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HealthCare Articles & Research.

Marilyn J Hammer, Patricia Eckardt, Margaret Barton-Burke
The primary goal of the thousands of registered trials in cancer research is to extend survival. With evaluation of efficacy, safety, and tolerability, healthcare providers must ensure that the principles described in the Belmont Report are upheld and that patients are truly informed when signing a consent form. In this article, two cases are highlighted, and reasons for participating in clinical trials are discussed. Challenges, such as healthcare literacy, patients' dedication to their healthcare providers, and choosing between multiple trials, are also explored...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
M Bryant Howren, Jeffrey S Gonzalez
The current issue is devoted broadly to research on treatment adherence and chronic illness self-management behavior. As the prevalence of chronic illness increases, the pervasive problem of treatment nonadherence is increasingly viewed as having a major impact on treatment outcomes, public health and healthcare costs, making this issue particularly timely. Sixteen articles spanning an array of topics are presented; articles include empirical studies, statistical simulations, systematic reviews, and theoretical commentaries...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
C Huxley, J Achten, M L Costa, F Griffiths, X L Griffin
OBJECTIVES: The annual incidence of hip fracture is 620 000 in the European Union. The cost of this clinical problem has been estimated at 1.75 million disability-adjusted life years lost, equating to 1.4% of the total healthcare burden in established market economies. Recent guidance from The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) states that research into the clinical and cost effectiveness of total hip arthroplasty (THA) as a treatment for hip fracture is a priority...
October 2016: Bone & Joint Research
Raffick A R Bowen, Dorothy Adcock
Blood collection tubes (BCTs) are an often under-recognized variable in the preanalytical phase of clinical laboratory testing. Unfortunately, even the best-designed and manufactured BCTs may not work well in all clinical settings. Clinical laboratories, in collaboration with healthcare providers, should carefully evaluate BCTs prior to putting them into clinical use to determine their limitations and ensure that patients are not placed at risk because of inaccuracies due to poor tube performance. Selection of the best BCTs can be achieved through comparing advertising materials, reviewing the literature, observing the device at a scientific meeting, receiving a demonstration, evaluating the device under simulated conditions, or testing the device with patient samples...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Isabell B Purdy, Mary Alice Melwak, Joan R Smith, Carole Kenner, Rebecca Chuffo-Siewert, Donna J Ryan, Sue Hall
BACKGROUND: The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be a stressful environment for infants, their families, and the healthcare team. There is an immediate need for neonatal nurses to embrace and translate the new National Perinatal Association recommendations for psychosocial support of NICU parents into clinical practice to demonstrate best practices for infants, their families, and the whole team. PURPOSE: To summarize the current evidence-based practice recommendations and to provide suggestions for team members to develop strategies to adopt and implement them through quality improvement (QI) projects...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Quan Hoang Vuong
This data article introduces a data set containing 1459 observations that can enable researchers to examine issues related to and perform statistical investigations into questions of relationships between sources of health care information, data sufficiency, trust levels between patients and healthcare experts (and the advice). The data set also records assessment of Vietnamese patients on whether their choice of health care provider is best available (optimal vs. nonoptimal). The data come from a survey in many hospitals in Hanoi and several neighboring provinces/cities in the North of Vietnam, during the last quarter of 2015...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Natalie Wagner, Christine Fahim, Krista Dunn, Diane Reid, Ranil Sonnadara
BACKGROUND: Residency training programs worldwide are experiencing a shift from the traditional time-based curriculum to competency based medical education (CBME), due to changes in the healthcare system that have impacted clinical learning opportunities. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (OTL-HNS) programs are one of the first North American surgical specialties to adopt the new CBME curriculum. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the literature pertaining to CBME in OTL-HNS programs worldwide, to identify the tools that have been developed, and identify potential barriers to the implementation of CBME...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Joshua N Hook, David Boan, Don E Davis, Jamie D Aten, John M Ruiz, Thomas Maryon
Hospital safety culture is an integral part of providing high quality care for patients, as well as promoting a safe and healthy environment for healthcare workers. In this article, we explore the extent to which cultural humility, which involves openness to cultural diverse individuals and groups, is related to hospital safety culture. A sample of 2011 hospital employees from four hospitals completed measures of organizational cultural humility and hospital safety culture. Higher perceptions of organizational cultural humility were associated with higher levels of general perceptions of hospital safety, as well as more positive ratings on non-punitive response to error (i...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Caroline Kingori, Camila LeMaster Esquivel, Qorsho Hassan, Abdul Elmi, Bakali Mukasa, Michael Reece
African-born immigrants and refugees have HIV infection rates six times higher than any other minority groups in the United States. Despite the increase in the population size and diversity of Somali immigrants and refugees in the United States, Somalis are one of the medically underserved population subgroups in this region. The lack of aggregate HIV infection rates among African-born immigrants, for example, Somali refugees, is a cause for alarm and calls for more research to be conducted in this subgroup...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Natalie K Bradford, Liam J Caffery, Anthony C Smith
INTRODUCTION: With the escalating costs of health care, issues with recruitment and retention of health practitioners in rural areas, and poor economies of scale, the question of delivering people to services or services to people is a dilemma for health authorities around the world. People living in rural areas have poorer health outcomes compared to their urban counterparts, and the problem of how to provide health care and deliver services in rural locations is an ongoing challenge...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Camilla S Hanson, Jonathan C Craig, Allison Tong
Patient- and family-centered care is hailed as a hallmark of high-quality pediatric care. This partnership between patients, families and their healthcare providers is central to caring for children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), given the long-term and profound impact of the disease and its treatment on the development and quality of life of these children. This paradigm hinges on a comprehensive and detailed understanding of the needs, beliefs and values of children with CKD and their families. However, their perspectives may remain undisclosed during time-limited clinical consultations and because of beliefs that if they did disclose their concerns, their care would be jeopardized...
October 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Steven G Morgan, Katherine Boothe
Canada's universal public healthcare system is unique among developed countries insofar as it does not include universal coverage of prescription drugs. Universal, public coverage of prescription drugs has been recommended by major national commissions in Canada dating back to the 1960s. It has not, however, been implemented. In this article, we extend research on the failure of early proposals for universal drug coverage in Canada to explain failures of calls for reform over the past 20 years. We describe the confluence of barriers to reform stemming from Canadian policy institutions, ideas held by federal policy-makers, and electoral incentives for necessary reforms...
October 15, 2016: Healthcare Management Forum
Lesley J J Soril, Fiona M Clement, Tom W Noseworthy
Health Technology Reassessment (HTR) is an emerging area of health services and policy research that supports optimal management of technologies throughout their lifecycle. As a structured, evidence-based assessment of the clinical, economic, social, and ethical impacts of existing technologies, HTR is a means of achieving optimal use, managed exit, and better value for money from technologies used in healthcare. This has been documented as raising ethical concerns among clinicians who are providing direct patient care, particularly when managed exit may be the goal...
October 15, 2016: Healthcare Management Forum
Ambrose Hon-Wai Wong, Joan Combellick, Beth Ann Wispelwey, Allison Squires, Maureen Gang
OBJECTIVES: The emergency department (ED) has been recognized as a high-risk environment for workplace violence. Acutely agitated patients who perpetrate violence against healthcare workers represent a complex care challenge in the ED. Recommendations to improve safety are often based on expert opinion rather than empirical data. In this study we aim to describe the lived experience of staff members caring for this population in order to provide a broad perspective of ED patient violence...
October 15, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Shan Jiang, Stephen Verderber
OBJECTIVE: This present literature review explores current issues and research inconsistencies regarding the design of hospital circulation zones and the associated health-related outcomes. BACKGROUND: Large general hospitals are immense, highly sophisticated institutions. Empirical studies have indicated excessively institutional environments in large medical centers are a cause of negative effects to occupants, including stress, anxiety, wayfinding difficulties and spatial disorientation, lack of cognitional control, and stress associated with inadequate access to nature...
October 14, 2016: HERD
K L Barker, F Toye, C J Minns Lowe
: We aimed to systematically review qualitative studies exploring the experience of living with osteoporosis to develop new conceptual understanding. We identified themes about the invisibility/visibility of osteoporosis, the experience of uncertainty of living with osteoporosis (OP) and living with an ageing body and the place of gender. PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to systematically review the body of qualitative studies exploring the experience of living with either osteoporosis or osteopenia and to use meta-ethnography to develop new conceptual understanding...
December 2016: Archives of Osteoporosis
Bvudzai Priscilla Magadzire, Bruno Marchal, Kim Ward
BACKGROUND: The rising demand for chronic disease treatment and the barriers to accessing these medicines have led to the development of novel models for distributing medicines in South Africa's public sector, including distribution away from health centres, known as community-based distribution (CBD). In this article, we provide a typology of CBD models and outline perceived facilitators and barriers to their implementation using an adapted health systems framework with a view to analysing how future policy decisions on CBD could impact existing models and the health system as a whole...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Carol A Kelly, Dave Lynes, Mary R O'Brien, Ben Shaw
BACKGROUND: Despite emerging evidence and guidelines, poor prescribing and administration of oxygen therapy persists. This study aimed to explore healthcare professionals' (HCPs) and patients' perceptions of oxygen. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews with 28 patients and 34 HCPs. FINDINGS: Three master themes uncovered: oxygen as a panacea, the burden of oxygen, and antecedents to beliefs. Patients used oxygen for breathlessness and as an enabler; they were grateful to oxygen and accepted it as part of the disease...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Brenda Han, Cristin Grant
With an increasing number of older people using emergency services, researchers have raised concerns about the quality of care in an environment that is not designed to address older patients' specific needs and conditions. The comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) model was developed to address these issues, and to optimise healthcare delivery to older adults. This article introduces a complementary mnemonic, FRAIL, that refers to important elements of health information to consider before initiating care for older patients - falls/functional decline, reactions, altered mental status, illnesses, and living situation...
October 6, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Kimberly N Harer, Pankaj J Pasricha
Chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting is a debilitating condition that dramatically decreases patient quality of life and creates diagnostic and treatment challenges for healthcare providers. Additionally, the significant overlap in symptoms between disorders such as chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting, gastroparesis, and functional dyspepsia has resulted in a blurring of diagnostic lines and added confusion to the therapeutic approach. The identified overlap in clinical symptoms also suggests a common underlying pathophysiological mechanism may drive these conditions, indicating they could possibly be part of a spectrum of gastric neuromuscular disorders instead of discrete processes...
October 8, 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
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