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Exercise nutrition protein

Ligia J Dominguez, Mario Barbagallo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical and cognitive frailty are interrelated and synergistic syndromes more frequently seen in old age, which represent intermediate stages between aging successfully and disability. Poor nutrition is a fundamental determinant for both conditions, while various dietary components are proposed to prevent and/or improve them. This updated review discusses the possible influence of nutritional factors on cognitive frailty and its potential mediators. RECENT FINDINGS: Oxidative stress, low-grade systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, and altered autophagy, all associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, are proposed mechanisms to explain the influence of nutrition on cognitive health...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Hailee L Wingfield, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N Melvin, Erica J Roelofs, Eric T Trexler, Anthony C Hackney, Mark A Weaver, Eric D Ryan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. METHODS: Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in this randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Each participant completed six exercise sessions, consisting of three exercise modalities: aerobic endurance exercise (AEE), high-intensity interval running (HIIT), and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT); and two acute nutritional interventions: CHO and PRO...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Carla Busquets-Cortés, Xavier Capó, Miquel Martorell, Josep A Tur, Antoni Sureda, Antoni Pons
Exercise training induces adaptations in mitochondrial metabolism, dynamics, and oxidative protection. Omega-3 fatty acids change membrane lipid composition and modulate mitochondrial function. The aim was to investigate the effect of 8-week training and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation (1.14 g/day) on the mitochondria dynamics and antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from sportsmen. Subjects were assigned to an intervention (N = 9) or placebo groups (N = 7) in a randomized double-blind trial...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Danielle K Thomas, Marcus A Quinn, David H Saunders, Carolyn A Greig
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Physical activity and nutritional supplementation interventions may be used to ameliorate age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Previous reviews have demonstrated the beneficial effects of resistance exercise training (RET) combined with protein or essential amino acids (EAA) in younger populations. Whether or not older adults also benefit is unclear. The aim of this review was to determine whether regular dietary supplementation with protein/EAA during a RET regimen augments the effects of RET on skeletal muscle in older adults...
October 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Eliza G Miller, Caryl A Nowson, David W Dunstan, Deborah A Kerr, Vicky Solah, David Menzies, Robin M Daly
BACKGROUND: Recruitment of participants into long-term community-based lifestyle intervention trials, particularly adults with a chronic disease, is often slow and challenging. Currently there is limited data on successful recruitment strategies suitable for older adults with type 2 diabetes into community-based exercise and nutrition programs, and no information on cost estimates associated with such recruitment. The aim of this report is to describe the recruitment strategies used and the success of each approach in recruiting older adults with type 2 diabetes into a 6-month community-based exercise and nutritional supplementation randomised controlled trial (RCT)...
September 26, 2016: Trials
Hee-Sook Lim, Soon-Kyung Kim, Hae-Hyeog Lee, Dong Won Byun, Yoon-Hyung Park, Tae-Hee Kim
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis one of the most serious disease to decrease the quality of life and cause economic loss. Thus, prevention of osteoporosis has become an important health concern. The study examined in adherence to osteoporosis guidelines and compared the levels of adherence to osteoporosis guidelines between bone health status in Korean adult. METHODS: This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=3,419) from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
August 2016: Journal of Bone Metabolism
Kazim Sahin, Ragip Pala, Mehmet Tuzcu, Oguzhan Ozdemir, Cemal Orhan, Nurhan Sahin, Vijaya Juturu
PURPOSE: Exercise (Ex) increases reactive oxygen species and impairs antioxidant defense systems. Recent data suggest that curcumin (CW) possesses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of CW supplementation on Ex performance, endurance, and changes in serum and muscle proteins in rats after exhaustive Ex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight (28) male Wistar rats (age: 8 weeks and body weight: 180±20 g) were divided into four treatment groups: 1) control (C; no Ex), 2) C + CW (no Ex + CW), 3) C + Ex, and 4) C + Ex + CW (Ex + CW)...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
Floris C Wardenaar, Ingrid Jm Ceelen, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Roland Wj Hangelbroek, Lore Van Roy, Britte Van der Pouw, Jeanne Hm De Vries, Marco Mensink, Renger F Witkamp
The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females) completed a web-based questionnaire about the use of nutritional supplements. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for the use of individual nutritional supplements in athletes receiving dietary counselling as compared to athletes not receiving dietary counselling...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Ronan Thibault, Claude Pichard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the context of the worldwide obesity epidemic, bariatric surgery is the only therapy associated with a sustainable weight loss and to midterm prevention of obesity-related complications. However, nutritional and behavioral multidisciplinary medical preparation, as well as long-term postoperative nutritional follow-up, is strongly advised to avoid postoperative surgical, nutritional, or psychiatric complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Due to a long history of restrictive diets and large body weight fluctuations, preoperative nutritional assessment and correction of vitamin and trace elements deficiencies are mandatory...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Brandon J Shad, Janice L Thompson, Leigh Breen
Our aim was to assess whether the muscle protein synthesis (MPS) response to acute exercise and/or amino acid-based nutrition is attenuated in older compared with young individuals. A systematic review was conducted on studies that directly examined the influence of age on the MPS response to exercise and/or amino acid-based nutrition. Each study arm was synthesised and reported as providing sufficient or insufficient 'evidence of age-related muscle anabolic resistance'. Subsequently, three models were established to compare age-related differences in the MPS response to different anabolic stimuli...
August 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hunkyung Kim, Miji Kim, Narumi Kojima, Ken Fujino, Erika Hosoi, Hisamine Kobayashi, Shinji Somekawa, Yoshifumi Niki, Yukari Yamashiro, Hideyo Yoshida
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of exercise and/or nutritional supplementation on body composition, blood components, and physical function in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women with sarcopenic obesity. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Urban community in Tokyo, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Among 1213 community-dwelling elderly women over 70 years of age, 307 were defined with sarcopenic obesity, and 139 women participated in the study...
August 17, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Mi-Kyeong Choi, Mi-Hyun Kim
Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion...
August 15, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Masakazu Saitoh, Masumi Ogawa, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos, Hisae Kondo, Kiichi Suga, Haruki Itoh, Yoichiro Tabata
Patients under hemodialysis present protein-energy wasting (PEW), which is related with higher mortality rates. The study aimed to determine whether intradialytic resistance exercise training could improve physical performance, physical activity, and PEW in hemodialysis patients. In single center study, 75 hemodialysis patients were enrolled in an intradialytic resistance exercise training consisting of 20 min of adapted leg press, with a gymnastic ball, 3 days/week, during 9 months on the same day of hemodialysis therapy...
August 15, 2016: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Geovana Martin-Alemañy, Rafael Valdez-Ortiz, Guadalupe Olvera-Soto, Irma Gomez-Guerrero, Guillermo Aguire-Esquivel, Guillermo Cantu-Quintanilla, Juan Carlos Lopez-Alvarenga, Paola Miranda-Alatriste, Angeles Espinosa-Cuevas
BACKGROUND: Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is common in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Studies have assessed the positive effect of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) or resistance exercise (RE) on nutritional status (NS) markers in patients undergoing HD. METHODS: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ONS and RE on NS and the quality of life (QOL) of 36 patients undergoing HD. In a randomized clinical trial, patients were divided into the following two groups: a control group (ONS) that received a can of ONS during their HD sessions and an intervention group (ONS + RE) that received a can of ONS and underwent a 40-min session of RE during their HD sessions...
October 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Zhiwei Xia, Liping Meng, Qingqing Man, Lixiang Li, Pengkun Song, Yuqian Li, Yixiong Gao, Shanshan Ja, Jian Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the dietary factors on sarcopenia in elderly in Beijing and provide nutritional recommendations for the sarcopenia. METHOD: A total of 830 participants aged 60 and above and without serious diseases were selected from two representative communities in Beijing. A cross-sectional research design was used, including inquiry investigation, dietary surveys (food frequency questionnaire) anthropometry, muscle mass and functional assessment. RESULTS: The prevalence of sarcopenia was 20...
May 2016: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Elhadi H Aburawi, Juma AlKaabi, Taoufik Zoubeidi, Abdullah Shehab, Nader Lessan, Awad Al Essa, Javed Yasin, Hussain Saadi, Abdul-Kader Souid
BACKGROUND: The impact of obesity and dyslipidemia on cardiovascular health in adolescents and young adults with diabetes is incompletely understood. This study evaluated the effects of these co-morbidities on markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in young patients with the disease. METHODS: The study investigated sets of inflammatory, endothelial, and adipocyte biomarkers in 79 patients with type 1 diabetes, 55 patients with type 2 diabetes, and 47 controls...
2016: PloS One
Sophie Ziai, Adèle Coriati, David St-Pierre, Katherine Chabot, Katherine Desjardins, Catherine Leroux, Martin V Richter, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret
OBJECTIVES: To determine the modifiable factors affecting glucose variability in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). CF-related diabetes (CFRD) is the most common complication of CF, and its presence increases morbidity and mortality in patients. Patients with CF (with and without CFRD) have potentially harmful glucose fluctuations and glucose excursions when compared to healthy adults. Carbohydrate intake and exercise have been shown to affect glycemia. Therefore, our hypothesis was that the proportion of energy from carbohydrates and total energy expenditure (TEE) would influence glucose fluctuations in adults with CF...
July 7, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Barbara Schober-Halper, Marlene Hofmann, Stefan Oesen, Bernhard Franzke, Thomas Wolf, Eva-Maria Strasser, Norbert Bachl, Michael Quittan, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Barbara Wessner
BACKGROUND: Ageing, inactivity and obesity are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation contributing to a variety of lifestyle-related diseases. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a multimodal protein with various cellular functions ranging from tissue remodelling to the regulation of inflammation and immune functions. While it is generally accepted that aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effects on several aspects of immune functions, even in older adults, the effect of resistance training remains unclear...
2016: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
Francesco Giallauria, Antonio Cittadini, Neil Andrew Smart, Carlo Vigorito
Aging is inexorably accompanied by a progressive decline of muscle mass, quality and strength. The resulting condition has been termed sarcopenia. Age-related sarcopenia can be accelerated by a variety of factors including changes in the hormonal milieu, inactivity, poor nutrition, chronic illness, and loss of integrity and function in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The downstream mechanisms by which these risk factors cause sarcopenia are not completely understood. Exercise training (particularly resistance training) has long been identified as the most promising method for increasing muscle mass and strength among older people...
2016: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Liang-Kung Chen, Wei-Ju Lee, Li-Ning Peng, Li-Kuo Liu, Hidenori Arai, Masahiro Akishita
Sarcopenia was recently classified a geriatric syndrome and is a major challenge to healthy aging. Affected patients tend to have worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality than those without sarcopenia. Although there is general agreement on the principal diagnostic characteristics, initial thresholds for muscle mass, strength, and physical performance were based on data from populations of predominantly Europid ancestry and may not apply worldwide. The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) issued regional consensus guidelines in 2014, and many more research studies from Asia have since been published; this review summarizes recent progress...
August 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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