from arid ecosystems in northern Mexico. On this study, the mycorrhizal colonization and the temporal diversity of AMF in the rhizosphere of Larrea tridentata, perennial plant abundant in the Chihuahuan Desert region were explored. Samples of the rhizosphere and roots of fifteen plants in each of the three sampling dates during the 2015 year were obtained...
December 6, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223860/time-resolution-requirements-for-civilian-radioxenon-emission-data-for-the-ctbt-verification-regime
#6
Pieter De Meutter, Johan Camps, Andy Delcloo, Benoît Deconninck, Piet Termonia
The capability of the noble gas component of the International Monitoring System as a verification tool for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty is deteriorated by a background of radioxenon emitted by civilian sources. One of the possible approaches to deal with this issue, is to simulate the daily radioxenon concentrations from these civilian sources at noble gas stations by using atmospheric transport models. In order to accurately quantify the contribution from these civilian sources, knowledge on the releases is required...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223790/temporal-and-bi-directional-associations-between-sleep-duration-and-physical-activity-sedentary-time-in-children-an-international-comparison
#7
Yingyi Lin, Mark S Tremblay, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Estelle V Lambert, Carol Maher, Jose Maia, Timothy Olds, Olga L Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Jean-Philippe Chaput
The purpose of this multinational and cross-sectional study was to investigate whether nighttime sleep duration was associated with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) the following day, whether daytime PA/SED were associated with sleep duration the subsequent night, and whether the associations were modified by sex and study sites. Data from 5779 children aged 9-11years were analyzed. A waist-worn Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to assess children's 24-h movement behaviours for 7days, i...
December 6, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223779/female-verbal-memory-advantage-in-temporal-but-not-frontal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Justus Berger, Katharina Demin, Martin Holtkamp, Thomas Bengner
Women show better performance than men on a range of episodic memory tasks. Evidence regarding a neuroanatomical localization of this effect remains ambiguous. It has been suggested that anterior temporal lobe structures are responsible for sex differences in verbal memory, yet temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and TLE surgery do not affect women's verbal memory advantage. Instead, frontal lobe regions may be relevant for female verbal memory superiority, i.e. by enabling more efficient encoding and retrieval strategies in women...
December 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223760/down-the-local-a-qualitative-case-study-of-daytime-drinking-spaces-in-the-london-borough-of-islington
#9
Claire Thompson, Sarah Milton, Matt Egan, Karen Lock
BACKGROUND: Recognising the lack of research on daytime drinking practices in areas with managed night-time economies (NTEs), this qualitative study explores the phenomena in the London Borough of Islington; a rapidly gentrifying area with a highly regulated night-time economy (NTE). The objectives were to (i) Characterise the daytime drinking spaces of the local alcohol environment and (ii) Theorise the ways in which these spaces, and the practices and performativities within them, are situated within broader social and economic trends...
December 7, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223682/neocortical-origin-and-progression-of-gray-matter-atrophy-in-nonamnestic-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Jeffrey S Phillips, Fulvio Da Re, Laynie Dratch, Sharon X Xie, David J Irwin, Corey T McMillan, Sanjeev N Vaishnavi, Carlo Ferrarese, Edward B Lee, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, David A Wolk, Murray Grossman
Amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by early atrophy of the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes before spreading to the neocortex. In contrast, nonamnestic Alzheimer's patients have relative sparing of the hippocampus, but the pattern in which the disease spreads is unclear. We examined spreading disease in nonamnestic AD using a novel magnetic resonance imaging-based analysis adapted from pathologic staging studies, applied here to cross-sectional imaging data. We selected 240 T1-weighted scans from 129 patients with pathology confirmed by autopsy or cerebrospinal fluid, and atrophy maps were computed relative to 238 scans from 115 elderly controls...
November 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223681/language-processing-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-associated-with-unique-functional-connectivity-signatures-in-the-right-hemisphere
#11
Jie Zhuang, David J Madden, Xuan Duong-Fernandez, Nan-Kuei Chen, Scott W Cousins, Guy G Potter, Michele T Diaz, Heather E Whitson
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal disease associated with significant vision loss among older adults. Previous large-scale behavioral studies indicate that people with AMD are at increased risk of cognitive deficits in language processing, particularly in verbal fluency tasks. The neural underpinnings of any relationship between AMD and higher cognitive functions, such as language processing, remain unclear. This study aims to address this issue using independent component analysis of spontaneous brain activity at rest...
November 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223596/presence-and-persistence-of-the-amnesic-shellfish-poisoning-toxin-domoic-acid-in-octopus-and-cuttlefish-brains
#12
Vanessa M Lopes, Rui Rosa, Pedro R Costa
Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin that causes degenerative damage to brain cells and induces permanent short-term memory loss in mammals. In cephalopod mollusks, although DA is known to accumulate primarily in the digestive gland, there is no knowledge whether DA reaches their central nervous system. Here we report, for the first time, the presence of DA in brain tissue of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), and its absence in the brains of several squid species (Loligo vulgaris, L...
December 5, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223539/losartan-suppresses-the-kainate-induced-changes-of-angiotensin-at1-receptor-expression-in-a-model-of-comorbid-hypertension-and-epilepsy
#13
Dimitrinka Atanasova, Jana Tchekalarova, Natasha Ivanova, Zlatina Nenchovska, Ekaterina Pavlova, Nina Atanassova, Nikolai Lazarov
AIMS: Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that components of renin-angiotensin system are elevated in the hippocampus in epileptogenic conditions. In the present work, we explored the changes in the expression of angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT1 receptor) in limbic structures, as well as the effect of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan in a model of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy. MAIN METHODS: The expression of AT1 receptors was compared between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats by using immunohistochemistry in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
December 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223474/fine-tuning-of-store-operated-calcium-entry-by-fast-and-slow-ca2-dependent-inactivation-involvement-of-saraf
#14
REVIEW
Isaac Jardín, Letizia Albarran, Ginés M Salido, Jose J López, Stewart O Sage, Juan A Rosado
Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a functionally relevant mechanism for Ca2+ influx present in electrically excitable and non-excitable cells. Regulation of Ca2+ entry through store-operated channels is essential to maintain an appropriate intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and prevent cell damage. Calcium-release activated channels exhibit Ca2+-dependent inactivation mediated by two temporally separated mechanisms: fast Ca2+-dependent inactivation takes effect in the order of milliseconds and involves the interaction of Ca2+ with residues in the channel pore while slow Ca2+-dependent inactivation (SCDI) develops over tens of seconds, requires a global rise in [Ca2+]cyt and is a mechanism regulated by mitochondria...
December 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223403/older-adults-undergoing-total-hip-or-knee-arthroplasty-chronicling-changes-in-their-multimorbidity-profile-in-the-last-two-decades
#15
Siran M Koroukian, Nicholas K Schiltz, David F Warner, Alison K Klika, Carlos A Higuera-Rueda, Wael K Barsoum
BACKGROUND: Despite the ubiquitous use of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in older adults, little is known about the multimorbidity (MM) profile of this patient population. This study evaluates the temporal trends of MM, hypothesizing that patients with MM have had an increasingly greater representation in THA and TKA patients over time. METHODS: Data on a US representative sample of older adults from the linked Health and Retirement Study and Medicare data from 1993 to 2012 were used...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223292/can-we-refine-body-mass-estimations-based-on-femoral-head-breadth
#16
Markku Niskanen, Juho-Antti Junno, Heli Maijanen, Brigitte Holt, Vladimir Sladék, Margit Berner
Femoral head breadth is widely used in body mass estimation in biological anthropology. Earlier research has demonstrated that reduced major axis (RMA) equations perform better than least squares (LS) equations. Although a simple RMA equation to estimate body size from femoral head breadth is sufficient in most cases, our experiments with male skeletons from European data (including late Pleistocene and Holocene skeletal samples) and the Forensic Anthropology Data Bank data (including the W. M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection sample) show that including femoral length or anatomically estimated stature in an equation with femoral head breadth improves body mass estimation precision...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223121/from-information-to-participation-and-self-organization-visions-for-european-river-basin-management
#17
Johannes Euler, Sonja Heldt
The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, 2000) calls for active inclusion of the public in the governance of waterbodies to enhance the effectiveness and legitimacy of water management schemes across the EU. As complex socio-ecological systems, river basins in western Europe could benefit from further support for inclusive management schemes. This paper makes use of case studies from Germany, England and Spain to explore the potential opportunities and challenges of different participatory management approaches...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223080/glacial-influence-and-stream-macroinvertebrate-biodiversity-under-climate-change-lessons-from-the-southern-alps
#18
Valeria Lencioni
The aim of this work was to highlight the main ecological predictors driving invertebrate distribution in eight glacier-fed streams in the Southern Alps. Thirty-five sites belonging to four stream types were sampled monthly during the ablation season of one, two or three years between 1996 and 2014. Taxa from glacial (kryal and glacio-rhithral) and non-glacial (kreno-rhithral and lake outlet) sites were separated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) along a glacial influence gradient and a hydrological-altitudinal gradient...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223073/evidence-for-pain-attenuation-by-the-motor-system-based-judgment-of-agency
#19
N Karsh, O Goldstein, B Eitam
Pain is an integral part of our lives. Although the effect of 'control' on sensed pain has been extensively studied and discussed, recent findings seem to be at odds with the substantial evidence for a robust motor-based sensory attenuation effect - an indirect marker for one's sense of agency. The goal of the current study was to re-examine whether there is evidence for such an effect in the context of pain. In three experiments, human participants were aversively stimulated and the sensitivity of self-reported pain to factors previously shown to modulate the sensory attenuation effect was tested (control over parameters of the stimulation; temporal contiguity and predictability, and stimulation intensity)...
December 6, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223007/examining-health-service-utilization-hospital-treatment-cost-and-mortality-of-individuals-with-epilepsy-and-status-epilepticus-in-new-south-wales-australia-2012-2016
#20
Rebecca J Mitchell, Geoffrey Herkes, Armin Nikpour, Andrew Bleasel, Patti Shih, Sanjyot Vagholkar, Frances Rapport
This study examined the health service utilization and hospital treatment cost of individuals with epilepsy by age group, mortality within 30days, and surgical outcomes for individuals with refractory epilepsy in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A retrospective examination of linked hospitalization and mortality data for individuals hospitalized with a diagnosis of epilepsy during 2012-2016. Hospitalized incidence rates per 1000 population were calculated, and negative binomial regression was used to examine temporal trends...
December 6, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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