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Alveolar recruitment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099321/preoxygenation-physiologic-basis-benefits-and-potential-risks
#1
Usharani Nimmagadda, M Ramez Salem, George J Crystal
Preoxygenation before anesthetic induction and tracheal intubation is a widely accepted maneuver, designed to increase the body oxygen stores and thereby delay the onset of arterial hemoglobin desaturation during apnea. Because difficulties with ventilation and intubation are unpredictable, the need for preoxygenation is desirable in all patients. During emergence from anesthesia, residual effects of anesthetics and inadequate reversal of neuromuscular blockade can lead to hypoventilation, hypoxemia, and loss of airway patency...
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081372/role-of-hyperplasia-of-gingival-lymphatics-in-periodontal-inflammation
#2
P Papadakou, A Bletsa, M A Yassin, T V Karlsen, H Wiig, E Berggreen
Lymphatic vessels are important for maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis and afferent antigen transport. In chronic inflammation, lymphangiogenesis takes place and is characterized by lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and lymphatic hyperplasia. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is the main known lymphangiogenic growth factor, and its expression is increased in periodontitis, a common chronic infectious disease that results in tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. The role of lymphangiogenesis during development of periodontitis is unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079607/mapping-regional-differences-of-local-pressure-volume-curves-with-electrical-impedance-tomography
#3
Alessandro Beda, Alysson R Carvalho, Nadja C Carvalho, Sören Hammermüller, Marcelo B P Amato, Thomas Muders, Claudia Gittel, Katharina Noreikat, Hermann Wrigge, Andreas W Reske
OBJECTIVES: Lung-protective mechanical ventilation aims to prevent alveolar collapse and overdistension, but reliable bedside methods to quantify them are lacking. We propose a quantitative descriptor of the shape of local pressure-volume curves derived from electrical impedance tomography, for computing maps that highlight the presence and location of regions of presumed tidal recruitment (i.e., elastance decrease during inflation, pressure-volume curve with upward curvature) or overdistension (i...
January 10, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064485/astragalin-inhibits-allergic-inflammation-and-airway-thickening-in-ovalbumin-challenged-mice
#4
Yun-Ho Kim, Yean-Jung Choi, Min-Kyung Kang, Sin-Hye Park, Lucia Dwi Antika, Eun-Jung Lee, Dong Yeon Kim, Young-Hee Kang
Lung inflammation and oxidative stress are the major contributors to the development of obstructive pulmonary diseases. Macrophages are involved in pulmonary inflammation and alveolar damage in emphysema. Astragalin is an anti-inflammatory flavonoid present in persimmon leaves and green tea seeds. This study elucidated that astragalin inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration induced by 20 μM H2O2 and blocked airway thickening and alveolar emphysema induced by 20 μg of ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. OVA induced mouse pulmonary MCP-1, and H2O2 enhanced the expression of MCP-1/ICAM-1/αv integrin in bronchial airway epithelial BEAS-2B cells...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063015/innate-immunity-against-legionella-pneumophila-during-pulmonary-infections-in-mice
#5
REVIEW
Bonggoo Park, Gayoung Park, Jiyoung Kim, Seon Ah Lim, Kyung-Mi Lee
Legionella pneumophila is an etiological agent of the severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease (LD). This gram-negative bacterium is thought to replicate naturally in various freshwater amoebae, but also replicates in human alveolar macrophages. Inside host cells, legionella induce the production of non-endosomal replicative phagosomes by injecting effector proteins into the cytosol. Innate immune responses are first line defenses against legionella during early phases of infection, and distinguish between legionella and host cells using germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors , NOD-like receptors, and RIG-I-like receptors, which sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are absent in host cells...
January 6, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035744/impact-of-fusion-gene-status-versus-histology-on-risk-stratification-for-rhabdomyosarcoma-retrospective-analyses-of-patients-on-uk-trials
#6
Joanna Selfe, David Olmos, Reem Al-Saadi, Khin Thway, Julia Chisholm, Anna Kelsey, Janet Shipley
BACKGROUND: Long-term toxicities from current treatments are a major issue in paediatric cancer. Previous studies, including our own, have shown prognostic value for the presence of PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion genes in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). It is proposed to introduce PAX3/7-FOXO1 positivity as a component of risk stratification, rather than alveolar histology, in future clinical trials. PROCEDURE: To assess the potential impact of this reclassification, we have determined the changes to risk category assignment of 210 histologically reviewed patients treated in the UK from previous malignant mesenchymal tumour clinical trials for non-metastatic RMS based on identification of PAX3/7-FOXO1 by fluorescence in situ hybridisation and/or reverse transcription PCR...
December 30, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005428/telomerase-and-the-genetics-of-emphysema-susceptibility-implications-for-pathogenesis-paradigms-and-patient-care
#7
Susan E Stanley, Samantha J Merck, Mary Armanios
In the past five decades, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency has been the only known genetic cause of emphysema, yet it explains the genetics in only 1-2% of severe cases. Recently, mutations in telomerase genes were found to induce susceptibility to young-onset, severe, and familial emphysema at a frequency comparable to that of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Telomerase mutation carriers with emphysema report a family history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and both lung phenotypes show autosomal dominant inheritance within families...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002452/the-effector-cig57-hijacks-fcho-mediated-vesicular-trafficking-to-facilitate-intracellular-replication-of-coxiella-burnetii
#8
Eleanor A Latomanski, Patrice Newton, Chen Ai Khoo, Hayley J Newton
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects alveolar macrophages and replicates within a unique lysosome-derived vacuole. When Coxiella is trafficked to a host cell lysosome the essential Dot/Icm type IV secretion system is activated allowing over 130 bacterial effector proteins to be translocated into the host cytosol. This cohort of effectors is believed to manipulate host cell functions to facilitate Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV) biogenesis and bacterial replication. Transposon mutagenesis has demonstrated that the Dot/Icm effector Cig57 is required for CCV development and intracellular replication of Coxiella...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992569/interleukin-33-and-rank-l-interplay-in-the-alveolar-bone-loss-associated-to-periodontitis
#9
Olivier Lapérine, Alexandra Cloitre, Jocelyne Caillon, Olivier Huck, Isaac Maximiliano Bugueno, Paul Pilet, Sophie Sourice, Elodie Le Tilly, Gaby Palmer, Jean-Luc Davideau, Valérie Geoffroy, Jérôme Guicheux, Sarah Beck-Cormier, Philippe Lesclous
INTRODUCTION: Chronic Periodontitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of bacterial origin that results in alveolar bone destruction. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), one of the main periopathogens, initiates an inflammatory cascade by host immune cells thereby increasing recruitment and activity of osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells, through enhanced production of the crucial osteoclastogenic factor, RANK-L. Antibodies directed against some cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) failed to exhibit convincing therapeutic effect in CP...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974708/alveolar-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-from-local-initiation-to-secondary-promotion-by-activated-systemic-inflammation
#10
Ting Chen, Chengzhong Yang, Manman Li, Xiaoling Tan
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a pathological condition with high mortality and morbidity. Hypoxic PH (HPH) is a common form of PH occurring mainly due to lung disease and/or hypoxia. Most causes of HPH are associated with persistent or intermittent alveolar hypoxia, including exposure to high altitude and chronic obstructive respiratory disease. Recent evidence suggests that inflammation is a critical step for HPH initiation and development. A detailed understanding of the initiation and progression of pulmonary inflammation would help in exploring potential clinical treatments for HPH...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959569/biochemical-characterization-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-antigen-b3-reveals-insight-into-adaptation-and-maintenance-of-parasitic-homeostasis-at-the-host-parasite-interface
#11
Chun-Seob Ahn, Jeong-Geun Kim, Xiumin Han, Young-An Bae, Woo-Jae Park, Insug Kang, Hu Wang, Yoon Kong
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode is frequently associated with deleterious zoonotic helminthiasis. The growth patterns and morphological features of AE, such as invasion of the liver parenchyme and multiplication into multivesiculated masses, are similar to those of malignant tumors. AE has been increasingly detected in several regions of Europe, North America, Central Asia, and northwestern China. An isoform of E. multilocularis antigen B3 (EmAgB3) shows a specific immunoreactivity against patient sera of active-stage AE, suggesting that EmAgB3 might play important roles during adaptation of the parasite to hosts...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941354/the-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-perioperative-lung-injury
#12
Florian Brettner, Vera von Dossow, Daniel Chappell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventilator-induced lung injury is a major contributor to perioperative lung injury. The end-expiratory lung volume, regional lung overdistension, and tidal recruitment are known to be the main factors causing subsequent alveolar damage and inflammation. The alveolar-capillary membrane including the endothelial glycocalyx as an integral part of the vascular endothelium seems to play a major role in different kinds of lung injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies underline the pivotal importance of the endothelial glycocalyx in lung injury...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913191/the-shedding-derived-soluble-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-endproducts-sustains-inflammation-during-acute-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lung-infection
#13
Antonella Antonelli, Stefania Di Maggio, Joanna Rejman, Francesca Sanvito, Alice Rossi, Alessandro Catucci, Andrea Gorzanelli, Alessandra Bragonzi, Marco E Bianchi, Angela Raucci
BACKGROUND: The membrane-bound isoform of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (FL-RAGE) is primarily expressed by alveolar epithelial cells and undergoes shedding by the protease ADAM10, giving rise to soluble cleaved RAGE (cRAGE). RAGE has been associated with the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic lung disorders. Whether the proteolysis of FL-RAGE is altered by a given inflammatory stimulus is unknown. Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients and is the major pathogen associated with chronic lung diseases...
February 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896212/effect-of-slow-forced-eruption-on-the-vertical-levels-of-the-interproximal-bone-and-papilla-and-the-width-of-the-alveolar-ridge
#14
Eun-Young Kwon, Ju-Youn Lee, Jeomil Choi
OBJECTIVE: Forced eruption has been proposed for the reconstruction of deficient bone and soft tissue. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the alveolar ridge width and the vertical levels of the interproximal bone and papilla following forced eruption. METHODS: Patients whose hopeless maxillary anterior teeth were expected to undergo severe bone resorption and soft tissue recession upon extraction were recruited. In addition, patients whose maxillary anterior teeth required forced eruption for restoration due to tooth fracture or dental caries were included...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885671/recruited-monocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-promote-the-arrest-of-tumor-cells-in-the-premetastatic-niche-through-an-il-1%C3%AE-mediated-increase-in-e-selectin-expression
#15
Huifang Shi, Juechao Zhang, Xiaoqing Han, Huihan Li, Mingshu Xie, Yingying Sun, Wenguang Liu, Xueqing Ba, Xianlu Zeng
The tumor premetastatic niche initiated by primary tumors is constructed by multiple molecular factors and cellular components and provides permissive condition that allows circulating tumor cells to successfully metastasize. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a population of immature cells in pathological conditions, play a critical role in the formation of the premetastatic niche. However, few researches are focused on the function of monocytic MDSCs (mo-MDSCs), a subtype of MDSCs, in the construction of the niche...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831560/manipulating-the-air-filled-zebrafish-swim-bladder-as-a-neutrophilic-inflammation-model-for-acute-lung-injury
#16
Yuefei Zhang, Hongcui Liu, Junlin Yao, Yanfeng Huang, Shenlu Qin, Zheng Sun, Yingchun Xu, Shu Wan, Hongqiang Cheng, Chunqi Li, Xue Zhang, Yuehai Ke
Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are life-threatening diseases that are associated with high mortality rates due to treatment limitations. Neutrophils play key roles in the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS by promoting the inflammation and injury of the alveolar microenvironment. To date, in vivo functional approaches have been limited by the inaccessibility to the alveolar sacs, which are located at the anatomical terminal of the respiratory duct in mammals...
November 10, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815367/nasal-high-flow-therapy-reduces-work-of-breathing-compared-with-oxygen-during-sleep-in-copd-and-smoking-controls-a-prospective-observational-study
#17
Paolo J C Biselli, Jason P Kirkness, Ludger Grote, Kathrin Fricke, Alan R Schwartz, Philip Smith, Hartmut Schneider
: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) endure excessive resistive and elastic loads leading to chronic respiratory failure. Oxygen supplementation corrects hypoxemia but is not expected to reduce mechanical loads. Nasal high-flow (NHF) therapy supports breathing by reducing dead space, but it is unclear how it affects mechanical loads of patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of low-flow oxygen and NHF therapy on ventilation and work of breathing (WOB) in patients with COPD and controls during sleep...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805443/use-of-manual-alveolar-recruitment-maneuvers-to-eliminate-atelectasis-artifacts-identified-during-thoracic-computed-tomography-of-healthy-neonatal-foals
#18
Kara M Lascola, Stuart C Clark-Price, Stephen K Joslyn, Mark A Mitchell, Robert T O'Brien, Susan K Hartman, Kevin H Kline
OBJECTIVE To evaluate use of single manual alveolar recruitment maneuvers (ARMs) to eliminate atelectasis during CT of anesthetized foals. ANIMALS 6 neonatal Standardbred foals. PROCEDURES Thoracic CT was performed on spontaneously breathing anesthetized foals positioned in sternal (n = 3) or dorsal (3) recumbency when foals were 24 to 36 hours old (time 1), 4 days old (time 2), 7 days old (time 3), and 10 days old (time 4). The CT images were collected without ARMs (all times) and during ARMs with an internal airway pressure of 10, 20, and 30 cm H2O (times 2 and 3)...
November 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804117/effects-of-an-alveolar-recruitment-manoeuvre-guided-by-lung-ultrasound-on-anaesthesia-induced-atelectasis-in-infants-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
I-K Song, E-H Kim, J-H Lee, S Ro, H-S Kim, J-T Kim
Atelectasis occurs in the majority of children undergoing general anaesthesia. Lung ultrasound has shown reliable sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing anaesthesia-induced atelectasis. We assessed the effects of a recruitment manoeuvre on atelectasis using lung ultrasound in infants undergoing general anaesthesia. Forty infants, randomly allocated to either a recruitment manoeuvre group or a control group, received volume-controlled ventilation with 5 cmH2 O positive end-expiratory pressure. Lung ultrasound examination was performed twice in each patient, the first a minute after starting mechanical ventilation of the lungs and the second at the end of surgery...
November 2, 2016: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798704/the-influenza-virus-protein-pb1-f2-increases-viral-pathogenesis-through-neutrophil-recruitment-and-nk-cells-inhibition
#20
Aurore Vidy, Pauline Maisonnasse, Bruno Da Costa, Bernard Delmas, Christophe Chevalier, Ronan Le Goffic
The influenza A virus (IAV) PB1-F2 protein is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis observed during IAV infections in mammals. In this study, using a mouse model, we compared the host response associated with PB1-F2 with an early transcriptomic signature that was previously associated with neutrophils and consecutively fatal IAV infections. This allowed us to show that PB1-F2 is partly involved in neutrophil-related mechanisms leading to death. Using neutropenic mice, we confirmed that the harmful effect of PB1-F2 is due to an excessive inflammation mediated by an increased neutrophil mobilization...
2016: PloS One
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