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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215009/why-geese-benefit-from-the-transition-from-natural-vegetation-to-agriculture
#1
Anthony D Fox, Kenneth F Abraham
The energy and nutrient content of most agricultural crops are as good as or superior to natural foods for wild geese and they tend to be available in agricultural landscapes in far greater abundance. Artificial grasslands (fertilised native swards and intensively managed reseeds) offer far superior quality forage and higher intake rates than seminatural or natural grasslands. The availability of such abundant artificial food explains the abandonment of traditional habitats for farmland by geese over the last 50-100 years and favours no reduction in current levels of exploitation of agriculture...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215006/balancing-ecosystem-function-services-and-disservices-resulting-from-expanding-goose-populations
#2
Ralph Buij, Theodorus C P Melman, Maarten J J E Loonen, Anthony D Fox
As goose populations increase in abundance, their influence on ecological processes is increasing. We review the evidence for key ecological functions of wild goose populations in Eurasia and North America, including aquatic invertebrate and plant propagule transport, nutrient deposition in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, the influence of goose populations on vegetation biomass, carbon storage and methane emission, species diversity and disease transmission. To estimate the implications of their growing abundance for humans, we explore how these functions contribute to the provision of ecosystem services and disservices...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214981/neural-mechanism-underling-comprehension-of-narrative-speech-and-its-heritability-study-in-a-large-population
#3
Abbas Babajani-Feremi
Comprehension of narratives constitutes a fundamental part of our everyday life experience. Although the neural mechanism of auditory narrative comprehension has been investigated in some studies, the neural correlates underlying this mechanism and its heritability remain poorly understood. We investigated comprehension of naturalistic speech in a large, healthy adult population (n = 429; 176/253 M/F; 22-36 years of age) consisting of 192 twin pairs (49 monozygotic and 47 dizygotic pairs) and 237 of their siblings...
February 18, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214927/spatiotemporal-differentiation-in-auditory-and-motor-regions-during-auditory-phoneme-discrimination
#4
Annelies Aerts, Gregor Strobbe, Pieter van Mierlo, Robert J Hartsuiker, Paul Corthals, Patrick Santens, Miet De Letter
Auditory phoneme discrimination (APD) is supported by both auditory and motor regions through a sensorimotor interface embedded in a fronto-temporo-parietal cortical network. However, the specific spatiotemporal organization of this network during APD with respect to different types of phonemic contrasts is still unclear. Here, we use source reconstruction, applied to event-related potentials in a group of 47 participants, to uncover a potential spatiotemporal differentiation in these brain regions during a passive and active APD task with respect to place of articulation (PoA), voicing and manner of articulation (MoA)...
February 18, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214795/pre-implantation-balloon-aortic-valvuloplasty-and-clinical-outcomes-following-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-a-propensity-score-analysis-of-the-uk-registry
#5
Glen P Martin, Matthew Sperrin, Rodrigo Bagur, Mark A de Belder, Iain Buchan, Mark Gunning, Peter F Ludman, Mamas A Mamas
BACKGROUND: Aortic valve predilation with balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is recommended before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), despite limited data around the requirement of this preprocedural step and the potential risks of embolization. This study aimed to investigate the trends in practice and associations of BAV on short-term outcomes in the UK TAVI registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven clinical endpoints were investigated, including 30-day mortality, myocardial infarction, aortic regurgitation, valve dysfunction, and composite early safety...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214787/sparse-and-dense-hybrid-representation-via-subspace-modeling-for-dynamic-mri
#6
Qiegen Liu, Shanshan Wang, Dong Liang
Recent theoretical results on compressed sensing and low-rank matrix recovery have inspired significant interest in joint sparse and low rank modeling of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). Existing approaches usually describe these two respective prior information with different formulations. In this paper, we present a novel sparse and dense hybrid representation (SDR) model which describes the sparse plus low rank properties by a unified way. More specifically, under the learned dictionary consisting of temporal basis functions, SDR models the spatial coefficients in two subspaces with Laplacian and Gaussian prior distributions, respectively...
February 5, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214771/future-oriented-mental-time-travel-in-individuals-with-disordered-gambling
#7
Xavier Noël, Mélanie Saeremans, Charles Kornreich, Nematollah Jaafari, Arnaud D'Argembeau
This study investigated the ability of individuals with disordered gambling to imagine future events. Problem gamblers (n=35) and control participants (n=35) were asked to imagine positive and negative future events for three temporal distances (one week, one year, 5-10years). Then, a variety of phenomenological aspects of their future thoughts (e.g., sensory and contextual details, autonoetic consciousness) were rated. Compared to control subjects, problem gamblers generated fewer positive and negative events across all temporal distances, an impairment that was correlated to verbal fluency scores...
February 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214769/supporting-older-and-younger-adults-memory-for-recent-everyday-events-a-prospective-sampling-study-using-sensecam
#8
Ali Mair, Marie Poirier, Martin A Conway
This study measured the effect of a wearable camera, SenseCam, on older and younger adults' memories of recently experienced everyday events. Participants used SenseCam to prospectively sample events from a typical week, which they recalled two weeks later. Recall was cued by a self-generated title only (control condition), by the title and forward-order SenseCam images, or by the title and random-order SenseCam images. In the control condition, older and younger adults' memories were comparably episodic, but older adults recalled more semantic details...
February 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214714/current-halogenated-flame-retardant-concentrations-in-serum-from-residents-of-shandong-province-china-and-temporal-changes-in-the-concentrations
#9
Yulong Ma, Peng Li, Jun Jin, Ying Wang, Qinghua Wang
The residents of Shandong Province, China, are exposed to high concentrations of halogenated flame retardants because large amounts of halogenated flame retardants are produced in the province. We determined the concentrations of eight polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDEs), seven novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), and the two dechlorane plus isomers (DPs) in serum from residents of Shandong Province. The aim was to identify temporal trends in the concentrations of these pollutants. The mean total concentrations of PBDEs, NBFRs and DPs were 41, 2...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214607/real-time-liver-uptake-and-biodistribution-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-determined-by-ac-biosusceptometry
#10
Caio C Quini, André G Próspero, Marcos F F Calabresi, Gustavo M Moretto, Nicholas Zufelato, Sunil Krishnan, Diana R Pina, Ricardo B Oliveira, Oswaldo Baffa, Andris F Bakuzis, Jose R A Miranda
We describe the development of a joint in vivo/ex vivo protocol to monitor magnetic nanoparticles in animal models. Alternating current biosusceptometry (ACB) enables the assessment of magnetic nanoparticle accumulation, followed by quantitative analysis of concentrations in organs of interest. We present a study of real-time liver accumulation, followed by the assessment of sequential biodistribution using the same technique. For quantification, we validated our results by comparing all of the data with electron spin resonance (ESR)...
February 15, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214580/localization-of-oxytocin-receptors-in-the-prairie-vole-microtus-ochrogaster-neocortex
#11
Auriane Duchemin, Adele M H Seelke, Trenton C Simmons, Sara M Freeman, Karen L Bales
Early experience and social context interact to alter the phenotype of complex social behaviors. These early experiences can also result in alterations to cortical organization and connections. Given the ability of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) to modulate social and reproductive behavior, OT is likely involved in these cortical processes. However, little is known about the distribution of OT and OT receptors (OTR) within the neocortex. Using autoradiographic and neuroanatomical techniques, we characterized the cortical distribution of oxytocin receptors (OTR) in prairie voles, a socially monogamous rodent species...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214574/minimally-invasive-versus-open-approach-for-cystectomy-trends-in-the-utilization-and-demographic-or-clinical-predictors-using-the-national-cancer-database-ncdb
#12
Andrew G Bachman, Alexander A Parker, Marshall D Shaw, Brian W Cross, Kelly L Stratton, Michael S Cookson, Sanjay G Patel
OBJECTIVES: To examine temporal national trends of operative approach for cystectomy and identify demographic or clinical predictive factors that influence choice of approach. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer between 2010 and 2013 using the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Approach was stratified by open vs. minimally invasive (robotic or laparoscopic). Univariate Pearson chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess relationships between demographic and hospital factors and the receipt of minimally invasive or open surgical approach...
February 15, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214547/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-predisposes-to-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#13
Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Francesca Scicchitano, Annalidia Donato, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Sara Gasparini, Vittoria Cianci, Chiara Mignogna, Giuseppe Donato, Rita Citraro, Umberto Aguglia, Giovambattista De Sarro
The link between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and epilepsy has been poorly investigated. Some reports suggest that CSVD may predispose to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Aim of this study was to evaluate whether spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an established model of systemic hypertension and CSVD, have a propensity to develop TLE more than generalized seizures. To this aim, amygdala kindling, as a model of TLE, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling, as a model of generalized seizures, have been used to ascertain whether SHRs are more prone to TLE as compared to Wistar Kyoto control rats...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214528/adaptive-independent-vector-analysis-for-multi-subject-complex-valued-fmri-data
#14
Li-Dan Kuang, Qiu-Hua Lin, Xiao-Feng Gong, Fengyu Cong, Vince D Calhoun
BACKGROUND: Complex-valued fMRI data can provide additional insights beyond magnitude-only data. However, independent vector analysis (IVA), which has exhibited great potential for group analysis of magnitude-only fMRI data, has rarely been applied to complex-valued fMRI data. The main challenges in this application include the extremely noisy nature and large variability of the source component vector (SCV) distribution. NEW METHOD: To address these challenges, we propose an adaptive fixed-point IVA algorithm for analyzing multiple-subject complex-valued fMRI data...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214385/temporal-changes-in-physiology-and-haematology-in-response-to-high-and-micro-doses-of-recombinant-human-erythropoietin
#15
Brad Clark, Sarah M Woolford, Annette Eastwood, Ken Sharpe, Peter G Barnes, Christopher J Gore
There is evidence to suggest athletes have adopted recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) dosing regimens that diminish the likelihood they will be caught by direct detection techniques. However, the temporal response in physiology, performance and athlete biological passport (ABP) parameters to such regimens is not clearly understood. Participants were assigned to a high dose only group (HIGH, n = 8, six rHuEPO doses of 250 IU/kg over two weeks), a combined high micro-dose group (COMB, n = 8, high dose plus nine rHuEPO micro-doses over a further three weeks), or one of two placebo control groups who received saline in the same pattern as the HIGH (HIGH-PLACEBO, n = 4) or COMB (COMB-PLACEBO, n = 4) groups...
February 18, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214192/land-use-regression-with-long-term-satellite-based-greenness-index-and-culture-specific-sources-to-model-pm2-5-spatial-temporal-variability
#16
Chih-Da Wu, Yu-Cheng Chen, Wen-Chi Pan, Yu-Ting Zeng, Mu-Jean Chen, Yue Leon Guo, Shih-Chun Candice Lung
This study utilized a long-term satellite-based vegetation index, and considered culture-specific emission sources (temples and Chinese restaurants) with Land-use Regression (LUR) modelling to estimate the spatial-temporal variability of PM2.5 using data from Taipei metropolis, which exhibits typical Asian city characteristics. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations from 2006 to 2012 of 17 air quality monitoring stations established by Environmental Protection Administration of Taiwan were used for model development...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214157/causes-and-temporal-changes-in-nationally-collected-stillbirth-audit-data-in-high-resource-settings
#17
REVIEW
Tom Norris, Bradley N Manktelow, Lucy K Smith, Elizabeth S Draper
Few high-income countries have an active national programme of stillbirth audit. From the three national programmes identified (UK, New Zealand, and the Netherlands) steady declines in annual stillbirth rates have been observed over the audit period between 1993 and 2014. Unexplained stillbirth remains the largest group in the classification of stillbirths, with a decline in intrapartum-related stillbirths, which could represent improvements in intrapartum care. All three national audits of stillbirths suggest that up to half of all reviewed stillbirths have elements of care that failed to follow standards and guidance...
February 14, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214123/a-tool-for-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-field-scale-sediment-bound-phosphorus-mitigation-measures-and-application-to-analysis-of-spatial-and-temporal-targeting-in-the-lunan-water-catchment-scotland
#18
Andy Vinten, James Sample, Adekunle Ibiyemi, Yakubu Abdul-Salam, Marc Stutter
The cost-effectiveness of six edge-of-field measures for mitigating diffuse pollution from sediment bound phosphorus (P) runoff from temperate arable farmland is analysed at catchment/field scales. These measures were: buffer strips, permanent grassland in the lowest 7% of arable fields, dry detention bunds, wetlands, and temporary barriers such as sediment fences. Baseline field P export was estimated using export coefficients (low risk crops) or a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (high risk crops). The impact of measures was estimated using simple equations...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214117/evaluating-carbon-fluxes-of-global-forest-ecosystems-by-using-an-individual-tree-based-model-forcchn
#19
Jianyong Ma, Herman H Shugart, Xiaodong Yan, Cougui Cao, Shuang Wu, Jing Fang
The carbon budget of forest ecosystems, an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle, needs to be accurately quantified and predicted by ecological models. As a preamble to apply the model to estimate global carbon uptake by forest ecosystems, we used the CO2 flux measurements from 37 forest eddy-covariance sites to examine the individual tree-based FORCCHN model's performance globally. In these initial tests, the FORCCHN model simulated gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production (NEP) with correlations of 0...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214036/impact-of-filling-gas-on-subharmonic-emissions-of-phospholipid-ultrasound-contrast-agents
#20
Emma Kanbar, Damien Fouan, Charles A Sennoga, Alexander A Doinikov, Ayache Bouakaz
Subharmonic signals backscattered from gas-filled lipid-shelled microbubbles have generated significant research interest because they can improve the detection and sensitivity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. However, the emission of subharmonic signals is strongly characterized by a temporal dependence, the origins of which have not been sufficiently elucidated. The features that influence subharmonic emissions need to be identified not only to better develop next-generation microbubble contrast agents, but also to develop more efficient subharmonic imaging (SHI) modes and therapeutic strategies...
February 14, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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