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Pelvic anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705574/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-pelvic-fracture-urethral-injuries
#1
REVIEW
Sandro Silva Gaspar, Natália Duarte Ferreira, Tiago Oliveira, Pedro Oliveira, José Santos Dias, Tome Matos Lopes
Pelvic fracture urethral injuries (PFUI) are devastating lesions leading to fibrosis and urethral disruption resulting in recurrent strictures, urinary incontinence, fistulae and even erectile dysfunction, representing a management problem for the urologist. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be a valuable tool in establishing or confirming the diagnosis by providing detailed anatomy and estimating disease extent. We present a comprehensive review of the current literature on the role of MRI on diagnostic evaluation and surgical management of these patients...
July 10, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705371/magnetic-resonance-neurography-of-the-pelvic-nerves
#2
Eric Weissman, Ethan Boothe, Vibhor Wadhwa, Kelly Scott, Avneesh Chhabra
Chronic pelvic pain syndrome is commonly caused by nerve injury, inflammation, or entrapment. Owing to the complex anatomy and branching patterns of pelvic nerves, pelvic neuropathies are often difficult to illustrate and diagnose. High-resolution 3-T magnetic resonance neurography is a promising technique for the evaluation of peripheral neuropathy. In this article, the authors discuss the normal anatomy of major pelvic nerves, technical considerations of high-resolution imaging, and normal and abnormal imaging appearances with relevant case examples...
June 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696484/vaginal-changes-due-to-varying-degrees-of-rectocele-prolapse-a-computational-study
#3
Arnab Chanda, Isuzu Meyer, Holly E Richter, Mark E Lockhart, Fabia R D Moraes, Vinu U Unnikrishnan
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP), downward descent of the pelvic organs resulting in a protrusion of the vagina, is a highly prevalent condition, responsible for 300,000 surgeries in the United States annually. Rectocele, a posterior vaginal wall prolapse of the rectum is the second most common type of POP after cystocele. A rectocele usually manifests itself along with other types of prolapse with multi-compartment pelvic floor defects. To date, the specific mechanics of rectocele formation are poorly understood, which does not allow its early stage detection and progression prediction over time...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676367/iatrogenic-pelvic-pain-surgical-and-mesh-complications
#4
REVIEW
Dominic Lee, John Chang, Philippe E Zimmern
Female stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse are prevalent conditions in adult women. Among treatment alternatives, more traditional methods of surgical intervention have been supplanted by synthetic polypropylene mesh kits. However, novel complications with mesh-related exposure, pelvic pain alone or with dyspareunia, and increased incidence of revision surgeries, resulted in 2 FDA warnings on transvaginal mesh use for prolapse repair. This review examines the anatomy of the vagina and urethra, the etiology of pain related to mesh use, and the relevant surgical techniques for management of this complication along with their outcomes...
August 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676359/office-evaluation-of-pelvic-pain
#5
REVIEW
Stacey Bennis, Sarah Hwang
The history and physical examination are important keys to diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic pelvic pain. The comprehensive history should include questioning regarding patient's pain complaint and a thorough history and review of any body system that may be involved, including neuromusculoskeletal, obstetric, gynecologic, gastrointestinal, urologic, dermatologic, infectious, oncologic, and psychiatric. The physical examination should also follow a focused systems-based approach and includes examination of gastrointestinal, dermatologic, neurologic, and musculoskeletal (including lumbosacral spine, sacroiliac joints, pelvis, and hips) systems, and the pelvic floor (internal and external examination, including neuromuscular anatomy)...
August 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676358/anatomy-and-physiology-of-the-pelvic-floor
#6
REVIEW
Sarah M Eickmeyer
Understanding the anatomic relationship of the pelvic floor muscles with the pelvic girdle, spine, and hips aids the rehabilitation provider in diagnosis, management, and appropriate referrals. The bony anatomy of the pelvic girdle consists of 3 bones and 3 joints. The pelvic floor muscles are comprised mainly of the levator ani muscles with somatic innervation from the lumbosacral plexus. The bony and muscular pelvis is highly interconnected to the hip and gluteal musculature, which together provide support to the internal organs and core muscles...
August 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673602/platelet-rich-plasma-as-a-minimally-invasive-approach-to-uterine-prolapse
#7
E L Chrysanthopoulou, V Pergialiotis, D Perrea, S Κourkoulis, C Verikokos, S K Doumouchtsis
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major health problem that affects many women with potentially severe physical and psychological impact as well as impact on their daily activities, and quality of life. Several surgical techniques have been proposed for the treatment of POP. The FDA has published documents that refer to concerns about the use of synthetic meshes for the treatment of prolapse, in view of the severe complications that may occur. These led to hesitancy in use of these meshes and partial increase in use of other biological grafts such as allografts and xenografts...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668155/mr-imaging-of-the-pelvic-floor
#8
REVIEW
Gaurav Khatri, Alberto Diaz de Leon, Mark E Lockhart
Pelvic floor dysfunction is a term used to describe a broad set of conditions including pelvic organ prolapse, urinary or fecal incontinence, defecatory dysfunction, and chronic pelvic pain that frequently affects multiple compartments of the pelvic floor. Imaging is important, because physical examination may not be adequate as the only means of evaluating pelvic floor disorders. This article reviews pertinent pelvic floor anatomy as well as the technique for performing, interpreting, and reporting abnormalities seen on MR defecography examinations in the anterior, middle, and posterior compartments...
August 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666494/quadro-cornuate-uterus
#9
Yasmeen Nauman, Samia Husain
Congenital malformations of the female genital tract are a group of miscellaneous deviations from normal anatomy with diverse spectrum. Mullerian anomalies are thought to be present in 0.5% of female population. Three quarter of women remain asymptomatic, the remaining quarter presents with a variety of symptoms including primary amenorrhea, cyclical pain, severe dysmenorrhea, pelvic mass, ectopic pregnancy, infertility and recurrent miscarriages. The American Fertility Society (AFS) classification has been the most widely used classification for categorizing these abnormalities...
November 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660086/successful-use-of-ectopic-pelvic-kidney-for-living-related-donation-technical-aspects-and-literature-review
#10
R C Minnee, H J A N Kimenai, J van de Wetering, J N M Ijzermans
Ectopic pelvic kidneys can provide an additional source of organs for transplantation. They are often excluded from donation in living donation programs mainly due to aberrant vascular and urinary anatomies. We present a donor with an ectopic left kidney, who successfully donated his kidney. The use of ectopic pelvic kidney for living kidney transplantation is a highly demanding surgical procedure but after extensive preoperative investigation in high volume centers with surgical expertise in vascular reconstruction and access surgery, ectopic pelvic kidneys should not be a contraindication for donation and should be considered as a viable option...
2017: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656329/sacral-fractures-classification-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Nicholas M Beckmann, Naga R Chinapuvvula
Sacral fractures are a common component of pelvic fracture patterns and are an increasingly diagnosed injury both due to increased utilization of CT in trauma evaluation as well as an increasing rate of sacral fragility fractures as a result of an increase in general population age. Innovations in minimally invasive surgical techniques have also resulted in an increasing number of sacral fractures undergoing surgical management. It is vital that physicians practicing in an emergency setting are aware of the injury patterns and management of this increasingly injured and treated component of the bony pelvis...
June 27, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653306/the-gross-anatomy-of-the-male-reproductive-system-of-the-european-hedgehog-erinaceus-europaeus
#12
G Akbari, M Babaei, D Kianifard, D Mohebi
Hedgehogs are small spiny-coated insectivores. Due to their low body weight, calm character, and easy maintenance, they are kept as pets. It is therefore worthwhile to care about hedgehogs' health problems and to provide pet owners with information about their reproduction. Moreover, it is necessary to be familiar with their anatomy so as to satisfy the need to improve nutrition and medical care, even surgery. This study was carried out on five adult male European hedgehogs euthanized in a chloroform chamber...
June 27, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650881/intraoperative-radiographic-technique-for-visualization-of-bicortical-or-tricortical-anteromedial-sacral-screw-placement
#13
Nikhil Jain, Elizabeth Yu
The bicortical anteromedial sacral screw trajectory is the most widely used for S1 screw fixation. The assessment of anterior cortex purchase is difficult on a lateral view due to the overlapping bony anatomy of the sacrum and pelvis. We describe the intraoperative radiographic technique for a personalized pelvic inlet view that is perpendicular to the superior sacral surface to visualize sacral screw placement. This technique allows for assessment of anterior cortex purchase with anteromedial angulation in the same view...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649268/muscle-development-in-the-shark-scyliorhinus-canicula-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-gnathostome-head-and-paired-appendage-musculature
#14
Janine M Ziermann, Renata Freitas, Rui Diogo
BACKGROUND: The origin of jawed vertebrates was marked by profound reconfigurations of the skeleton and muscles of the head and by the acquisition of two sets of paired appendages. Extant cartilaginous fish retained numerous plesiomorphic characters of jawed vertebrates, which include several aspects of their musculature. Therefore, myogenic studies on sharks are essential in yielding clues on the developmental processes involved in the origin of the muscular anatomy. RESULTS: Here we provide a detailed description of the development of specific muscular units integrating the cephalic and appendicular musculature of the shark model, Scyliorhinus canicula...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647574/a-rare-uterine-malformation-asymmetric-septate-uterus
#15
Alper Biler, Ali Akdemir, Nuri Peker, Fatih Sendag
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a step by step surgical hysteroscopy technique in a patient with asymmetric uterine septum and transverse uterine septum that was not previously described in the literature. DESIGN: Resection of a asymmetric uterine septum by laparoscopy and ultrasound-guided hysteroscopy (Canadian Task Force Classification III). The video was assumed exempt from official review by our institutional review board. SETTING: A septate uterus is defined as the uterus in which the uterine cavity is longitudinally divided by the septum (1)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643681/-magnetic-resonance-neurography-for-the-identification-of-pudendal-neuralgia
#16
Claudia P Cejas, Susana Bordegaray, Nadia I Stefanoff, Cecilia Rollán, Inés T Escobar, Pablo Consigliere Rodríguez
The pudendal nerve entrapment is an entity understudied by diagnosis imaging. Various causes are recognized in relation to difficult labors, rectal, perineal, urological and gynecological surgery, pelvic trauma fracture, bones tumors and compression by tumors or pelvic pseudotumors. Pudendal neuropathy should be clinically suspected, and confirmed by different methods such as electrofisiological testing: evoked potentials, terminal motor latency test and electromyogram, neuronal block and magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641973/changes-in-hip-knee-and-ankle-coronal-alignments-after-total-hip-arthroplasty-with-transverse-femoral-shortening-osteotomy-for-unilateral-crowe-type-iv-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip
#17
Abdulhamit Misir, Turan B Kizkapan, Kadir I Yildiz, Mehmet A Kaygusuz, Yakup Alpay, Atakan Ezici
BACKGROUND: To investigate changes in lower extremity coronal alignment in patients with unilateral Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip who underwent total hip arthroplasty with transverse femoral shortening osteotomy. METHODS: We reviewed the preoperative and 1-year postoperative full-length lower extremity radiographs of 25 patients. Femoral offset (FO), mechanical hip-knee-ankle angle, anatomical axis, mechanical axis deviation (MAD), mechanical lateral proximal femoral angle, anatomical medial proximal femoral angle, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, anatomical lateral distal femoral angle, knee joint line congruency angle, mechanical medial proximal tibial angle, mechanical lateral distal tibial angle, ankle joint line orientation angle, tibial plafond talus angle, extremity length, and pelvic obliquity were measured on both the operative and nonoperative sides...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632658/the-retrograde-antegrade-retrograde-technique-for-successful-placement-of-a-retrograde-superior-ramus-screw
#18
David J Weatherby, Milton L Chip Routt, Jonathan G Eastman
Stabilization of pelvic ring injuries and certain acetabular fractures using percutaneous techniques is becoming increasingly more common. Intramedullary superior ramus screw fixation is beneficial in both injury types. While implants can be placed in an antegrade or retrograde direction, parasymphyseal ramus fractures benefit from retrograde implant insertion. In some patients, the parabolic osseous anatomy or obstructing soft tissues of the anterior pelvis or thigh can prevent appropriate hand and instrumentation positioning for appropriate retrograde ramus screw insertion through the entire osseous fixation pathway...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630734/open-treatment-of-dysplasia-other-than-pao-does-it-have-to-be-a-pao
#19
REVIEW
Kotaro R Shibata, Shuichi Matsuda, Marc R Safran
Hip dysplasia is a developmental disorder that results in anatomic abnormalities in which the acetabular coverage is insufficient. In the absence of severe degenerative changes, younger active patients with these symptomatic structural abnormalities are increasingly managed with joint-preserving operations. Historically there have been numerous reconstructive pelvic osteotomies. In recent years, the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) has become the preferred osteotomy by many surgeons. Even so, as our understanding of the hip advances and new diagnostic and treatment techniques are developed, we sought to put a focus on the long-term results of augmental osteotomies and pelvic osteotomies other than the PAO, to see if any of these surgeries still have a place in the current algorithm of treatment for the dysplastic hip...
July 2017: Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628732/understanding-neurophobia-reasons-behind-impaired-understanding-and-learning-of-neuroanatomy-in-cross-disciplinary-healthcare-students
#20
Muhammad Asim Javaid, Shelly Chakraborty, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens, André Toulouse
Recent studies have highlighted a fear or difficulty with the study and understanding of neuroanatomy among medical and healthcare students. This has been linked with a diminished confidence of clinical practitioners and students to manage patients with neurological conditions. The underlying reasons for this difficulty have been queried among a broad cohort of medical, dental, occupational therapy, and speech and language sciences students. Direct evidence of the students' perception regarding specific difficulties associated with learning neuroanatomy has been provided and some of the measures required to address these issues have been identified...
June 19, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
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