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Alveolar recruitment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535594/industrial-pm2-5-cause-pulmonary-adverse-effect-through-rhoa-rock-pathway
#1
Junyan Yan, Chia-Hsiang Lai, Shih-Chun Candice Lung, Chongjun Chen, Wen-Cheng Wang, Pin-I Huang, Chia-Hua Lin
According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM2...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528307/extracellular-atp-is-a-key-modulator-of-alveolar-bone-loss-in-periodontitis
#2
REVIEW
Itzhak Binderman, Nasir Gadban, Avinoam Yaffe
Periodontal diseases are initiated by pathogenic bacterial biofilm activity that induces a host inflammatory cells immune response, degradation of dento gingival fibrous tissue and its detachment from root cementum. It is well accepted, that osteoclastic alveolar bone loss is governed exclusively through secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that once degradation of collagen fibers by MMPs occurs, a drop of cellular strains cause immediate release of ATP from marginal gingival fibroblasts, cell deformation and influx of Ca+2...
May 13, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522566/nedd8-modification-of-cullin-5-regulates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury
#3
Ziyan Zhu, Lei Sun, Rui Hao, Hongchao Jiang, Feng Qian, Richard D Ye
Lung infections are major causes of acute lung injury (ALI), with limited effective treatment available. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an essential adaptor regulating Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We recently identified Cullin-5 (Cul-5) as a prominent component in the regulation of TRAF6 polyubiquitination, but its physiological significance in acute lung injury has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Cul-5 in regulating ALI using mice receiving intratracheal instillation of LPS...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509332/myeloid-but-not-epithelial-tissue-factor-exerts-protective-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-acid-aspiration-induced-acute-lung-injury
#4
J B Kral-Pointner, W C Schrottmaier, V Horvath, H Datler, L Hell, C Ay, B Niederreiter, B Jilma, J A Schmid, A Assinger, N Mackman, S Knapp, G Schabbauer
INTRODUCTION: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening condition characterized by damaged alveolar-capillary structures and activation of inflammatory and hemostatic processes. Tissue factor (TF) represents a crucial link between inflammation and coagulation, as inflammatory mediators induce myeloid TF expression and TF initiates the extrinsic coagulation. OBJECTIVE: Since pulmonary inflammation stimulates TF expression and TF modulates immune responses, we aimed to elucidate its impact on ALI...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507954/with-friends-like-these-the-complex-role-of-neutrophils-in-the-progression-of-severe-pneumonia
#5
REVIEW
Roger D Pechous
Pneumonia is a leading cause of death from infection in the United States and across the globe. During pulmonary infection, clear resolution of host inflammatory responses occurs in the absence of appreciable lung damage. Neutrophils are the first wave of leukocytes to arrive in the lung upon infection. After activation, neutrophils traffic from the vasculature via transendothelial migration through the lung interstitium and into the alveolar space. Successful pulmonary immunity requires neutrophil-mediated killing of invading pathogens by phagocytosis and release of a myriad of antimicrobial molecules, followed by resolution of inflammation, neutrophil apoptosis, and clearing of dead or dying neutrophils by macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506464/recruited-monocytes-and-type-2-immunity-promote-lung-regeneration-following-pneumonectomy
#6
Andrew J Lechner, Ian H Driver, Jinwoo Lee, Carmen M Conroy, Abigail Nagle, Richard M Locksley, Jason R Rock
To investigate the role of immune cells in lung regeneration, we used a unilateral pneumonectomy model that promotes the formation of new alveoli in the remaining lobes. Immunofluorescence and single-cell RNA sequencing found CD115+ and CCR2+ monocytes and M2-like macrophages accumulating in the lung during the peak of type 2 alveolar epithelial stem cell (AEC2) proliferation. Genetic loss of function in mice and adoptive transfer studies revealed that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) traffic to the lung through a CCL2-CCR2 chemokine axis and are required for optimal lung regeneration, along with Il4ra-expressing leukocytes...
May 3, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500078/a-time-and-compartment-specific-activation-of-lung-macrophages-in-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertension
#7
Steven C Pugliese, Sushil Kumar, William J Janssen, Brian B Graham, Maria G Frid, Suzette R Riddle, Karim C El Kasmi, Kurt R Stenmark
Studies in various animal models suggest an important role for pulmonary macrophages in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Yet, the molecular mechanisms characterizing the functional macrophage phenotype relative to time and pulmonary localization and compartmentalization remain largely unknown. In this study, we used a hypoxic murine model of PH in combination with FACS to quantify and isolate lung macrophages from two compartments over time and characterize their programing via RNA sequencing approaches...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500076/stat5-is-required-for-cd103-dendritic-cell-and-alveolar-macrophage-development-and-protection-from-lung-injury
#8
William E Eddy, Ke-Qin Gong, Bryan Bell, William C Parks, Steven F Ziegler, Anne M Manicone
We tested the role of Stat5 in dendritic cell and alveolar macrophage (AM) homeostasis in the lung using CD11c-cre mediated deletion (Cre(+)5(f/f)). We show that Stat5 is required for CD103(+) dendritic cell and AM development. We found that fetal monocyte maturation into AMs was impaired in Cre(+)5(f/f) mice, and we also confirmed impaired AM development of progenitor cells using mixed chimera experiments. In the absence of Stat5 signaling in AMs, mice developed alveolar proteinosis with altered lipid homeostasis...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494757/copd-monocytes-demonstrate-impaired-migratory-ability
#9
Arjun K Ravi, Jonathan Plumb, Rosemary Gaskell, Sarah Mason, Caroline S Broome, George Booth, Matthew Catley, Jørgen Vestbo, Dave Singh
BACKGROUND: Increased lung macrophage numbers in COPD may arise from upregulation of blood monocyte recruitment into the lungs. CCR5 is a monocyte chemokine receptor regulated by interleukin-6 (IL-6); the concentration of CCR5 ligands are known to be elevated in COPD lungs. The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms of monocyte recruitment to the lung in COPD, including the role of CCR5 signalling. METHODS: Ninety one COPD patients, 29 smokers (S) and 37 non-smokers (NS) underwent sputum induction, plasma sampling (to measure IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor [sIL-6R] by immunoassay), monocyte characterization (by flow cytometry) and monocyte isolation for cell migration and quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies...
May 11, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493530/m2-macrophages-induce-emt-through-the-tgf-%C3%AE-smad2-signaling-pathway
#10
Liangying Zhu, Xiao Fu, Xiang Chen, Xiaodong Han, Ping Dong
IPF is characterized by fibroblast accumulation, collagen deposition and ECM remodeling, with myofibroblasts believed to be the effector cell type. Myofibroblasts develop due to EMT of lung alveolar epithelial cells, which can be induced by TGF-β. M2 macrophages, a macrophage subpopulation, secrete large amounts of TGF-β. To clarify the relationship between IPF, EMT, TGF-β and M2 macrophages, a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model was used. Seventeen days after mice were treated with bleomycin, the successful establishment of a pulmonary fibrosis model was confirmed by HE stain and Masson's trichrome stain...
May 11, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473321/hyperpolarized-gas-diffusion-mri-of-biphasic-lung-inflation-in-short-and-long-term-emphysema-models
#11
Yi Xin, Maurizio Cereda, Stephen Kadlecek, Kiarash Emami, Hooman Hamedani, Ian Duncan, Jennia Rajaei, Liam Hughes, Natalie Meeder, Joseph Naji, Harrilla Profka, Brian J Bolognese, Joseph P Foley, Patricia L Podolin, Rahim R Rizi
During lung-inflation, airspace dimensions are affected non-linearly by both alveolar expansion and recruitment, potentially confounding the identification of emphysematous lung by hyperpolarized helium-3 diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (HP MRI). This study aimed to characterize lung inflation over a broad range of inflation volume and pressure values in two different models of emphysema, as well as in normal lungs. Elastase-treated rats (n=7) and healthy controls (n=7) were imaged with HP MRI. Gradual inflation was achieved by incremental changes to both inflation volume and airway pressure...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467984/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-stimulate-proinflammatory-responses-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#12
Florencia Sabbione, Irene A Keitelman, Leonardo Iula, Mariana Ferrero, Mirta N Giordano, Pablo Baldi, Martín Rumbo, Carolina Jancic, Analía S Trevani
Tissue injury leads to the release of uric acid (UA). At high local concentrations, UA can form monosodium urate crystals (MSU). MSU and UA stimulate neutrophils to release extracellular traps (NET). Here, we investigated whether these NET could be involved in the development of inflammation by stimulating cytokine release by airway epithelial cells. We found that NET significantly increased the secretion of CXCL8/IL-8 and IL-6 by alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. These effects were not observed when NETosis was inhibited by Diphenyleneiodonium, elastase inhibitor, or Cl-amidine...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457827/ventilation-distribution-assessed-with-electrical-impedance-tomography-and-the-influence-of-tidal-volume-recruitment-and-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-isoflurane-anesthetized-dogs
#13
Aline M Ambrosio, Tatiana P A Carvalho-Kamakura, Keila K Ida, Barbara Varela, Felipe S R M Andrade, Lara L Facó, Denise T Fantoni
OBJECTIVE: To examine the intrapulmonary gas distribution of low and high tidal volumes (VT) and to investigate whether this is altered by an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) and 5 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during anesthesia. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical study. ANIMALS: Fourteen client-owned bitches weighing 26 ± 7 kg undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Isoflurane-anesthetized dogs in dorsal recumbency were ventilated with 0 cmH2O PEEP and pressure-controlled ventilation by adjusting the peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) to achieve a low (7 mL kg(-1); n = 7) or a high (12 mL kg(-1); n = 7) VT...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455714/macrophage-dysfunction-in-respiratory-disease
#14
Kylie B R Belchamber, Louise E Donnelly
In the healthy lung, macrophages maintain homeostasis by clearing inhaled particles, bacteria, and removing apoptotic cells from the local pulmonary environment. However, in respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis, macrophages appear to be dysfunctional and may contribute to disease pathogenesis. In COPD, phagocytosis of bacterial species and apoptotic cells by both alveolar macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages is significantly reduced, leading to colonization of the lung with pathogenic bacteria...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446439/pax3-foxo1-establishes-myogenic-super-enhancers-and-confers-bet-bromodomain-vulnerability
#15
Berkley E Gryder, Marielle E Yohe, Hsien-Chao Chou, Xiaohu Zhang, Joana Marques, Marco Wachtel, Beat Schaefer, Nirmalya Sen, Young K Song, Alberto Gualtieri, Silvia Pomella, Rossella Rota, Abigail Cleveland, Xinyu Wen, Sivasish Sindiri, Jun S Wei, Frederic G Barr, Sudipto Das, Thorkell Andresson, Rajarshi Guha, Madhu Lal-Nag, Marc Ferrer, Jack F Shern, Keji Zhao, Craig J Thomas, Javed Khan
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is a life-threatening myogenic cancer of children and adolescent young adults, driven primarily by the chimeric transcription factor PAX3-FOXO1 (P3F). The mechanisms by which P3F dysregulates chromatin are unknown. We find P3F reprograms the cis-regulatory landscape by inducing (de novo) super enhancers (SEs). P3F uses SEs to setup auto-regulatory loops in collaboration with master transcription factors MYOG, MYOD and MYCN. This myogenic SE circuitry is consistent across cell lines and primary tumors...
April 26, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443736/brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-is-preserved-under-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-patients-with-pervasive-developmental-disorders-a-pilot-study
#16
Lakshmikumar Venkatraghavan, Suparna Bharadwaj, Vincent Wourms, Audrey Tan, Michael T Jurkiewicz, David J Mikulis, Adrian P Crawley
Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Some patients with PDD may not be able to tolerate the imaging procedure while they are awake, and, hence, they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with PDDs...
May 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426531/high-fat-feeding-protects-mice-from-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-via-neutrophil-independent-mechanisms
#17
Michael R Wilson, Joanne E Petrie, Michael W Shaw, Cong Hu, Charlotte M Oakley, Samantha J Woods, Brijesh V Patel, Kieran P O'Dea, Masao Takata
OBJECTIVE: Obesity has a complex impact on acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, being associated with increased likelihood of developing the syndrome but reduced likelihood of dying. We propose that such observations are potentially explained by a model in which obesity influences the iatrogenic injury that occurs subsequent to intensive care admission. This study therefore investigated whether fat feeding protected mice from ventilator-induced lung injury. DESIGN: In vivo study...
April 19, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421818/cell-origin-dictates-programming-of-resident-versus-recruited-macrophages-during-acute-lung-injury
#18
Kara J Mould, Lea Barthel, Michael P Mohning, Stacey M Thomas, Alexandra L McCubbrey, Thomas Danhorn, Sonia M Leach, Tasha E Fingerlin, Brian P O'Connor, Julie A Reisz, Angelo D'Alessandro, Donna L Bratton, Claudia V Jakubzick, William J Janssen
Two populations of alveolar macrophages (AMs) co-exist in the inflamed lung: resident AMs that arise during embryogenesis, and recruited AMs that originate postnatally from circulating monocytes. The objective of this study was to determine whether origin or environment dictates the transcriptional, metabolic, and functional programming of these two ontologically distinct populations over the time course of acute inflammation. RNA sequencing demonstrated marked transcriptional differences between resident and recruited AMs affecting three main areas: proliferation, inflammatory signaling, and metabolism...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415591/the-purinergic-receptor-subtype-p2y2-mediates-chemotaxis-of-neutrophils-and-fibroblasts-in-fibrotic-lung-disease
#19
Tobias Müller, Susanne Fay, Rodolfo Paula Vieira, Harry Karmouty-Quintana, Sanja Cicko, Korcan Ayata, Gernot Zissel, Torsten Goldmann, Giuseppe Lungarella, Davide Ferrari, Francesco Di Virgilio, Bernard Robaye, Jean-Marie Boeynaems, Michael R Blackburn, Marco Idzko
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease with few available treatment options. Recently, the involvement of purinergic receptor subtypes in the pathogenesis of different lung diseases has been demonstrated. Here we investigated the role of the purinergic receptor subtype P2Y2 in the context of fibrotic lung diseases.The concentration of different nucleotides was measured in the broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid derived from IPF patients and animals with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411422/ventilation-distribution-and-lung-recruitment-with-speaking-valve-use-in-tracheostomised-patient-weaning-from-mechanical-ventilation-in-intensive-care
#20
Anna-Liisa Sutt, Chris M Anstey, Lawrence R Caruana, Petrea L Cornwell, John F Fraser
PURPOSE: Speaking valves (SV) are used infrequently in tracheostomised ICU patients due to concerns regarding their putative effect on lung recruitment. A recent study in cardio-thoracic population demonstrated increased end-expiratory lung volumes during and post SV use without examining if the increase in end-expiratory lung impedance (EELI) resulted in alveolar recruitment or potential hyperinflation in discrete loci. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A secondary analysis of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) data from a previous study was conducted...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
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