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Alveolar recruitment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140132/mediation-of-the-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-induced-pulmonary-fibrogenic-response-by-osteopontin-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#1
Timur O Khaliullin, Elena R Kisin, Ashley R Murray, Naveena Yanamala, Michael R Shurin, Dmitriy W Gutkin, Liliya M Fatkhutdinova, Valerian E Kagan, Anna A Shvedova
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: A number of in vivo studies have shown that pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may lead to an acute local inflammatory response, pulmonary fibrosis, and granulomatous lesions. Among the factors that play direct roles in initiation and progression of fibrotic processes are epithelial-mesenchymal transition and myofibroblasts recruitment/differentiation, both mediated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Yet, other contributors to TGF-β1 associated signaling, such as osteopontin (OPN) has not been fully investigated...
October 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134246/does-high-peep-prevent-alveolar-cycling
#2
REVIEW
M Cressoni, C Chiurazzi, D Chiumello, L Gattinoni
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients need mechanical ventilation to sustain gas exchange. Animal experiments showed that mechanical ventilation with high volume/plateau pressure and no positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) damages healthy lungs, while low tidal volumes and the application of higher PEEP levels are protective. PEEP makes the lung homogeneous, reducing the pressure multiplication at the interface between lung units with different inflation statuses and keeps the lung open through the whole respiratory cycle, avoiding intratidal opening and closing...
November 13, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132465/-application-of-flexible-bronchoscopy-in-children-with-respiratory-diseases
#3
Li-Ping Wang, Shou-Ping Chen, Yu-Ying Huang, Fang-Fang Qin, Wen Ou, Hong-Dong Liu, Xiao-Fang Deng, Lei Lou, Jing Tao, Yu-Xia Cui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the significance of flexible bronchoscopy in children with respiratory diseases. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 80 children who were hospitalized due to respiratory diseases (including severe pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia with atelectasis/lung consolidation/local emphysema, protracted pneumonia, coughing and wheezing of unknown cause, chronic cough of unknown cause, and laryngeal stridor) and who underwent flexible bronchoscopy/alveolar lavage...
November 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123389/alveolar-capillary-reserve-during-exercise-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Mehrdad Behnia, Courtney M Wheatley, Alberto Avolio, Bruce D Johnson
Background: Factors limiting exercise in patients with COPD are complex. With evidence for accelerated pulmonary vascular aging, destruction of alveolar-capillary bed, and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, the ability to functionally expand surface area during exercise may become a primary limitation. Purpose: To quantify measures of alveolar-capillary recruitment during exercise and the relationship to exercise capacity in a cohort of COPD patients. Methods: Thirty-two subjects gave consent (53% male, with mean ± standard deviation age 66±9 years, smoking 35±29 pack-years, and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification of 0-4: 2...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120889/bone-resorption-during-submerged-healing-after-guided-bone-regeneration-a-prospective-case-series
#5
Yong Hur, Yumi Ogata, Douglas W Kim, Charles M Pham, Tae-Ho Yoon, Hirokazu Ogata
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate bone resorption quantitatively during the healing period subsequent to ridge augmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients requiring vertical ridge augmentation before implant placement were recruited in the study. The study used an allograft and nonresorbable membrane. A custom acrylic stent was used to measure changes in bone volume. Augmented bone was compared with remaining bone 6 months after guided bone regeneration (α = 0...
November 8, 2017: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117258/lung-epithelial-response-to-cigarette-smoke-and-modulation-by-the-nicotinic-alpha-7-receptor
#6
Lorise C Gahring, Elizabeth J Myers, Diane M Dunn, Robert B Weiss, Scott W Rogers
Cigarette smoking (CS) is a principal contributor to a spectrum of devastating lung diseases whose occurrence and severity may vary between individuals and not appear for decades after prolonged use. One explanation for the variability and delay in disease onset is that nicotine, the addictive component of CS, acts through the ionotropic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha7 (α7) to modulate anti-inflammatory protection. In this study we measured the impact α7 signaling has on the mouse distal lung response to side-stream CS exposure for mice of the control genotype (α7G) and those in which the α7-receptor signaling mechanisms are restricted by point mutation (α7E260A:G)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114036/zinc-transporter-2-interacts-with-vacuolar-atpase-and-is-required-for-polarization-vesicle-acidification-and-secretion-in-mammary-epithelial-cells
#7
Sooyeon Lee, Olivia C Rivera, Shannon L Kelleher
An important feature of the mammary gland is its ability to undergo profound morphological, physiological, and intracellular changes to establish and maintain secretory function. During this process, key polarity proteins and receptors are recruited to the surface of mammary epithelial cells (MECs), and the vesicle transport system develops and matures. However, the intracellular mechanisms responsible for the development of secretory function in these cells are unclear. The vesicular zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT2 is critical for appropriate mammary gland architecture, and ZnT2 deletion is associated with cytoplasmic Zn accumulation, loss of secretory function and lactation failure...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113846/maxillary-and-mandibular-contribution-to-the-establishment-of-class-ii-malocclusion-in-an-adult-lebanese-population
#8
Nadine El Hajj, Nayla Bassil-Nassif, Alain Tauk, Carole Mouhanna-Fattal, Joseph P Bouserhal
INTRODUCTION: The main aim of this study was to describe the contribution of the maxilla and the mandible to the establishment of a Class II skeletal malocclusion in an adult Lebanese population. Secondary aims were to detect the presence of sex-based dimorphism and to study the influence of the vertical dimension on the Class II skeletal pattern. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A sample of 90 adults in skeletal Class II was recruited and equally distributed according to sex and vertical typology...
November 4, 2017: International Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112971/effects-of-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-and-recruitment-maneuvers-in-a-ventilator-induced-injury-mouse-model
#9
Laura A Cagle, Lisa M Franzi, Angela L Linderholm, Jerold A Last, Jason Y Adams, Richart W Harper, Nicholas J Kenyon
BACKGROUND: Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation is an essential therapeutic intervention, yet it causes the clinical syndrome known as ventilator-induced lung injury. Various lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies have attempted to reduce or prevent ventilator-induced lung injury but few modalities have proven effective. A model that isolates the contribution of mechanical ventilation on the development of acute lung injury is needed to better understand biologic mechanisms that lead to ventilator-induced lung injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099644/medium-term-pulmonary-function-test-after-thoracoscopic-lobectomy-for-congenital-pulmonary-airway-malformation-a-comparative-study-with-normal-control
#10
Chin Tung Lau, Kenneth K Y Wong, Paul Tam
INTRODUCTION: Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) is a major indication of lobectomy in children. Early lobectomy had been proposed for the advantage of compensatory lung growth. Despite the increasing use of thoracoscopic lobectomy its effect on postoperative lung function was still not well established in the literature. This study was therefore performed to study the result of postoperative pulmonary function test (PFT) on a medium term basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent thoracoscopic lobectomy for CPAM between 2006 and 2010 were recruited into the study...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089144/adenoviral-vector-mediated-gm-csf-gene-transfer-improves-anti-mycobacterial-immunity-in-mice-role-of-regulatory-t-cells
#11
Alena Singpiel, Julia Kramer, Regina Maus, Jennifer Stolper, Lara Friederike Bittersohl, Jack Gauldie, Martin Kolb, Tobias Welte, Tim Sparwasser, Ulrich A Maus
Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in differentiation, survival and activation of myeloid and non-myeloid cells with important implications for lung antibacterial immunity. Here we examined the effect of pulmonary adenoviral vector-mediated delivery of GM-CSF (AdGM-CSF) on anti-mycobacterial immunity in M. bovis BCG infected mice. Exposure of M. bovis BCG infected mice to AdGM-CSF either applied on 6h, or 6h and 7days post-infection substantially increased alveolar recruitment of iNOS and IL-12 expressing macrophages, and significantly increased accumulation of IFNγ(pos) T cells and particularly regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
October 26, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079611/neutrophils-drive-alveolar-macrophage-il-1%C3%AE-release-during-respiratory-viral-infection
#12
Teresa Peiró, Dhiren F Patel, Samia Akthar, Lisa G Gregory, Chloe J Pyle, James A Harker, Mark A Birrell, Clare M Lloyd, Robert J Snelgrove
BACKGROUND: Alveolar macrophages are sentinels of the airways that must exhibit immune restraint to innocuous antigens but elicit a robust inflammatory response to pathogenic threats. How distinction between these dichotomous functions is controlled is poorly defined.Neutrophils are the first responders to infection, and we hypothesised that they may free alveolar macrophages from their hyporesponsive state, promoting their activation. Activation of the inflammasome and interleukin (IL)-1β release is a key early inflammatory event that must be tightly regulated...
October 27, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067996/the-survival-of-fetal-and-bone-marrow-monocyte-derived-alveolar-macrophages-is-promoted-by-cd44-and-its-interaction-with-hyaluronan
#13
Y Dong, G F T Poon, A A Arif, S S M Lee-Sayer, M Dosanjh, P Johnson
Alveolar macrophages maintain lung homeostasis by performing important roles in immunosurveillance and lung surfactant catabolism. They express high levels of CD44 and are one of the few macrophage populations that constitutively bind hyaluronan, a ligand for CD44 and component of pericellular and extracellular matrices. Using adoptive transfer experiments and a mouse model of inflammation, we found that alveolar macrophages are initially depleted after an inflammatory insult then rapidly self-renew and return to original numbers after the resolution phase...
October 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066090/genetic-variants-associated-with-susceptibility-to-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-people-of-european-ancestry-a-genome-wide-association-study
#14
Richard J Allen, Joanne Porte, Rebecca Braybrooke, Carlos Flores, Tasha E Fingerlin, Justin M Oldham, Beatriz Guillen-Guio, Shwu-Fan Ma, Tsukasa Okamoto, Alison E John, Ma'en Obeidat, Ivana V Yang, Amanda Henry, Richard B Hubbard, Vidya Navaratnam, Gauri Saini, Norma Thompson, Helen L Booth, Simon P Hart, Mike R Hill, Nik Hirani, Toby M Maher, Robin J McAnulty, Ann B Millar, Philip L Molyneaux, Helen Parfrey, Doris M Rassl, Moira K B Whyte, William A Fahy, Richard P Marshall, Eunice Oballa, Yohan Bossé, David C Nickle, Don D Sin, Wim Timens, Nick Shrine, Ian Sayers, Ian P Hall, Imre Noth, David A Schwartz, Martin D Tobin, Louise V Wain, R Gisli Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease with high mortality, uncertain cause, and few treatment options. Studies have identified a significant genetic risk associated with the development of IPF; however, mechanisms by which genetic risk factors promote IPF remain unclear. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with IPF susceptibility and provide mechanistic insight using gene and protein expression analyses. METHODS: We used a two-stage approach: a genome-wide association study in patients with IPF of European ancestry recruited from nine different centres in the UK and controls selected from UK Biobank (stage 1) matched for age, sex, and smoking status; and a follow-up of associated genetic variants in independent datasets of patients with IPF and controls from two independent US samples from the Chicago consortium and the Colorado consortium (stage 2)...
November 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051271/combined-measurement-of-carbon-monoxide-and-nitric-oxide-lung-transfer-does-not-improve-the-identification-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-systemic-sclerosis
#15
Bruno Degano, Thibaud Soumagne, Thomas Delaye, Patrick Berger, Thierry Perez, Alicia Guillien, Jean-Luc Pellegrin, David Launay, Nadine Magy-Bertrand, Christian Agard, Kiet Phong Tiev, Thông Hua-Huy, Catherine Tardiff, Véronique Diaz, Arnaud Chambellan, Anh Tuan Dinh-Xuan
Screening is important to determine whether patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) have pulmonary hypertension because earlier pulmonary hypertension treatment can improve survival in these patients. Although decreased transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) is currently considered the best pulmonary function test for screening for pulmonary hypertension in SSc, small series have suggested that partitioning TLCO into membrane conductance (diffusing capacity) for carbon monoxide (DMCO) and alveolar capillary blood volume (VC) through combined measurement of TLCO and transfer factor of the lung for nitric oxide (TLNO) is more effective to identify pulmonary hypertension in SSc patients compared with TLCO alone...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050765/alveolar-macrophages-from-tuberculosis-patients-display-an-altered-inflammatory-gene-expression-profile
#16
Lelia Lavalett, Hector Rodriguez, Hector Ortega, Wolfgang Sadee, Larry S Schlesinger, Luis F Barrera
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are major targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, critical during the progression of active tuberculosis (TB). The complex immunopathology of TB generates diverse microenvironments in the lung, which shape immune responses by AMs. In the current study, we perform whole genome microarray transcriptional profiling on RNA isolated from AMs from TB patients (AMsTB) compared to AMs from control subjects (AMsCT) using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Our hypothesis was that systemic effects on the local lung microenvironment during TB affect the transcriptional response of AMsTB...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049008/exogenous-murine-antimicrobial-peptide-cramp-significantly-exacerbates-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-but-ameliorates-oxazolone-induced-intestinal-colitis-in-balb-c-mice
#17
Yang Li, Xiaojie Chu, Cunbao Liu, Weiwei Huang, Yufeng Yao, Ye Xia, Pengyan Sun, Qiong Long, Xuejun Feng, Kui Li, Xu Yang, Hongmei Bai, Wenjia Sun, Yanbing Ma
Cathelicidin has been reported to be multifunctional. The current study aimed to investigate the influences of exogenous cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) on inflammatory responses in different disease models. In OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation, CRAMP significantly enhanced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accumulation of proinflammatory Th2 cytokine IL-13 and IL-33 in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), exacerbated lung tissue inflammation and airway goblet cell hyperplasia, and elevated OVA-specific IgE level in serum...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043832/high-frequency-oscillation-for-adult-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Ewan Goligher, Laveena Munshi, Neill Kj Adhikari, Maureen O Meade, Carol Hodgson, Hannah Wunsch, Elizabeth Uleryk, Ognjen Gajic, Marcelo Amato, Niall D Ferguson, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Eddy Fan
RATIONALE: By minimizing tidal lung strain and maintaining alveolar recruitment, high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) may protect against ventilator-induced lung injury. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the current evidence in support of the use of HFOV in adult patients with ARDS. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing mortality rates with the use of HFOV vs. conventional mechanical ventilation for adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 18, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038630/effect-of-alveolar-segmental-sandwich-osteotomy-on-alveolar-height-a-preliminary-study
#19
Karan S Mehta, Kavitha Prasad, Vibha Shetty, Krishnappa Ranganath, R M Lalitha, Jayashree Dexith, Sejal K Munoyath, Vineeth Kumar
PURPOSE: Bone loss following extraction is maximum in horizontal dimension. Height is also reduced which is pronounced on the buccal aspect. Various surgical procedures are available to correct the bone volume viz. GBR, onlay bone grafting, alveolar distraction and sandwich osteotomy. Sandwich osteotomy has been found to increase the vertical alveolar bone height successfully. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess the effect of alveolar segmental sandwich osteotomy on alveolar height and crestal width...
December 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987879/thioaptamer-targeted-discoidal-microparticles-increase-self-immunity-and-reduce-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-burden-in-mice
#20
Fransisca Leonard, Ngan P Ha, Preeti Sule, Jenolyn F Alexander, David E Volk, Ganesh L R Lokesh, Xuewu Liu, Jeffrey D Cirillo, David G Gorenstein, Jinyun Yuan, Soumya Chatterjee, Edward A Graviss, Biana Godin
Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases causing morbidity and death in >1.5 million patients annually. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of TB, usually resides in the alveolar macrophages. Current tuberculosis treatment methods require more than six months, and low compliance often leads to therapeutic failure and multidrug resistant strain development. Critical to improving TB-therapy is shortening treatment duration and increasing therapeutic efficacy...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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