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Alveolar recruitment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345431/the-effect-of-diuresis-on-extravascular-lung-water-and-pulmonary-function-in-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#1
Steven C Chase, Caitlin C Fermoyle, Courtney M Wheatley, Jacob J Schaefer, Lyle J Olson, Bruce D Johnson
AIMS: The effect of extravascular lung water (EVLW) and relationship to functional status as a result of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are not well understood. We sought to quantify changes in clinical variables, EVLW, airway anatomy, spirometry, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide before and after treatment for ADHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen patients were recruited within 24 h of hospital admission. Spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and surrogates of EVLW by computed tomography were measured and were then repeated within 24 h of discharge...
January 18, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331644/ozone-exposure-induces-respiratory-barrier-biphasic-injury-and-inflammation-controlled-by-interleukin-33
#2
Chloé Michaudel, Claire Mackowiak, Isabelle Maillet, Louis Fauconnier, Cezmi Akdis, Milena Sokolowska, Anita Dreher, Hern-Tze Tina Tan, Valérie F Quesniaux, Bernhard Ryffel, Dieudonnée Togbe
BACKGROUND: IL-33 plays critical role in the regulation of tissue homeostasis, injury and repair. Whether IL-33 regulates neutrophil recruitment and function independently of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in ozone induced lung injury and inflammation is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of IL-33/ST2 axis in lung inflammation upon acute ozone exposure in mice. METHODS: ST2 and IL-33 deficient mice, IL-33-citrine reporter and C57BL/6 (WT) mice underwent a single ozone exposure (1 ppm for 1h) in all studies...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325586/high-frequency-percussive-ventilation-increases-alveolar-recruitment-in-early-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-an-experimental-physiological-and-ct-scan-study
#3
Thomas Godet, Matthieu Jabaudon, Raïko Blondonnet, Aymeric Tremblay, Jules Audard, Benjamin Rieu, Bruno Pereira, Jean-Marc Garcier, Emmanuel Futier, Jean-Michel Constantin
BACKGROUND: High frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) combines diffusive (high frequency mini-bursts) and convective ventilation patterns. Benefits include enhanced oxygenation and hemodynamics, and alveolar recruitment, while providing hypothetic lung-protective ventilation. No study has investigated HFPV-induced changes in lung aeration in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Eight patients with early non-focal ARDS were enrolled and five swine with early non-focal ARDS were studied in prospective computed tomography (CT) scan and animal studies, in a university-hospital tertiary ICU and an animal laboratory...
January 11, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302700/immunization-with-an-adenovirus-vectored-tb-vaccine-containing-ag85a-mtb32-effectively-alleviates-allergic-asthma
#4
Yiling Zhang, Ying Feng, Liang Li, Xianmiao Ye, Jinlin Wang, Qian Wang, Pingchao Li, Na Li, Xuehua Zheng, Xiang Gao, Chufang Li, Feng Li, Baoqing Sun, Kefang Lai, Zhong Su, Nanshan Zhong, Ling Chen, Liqiang Feng
Current treatments for allergic asthma primarily ameliorate symptoms rather than inhibit disease progression. Regulating the excessive T helper type 2 (Th2) responses may prevent asthma exacerbation. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Ad5-gsgAM, an adenovirus vector carrying two mycobacterial antigens Ag85A and Mtb32, against allergic asthma. Using an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mouse model, we found that Ad5-gsgAM elicited much more Th1-biased CD4+T and CD8+T cells than bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274832/extremely-preterm-fetal-sheep-lung-responses-to-antenatal-steroids-and-inflammation
#5
Kevin Visconti, Paranthaman Senthamaraikannan, Matthew W Kemp, Masatoshi Saito, Boris W Kramer, John P Newnham, Alan H Jobe, Suhas G Kallapur
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of antenatal steroids for fetal lung maturation in the peri-viable period is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE(S): To determine the lung maturational effects of ANS and inflammation in early gestation sheep fetuses, similar to the peri-viable period in humans. STUDY DESIGN: Date-mated ewes with singleton fetuses were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups (n=8/group): 1) maternal intramuscular injection (IM) of betamethasone (Beta), 2) intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (IA) (LPS), 3) Beta+LPS, 4) IA+IM Saline (controls)...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261579/endoscopic-lung-volume-reduction-in-copd-improvements-in-gas-transfer-capacity-are-associated-with-improvements-in-ventilation-and-perfusion-matching
#6
Kelvin Hsu, Jonathan P Williamson, Matthew J Peters, Alvin J Ing
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) has been shown to improve lung function, quality of life, and exercise tolerance in patients with severe heterogeneous emphysema. Our study aims to determine the effect of ELVR on gas transfer capacity corrected for alveolar volume (KCO) and investigate the relationship between KCO and ventilation and perfusion (VQ) matching. We speculate on possible mechanisms for the observed changes METHODS:: Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were prospectively recruited and underwent unilateral upper lobe ELVR between 2012 and 2014...
January 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250746/neutrophils-in-the-lung-the-first-responders
#7
REVIEW
Gurpreet Kaur Aulakh
Neutrophils, constituting the first line of defense, perform vital functions during immune surveillance. A key feature that assists in their prompt response to an inflammatory signal is rapid migration to the affected site. They are normally short-lived but can be activated to live longer under the influence of an inflammatory stimulus. They can, thereby, release their toxic granule contents that are differentially housed inside the cytoplasm. Although these events are well characterized in the peripheral circulation, we are still far from fully understanding their recruitment in lungs...
December 18, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247243/leukotriene-b4-is-essential-for-lung-host-defence-and-alpha-defensin-1-production-during-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-infection
#8
Morgana K B Prado, Gisele A Locachevic, Karina F Zoccal, Francisco W G Paula-Silva, Caroline Fontanari, Joseane C Ferreira, Priscilla A T Pereira, Luiz G Gardinassi, Simone G Ramos, Carlos A Sorgi, Ana Lúcia C Darini, Lúcia H Faccioli
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is essential for host immune defence. It increases neutrophil recruitment, phagocytosis and pathogen clearance, and decreases oedema and inflammasome activation. The host response and the role of LTB4 during Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection remain unexplored. Wild-type (129sv) and LTB4 deficient (Alox5 -/-) mice were intratracheally infected with A. xylosoxidans. Wild-type 129sv infected mice survived beyond the 8th day post-infection, exhibited increased levels of LTB4 in the lung on the 1st day, while levels of PGE2 increased on the 7th day post-infection...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234749/sinus-lift-grafting-with-anorganic-bovine-bone-vs-50-autologous-bone-mixed-with-50-anorganic-bovine-bone-2-years-after-loading-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Silvio Mario Meloni, Sascha Alekshander Jovanovic, Milena Pisano, Erta Xhanari, Giacomo De Riu, Antonio Tullio, Marco Tallarico
PURPOSE: To compare the outcome of implants inserted in maxillary sinuses augmented with anorganic bovine bone (ABB) grafts vs mixed 50% ABB and 50% autologous bone graft, using a lateral window approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was designed as a randomised controlled trial of parallel groups. Patients in need of an implant-supported prosthesis in a maxillary posterior area with a residual alveolar bone height no greater than 4 mm (range 0-4 mm) were recruited for lateral sinus grafting...
2017: European Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223633/effectiveness-of-irrigation-with-chlorhexidine-after-removal-of-mandibular-third-molars-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
H Cho, M C David, A J Lynham, E Hsu
To evaluate the effect of postoperative irrigation with chlorhexidine on inflammatory complications after the extraction of lower third molars under local anaesthesia, we recruited 100 patients to participate in a controlled, single-blind, randomised clinical trial. They were assigned to one of two groups: the intervention group (postoperative irrigation of the surgical site with chlorhexidine for seven days) or the control group (postoperative chlorhexidine mouth rinse for seven days). The primary outcome variables were pain, swelling, trismus, infection, and alveolar osteitis...
December 6, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222007/current-concepts-in-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-smoking-related-interstitial-lung-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Anupam Kumar, Sujith V Cherian, Robert Vassallo, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
Tobacco exposure results in various changes to the airways and lung parenchyma. While emphysema represents the more common injury pattern, in some individuals, cigarette smoke injures alveolar epithelial and other lung cells resulting in diffuse infiltrates and parenchymal fibrosis. Smoking can trigger interstitial injury patterns mediated via recruitment and inappropriate persistence of myeloid and other immune cells including eosinophils. As our understanding of the role of cigarette smoke constituents in triggering lung injury continues to evolve, so does our recognition of the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung changes...
December 5, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221302/the-society-for-translational-medicine-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-mechanical-ventilation-management-for-patients-undergoing-lobectomy
#12
REVIEW
Shugeng Gao, Zhongheng Zhang, Alessandro Brunelli, Chang Chen, Chun Chen, Gang Chen, Haiquan Chen, Jin-Shing Chen, Stephen Cassivi, Ying Chai, John B Downs, Wentao Fang, Xiangning Fu, Martínez I Garutti, Jianxing He, Jie He, Jian Hu, Yunchao Huang, Gening Jiang, Hongjing Jiang, Zhongmin Jiang, Danqing Li, Gaofeng Li, Hui Li, Qiang Li, Xiaofei Li, Yin Li, Zhijun Li, Chia-Chuan Liu, Deruo Liu, Lunxu Liu, Yongyi Liu, Haitao Ma, Weimin Mao, Yousheng Mao, Juwei Mou, Calvin Sze Hang Ng, René H Petersen, Guibin Qiao, Gaetano Rocco, Erico Ruffini, Lijie Tan, Qunyou Tan, Tang Tong, Haidong Wang, Qun Wang, Ruwen Wang, Shumin Wang, Deyao Xie, Qi Xue, Tao Xue, Lin Xu, Shidong Xu, Songtao Xu, Tiansheng Yan, Fenglei Yu, Zhentao Yu, Chunfang Zhang, Lanjun Zhang, Tao Zhang, Xun Zhang, Xiaojing Zhao, Xuewei Zhao, Xiuyi Zhi, Qinghua Zhou
Patients undergoing lobectomy are at significantly increased risk of lung injury. One-lung ventilation is the most commonly used technique to maintain ventilation and oxygenation during the operation. It is a challenge to choose an appropriate mechanical ventilation strategy to minimize the lung injury and other adverse clinical outcomes. In order to understand the available evidence, a systematic review was conducted including the following topics: (I) protective ventilation (PV); (II) mode of mechanical ventilation [e...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206488/structural-and-functional-evidence-for-the-scaffolding-effect-of-alveolar-blood-vessels
#13
Barry C Gibney, Willi L Wagner, Alexandra B Ysasi, Janeil M Belle, Akira Tsuda, Maximilian Ackermann, Steven J Mentzer
A contribution of pulmonary blood distension to alveolar opening was first proposed more than 100 years ago. To investigate the contribution of blood distension to lung mechanics, we studied control mice (normal perfusion), mice after exsanguination (absent perfusion) and mice after varying degrees of parenchymal resection (supra-normal perfusion). On inflation, mean tracheal pressures were higher in the bloodless mouse (4.0 ± 2.5 cm H2O); however, there was minimal difference between conditions on deflation (0...
December 5, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197600/alveolar-t-helper-17-responses-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae-are-preserved-in-art-untreated-and-treated-hiv-infected-malawian-adults
#14
Chikondi Peno, Dominic H Banda, Ndaru Jambo, Anstead M Kankwatira, Rose D Malamba, Theresa J Allain, Daniela Ferreira, Robert S Heyderman, David G Russell, Henry C Mwandumba, Kondwani C Jambo
OBJECTIVE: We explored if HIV infection is associated with impaired T-Helper 17 responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae in the lung METHODS: We recruited 30 HIV-uninfected healthy controls, 23 asymptomatic HIV-infected adults not on ART, and 40 asymptomatic HIV-infected adults on ART (Median time 3.5yrs), in whom we collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We measured alveolar CD4+ T cell immune responses following stimulation with pneumococcal cell culture supernatant using flow cytometry-based intracellular cytokine staining...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180999/alarmin-s100a8-activates-alveolar-epithelial-cells-in-the-context-of-acute-lung-injury-in-a-tlr4-dependent-manner
#15
Deblina Chakraborty, Stefanie Zenker, Jan Rossaint, Anna Hölscher, Michele Pohlen, Alexander Zarbock, Johannes Roth, Thomas Vogl
Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) are an essential part of the respiratory barrier in lungs for gas exchange and protection against pathogens. Damage to AECs occurs during lung injury and PAMPs/DAMPs have been shown to activate AECs. However, their interplay as well as the mechanism of AECs' activation especially by the alarmin S100A8/A9 is unknown. Thus, our aim was to study the mechanism of activation of AECs (type I and type II) by S100A8 and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to understand the role of endogenous S100A8/A9 in neutrophil recruitment in the lung...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167126/chronic-lung-injury-and-impaired-pulmonary-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-acid-ceramidase-deficiency
#16
Fabian Ps Yu, Diana Islam, Jakub Sikora, Shaalee Dworski, Jiří Gurka', Lucia Lopez-Vasquez, Mingyao Liu, Wolfgang Michael Kuebler, Thierry Levade, Haibo Zhang, Jeffrey A Medin
Farber Disease (FD) is a debilitating Lysosomal Storage Disorder (LSD) caused by a deficiency of acid ceramidase (ACDase) activity due to mutations in the gene ASAH1. Patients with ACDase deficiency may develop a spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Severe cases of FD are frequently associated with neurological involvement, failure to thrive, and respiratory complications. Mice homozygous (Asah1P361R/P361R) for an orthologous patient mutation in Asah1 recapitulate human FD. In this study, we show significant impairment in lung function including low compliance and increased airway resistance in a mouse model of ACDase deficiency...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164837/serum-surfactant-protein-d-and-exhaled-nitric-oxide-as-biomarkers-of-early-lung-damage-in-systemic-sclerosis
#17
Alida Benfante, Riccardo Messina, Alessandra Paternò, Nicola Scichilone
BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) complicates the course of systemic sclerosis (SSc), representing the main cause of death in these patients. The identification of parameters that can predict the early onset and progression of ILD in SSc represents an unmet need in clinical practice. The study was designed to explore whether the surfactant proteins (SP) A and D may be used as noninvasive tools for the early identification of ILD in SSc. Alveolar exhaled nitric oxide (NO) was investigated as a surrogate marker of distal inflammation...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163479/discriminating-between-interstitial-and-circulating-leukocytes-in-tissues-of-the-murine-oral-mucosa-avoiding-nasal-associated-lymphoid-tissue-contamination
#18
Peter D Bittner-Eddy, Lori A Fischer, Andy A Tu, Daniel A Allman, Massimo Costalonga
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory response to a microbial biofilm that destroys bone and soft tissues supporting the teeth. Murine models of periodontitis based on Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) colonization have shown that extravasation of leukocytes into oral tissue is critical to driving alveolar bone destruction. Identifying interstitial leukocytes is key to understanding the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis. Here, we describe a robust flow cytometry assay based on intravenous FITC-conjugated anti-mouse CD45 mAb that distinguishes interstitial leukocytes in the oral mucosa of mice from those circulating within the vasculature or in post-dissection contaminating blood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163464/nlrp3-inflammasome-mediates-dormant-neutrophil-recruitment-following-sterile-lung-injury-and-protects-against-subsequent-bacterial-pneumonia-in-mice
#19
Xiaoli Tian, He Sun, Amy-Jo Casbon, Edward Lim, Kevin P Francis, Judith Hellman, Arun Prakash
Sterile lung injury is an important clinical problem that complicates the course of severely ill patients. Interruption of blood flow, namely ischemia-reperfusion (IR), initiates a sterile inflammatory response in the lung that is believed to be maladaptive. The rationale for this study was to elucidate the molecular basis for lung IR inflammation and whether it is maladaptive or beneficial. Using a mouse model of lung IR, we demonstrate that sequential blocking of inflammasomes [specifically, NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3)], inflammatory caspases, and interleukin (IL)-1β, all resulted in an attenuated inflammatory response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159853/the-use-of-cell-conditioned-medium-for-musculoskeletal-tissue-regeneration
#20
REVIEW
Francesca Veronesi, Veronica Borsari, Maria Sartori, Monia Orciani, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte Cima, Milena Fini
Tissue regenerative medicine combines the use of cells, scaffolds and molecules to repair damaged tissues. Different cell types are employed for musculoskeletal diseases, both differentiated and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In recent years, the hypothesis that cell-based therapy is guided principally by cell-secreted factors has become increasingly popular. The aim of the present literature review was to evaluate preclinical and clinical studies that used conditioned medium (CM), rich in cell-factors, for musculoskeletal regeneration with a cell-free approach...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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