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Jesse M Charlton, Natasha M Krowchuk, Gillian L Hatfield, Jordan A Guenette, Michael A Hunt
BACKGROUND: Gait modification is a treatment approach often used for a variety of neuromuscular and musculoskeletal pathologies. Gait modification is commonly applied to a single limb, as is done with foot rotation (FR) in people with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). However, the extent to which gait changes observed in the trained limb are also exhibited in the untrained, contralateral limb during a training session is unknown. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the within-limb FR differences across four unilateral FR modifications compared to natural walking...
March 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
Corina Nüesch, Jan-Arie Overberg, Hermann Schwameder, Geert Pagenstert, Annegret Mündermann
BACKGROUND: Instrumented treadmills with integrated pressure mats measure spatiotemporal, pressure and force parameters and are often used to investigate changes in gait patterns due to injury or rehabilitation. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the within- and between-day repeatability of such an instrumented treadmill for spatiotemporal parameters, peak pressures and forces during walking and running? METHODS: Treadmill gait and running analysis were performed at 5...
March 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
Latifah Alazmi, Grace E Gadsby, Nicola R Heneghan, T David Punt
BACKGROUND: Left/right judgment tasks (LRJTs) are used in the management of chronic pain. This use is predicated on their ability to elicit the simulation of movements (i.e. motor imagery), including those where the execution of the same movements induces pain. While established for limb-based LRJTs, the ability of trunk-based LRJTs to elicit motor imagery of trunk movements has not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To establish whether data from a trunk-based LRJT are indicative of motor imagery being elicited for the specific lateralised trunk postures presented...
March 7, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
Harsha T Garimella, Reuben H Kraft, Andrzej J Przekwas
Subject-specific computer models (male and female) of the human head were used to investigate the possible axonal deformation resulting from the primary phase blast-induced skull flexures. The corresponding axonal tractography was explicitly incorporated into these finite element models using a recently developed technique based on the embedded finite element method. These models were subjected to extensive verification against experimental studies which examined their pressure and displacement response under a wide range of loading conditions...
2018: PloS One
Joshua M Peterson, Carolyn Chlebek, Ashley M Clough, Alexandra K Wells, Eric H Ledet
STUDY DESIGN: In vitro biomechanical testing of human cadaveric cervical and goat cervical motion segments. OBJECTIVE: To measure the effects of plate stiffness on load-sharing, instantaneous axis of rotation (IAR), and posterior element loading after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ACDF is intended to create an environment which facilitates sufficient stability and biomechanical conditions to promote bone formation...
March 15, 2018: Spine
Eugène Zoumenou, Martin Chobli, Bernard le Polain de Waroux, Philippe Louis Baele
Belgium has been collaborating for 20 years with Abomey-Calavi University in Cotonou, Republic of Benin, to train anesthesiologists for Sub-Saharan, French-speaking African countries. With 123 graduates from 15 countries and 46 residents still in training, this program has succeeded in reversing the trend of a decreasing anesthesiology workforce in those countries, thus improving the quality of anesthesia and patient safety. Belgian government sources, as well as hospitals and anesthesia teams, provided most of the financial resources...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Akishi Matsugatani, Yuri Ishiguro, Ken Shiozaki, Haruki Watanabe
Understanding the interplay between the topological nature and the symmetry property of interacting systems has been a central matter of condensed matter physics in recent years. In this Letter, we establish nonperturbative constraints on the quantized Hall conductance of many-body systems with arbitrary interactions. Our results allow one to readily determine the many-body Chern number modulo a certain integer without performing any integrations, solely based on the rotation eigenvalues and the average particle density of the many-body ground state...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Shenglong Xu, Congjun Wu
Crystal structures and the Bloch theorem play a fundamental role in condensed matter physics. We extend the static crystal to the dynamic "space-time" crystal characterized by the general intertwined space-time periodicities in D+1 dimensions, which include both the static crystal and the Floquet crystal as special cases. A new group structure dubbed a "space-time" group is constructed to describe the discrete symmetries of a space-time crystal. Compared to space and magnetic groups, the space-time group is augmented by "time-screw" rotations and "time-glide" reflections involving fractional translations along the time direction...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Syeda Sabrina, Mykola Tasinkevych, Suzanne Ahmed, Allan M Brooks, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Thomas E Mallouk, Kyle J M Bishop
The propulsion of micro- and nanoparticles using ultrasound is an attractive strategy for the remote manipulation of colloidal matter using biocompatible energy inputs. However, the physical mechanisms underlying acoustic propulsion are poorly understood, and our ability to transduce acoustic energy into different types of particle motions remains limited. Here, we show that the three-dimensional shape of a colloidal particle can be rationally engineered to direct desired particle motions powered by ultrasound...
March 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Ayman Ebied, Ahmed Zayda, Sameh Marei, Hany Elsayed
INTRODUCTION: Successful treatment of knee comminuted periarticular fractures associated with osteoporosis and pre-existing arthritis is a challenging task. METHODS: This is a prospective study on 27 patients who had comminuted intra and periarticular knee fractures and pre-existing arthritis. Fractures were classified according to Muller's AO classification. Primary knee arthroplasty was performed ± internal fixation following 4 weeks of splinting. A stem was added to the tibial tray and Legacy Constrained Condylar Knee (LCCK) or Rotating Hinge (RH) prosthesis were used depending on the level of ligament damage and bone defects...
2018: SICOT-J
Daniel Pollack
A 55-year-old man with poliomyelitis presented with a plantarflexed foot and painful ulceration of the sub-first metatarsophalangeal joint present for many years. A two-stage procedure was performed to bring the foot to 90°, perpendicular to the leg, and resolve the ulceration. The first stage corrected only soft-tissue components. It involved using a hydrosurgery system to debride and prepare the ulcer, a unilobed rotational skin plasty to close the ulcer, and a tendo Achillis lengthening to decrease forefoot pressure...
January 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Junho Ahn, Michael A Del Core, Dane K Wukich, George T Liu, Trapper Lalli, Michael D VanPelt, Javier La Fontaine, Lawrence A Lavery, Katherine M Raspovic
The aim of this study was to examine if using orthogonal and oblique factor analysis detect changes in health-related quality of life differently in diabetic patients on the Short Form-36 (SF-36) survey. A total of 155 patients had diabetic foot complications (DFC), and 145 patients had no DFCs. The SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores were calculated using scoring coefficients determined by orthogonal and oblique rotation principle component analyses of the subscales...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
Robert T Keys, Anina N Rich, Regine Zopf
Tracking one's own body is essential for environmental interaction, and involves integrating multisensory cues with stored information about the body's typical features. Exactly how multisensory information is integrated in own-body perception is still unclear. For example, Ide and Hidaka (Exp Brain Res 228:43-50, 2013) found that participants made less precise visuo-tactile temporal order judgments (TOJ) when viewing hands in a plausible orientation (upright; typical for one's own hand) compared to an implausible orientation (rotated 180°)...
March 15, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Kazuhisa Matsui, Takashi Tachibana, Katsuya Nobuhara, Yasushi Uchiyama
BACKGROUND: The glenohumeral joint is subjected to opposing forces when the direction of shoulder motion is changed, accelerating and decelerating to make the movements. The influence of motion velocity or acceleration on translation of the humeral head has not been evaluated although direction and distance of humeral head translation has been analyzed in real time in normal shoulders. We hypothesized that, in a normal shoulder, the humeral head does not deviate significantly or suddenly during active shoulder rotation regardless of motion velocity...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Mahmood Karimy, Ahmad Fakhri, Esmaeel Vali, Farzaneh Vali, Feliciano H Veiga, L A R Stein, Marzieh Araban
Background: Growing evidence indicates that if disruptive behavior is left unidentified and untreated, a significant proportion of these problems will persist and may develop into problems linked with delinquency, substance abuse, and violence. Research is needed to develop valid and reliable measures of disruptive behavior to assist recognition and impact of treatments on disruptive behavior. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a scale for disruptive behavior in adolescents...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Heinz-Josef Koch, Kerrin Trimpler, Anna Jacobs, Nicol Stockfisch
In Europe, the framework for sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) production was subject to considerable changes and for the future it is expected that sugar beet cultivation might concentrate around the sugar factories for economic reasons. Based on data from a national sugar beet farmers' survey and multi-year crop rotation trials, the effects of cropping interval (number of years in between two subsequent sugar beet crops) and of preceding crops on sugar yield were elucidated under current Central European management conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Aram Keywan, Max Wuehr, Cauchy Pradhan, Klaus Jahn
It has recently been demonstrated that noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (nGVS) delivered as imperceptible white noise can improve balance control via the induction of stochastic resonance. However, it is unclear whether these balance improvements are accompanied by simultaneous enhancement to vestibular motion perception. In this study, 15 healthy subjects performed 8 quiet-stance tasks on foam with eyes closed at 8 different nGVS amplitudes ranging from 0 mA (baseline) to 0.5 mA. The nGVS amplitude that improved balance performance most compared to baseline was assigned as the optimal nGVS amplitude...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Akira Kubo, Masahiro Ishizaka, Yoshiki Takeuchi, Keita Shimura
[Purpose] To understand the effect of increased functional residual capacity (FRC) on the active range of thoracic axial rotation (AROTAR) in healthy young men. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-nine right-handed healthy male volunteers (age=20.1 ± 1.6 years) participated in this study. A standard plastic goniometer was used to measure the AROTAR in the supine position with both glenohumeral joints fully flexed. AROTAR was recorded at the resting expiration level (REL) and for 4 different FRC levels: 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ml air inhaled at REL...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Yoichi Kaizu, Hideomi Watanabe, Takehiko Yamaji
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding the knowledge of mechanical principles related to the load applied to the shoulder and elbow during the pitching motion. [Subjects and Methods] The three-dimensional kinematics of body segments were measured in 19 amateur baseball players with a VICON motion capture system. The correlation between maximum shoulder internal torque, maximum elbow varus torque, and simultaneous kinematic parameters including joint angular acceleration and ball acceleration was investigated...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Brooke W Longbottom, Stefan A F Bon
Microspheres with catalytic caps have become a popular model system for studying self-propelled colloids. Existing experimental studies involve predominantly "smooth" particle surfaces. In this study we determine the effect of irregular surface deformations on the propulsive mechanism with a particular focus on speed. The particle surfaces of polymer microspheres were deformed prior to depositing a layer of platinum which resulted in the formation of nanoscopic pillars of catalyst. Self-propulsion was induced upon exposure of the micromotors to hydrogen peroxide, whilst they were dispersed in water...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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