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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161784/calcifying-epithelial-odontogenic-cyst
#1
Balaji Manohar, Dhritiman Baidya, Neema Shetty, Aditi Mathur, Barkha Makhijani
The Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst was first described as a distinct clinicopathologic entity by Gorlin and his colleagues in 1962. Gold (1963) chose a similar, but not identical term for the lesion, namely 'keratinizing and calcifying odontogenic cyst'. The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is a new designation of calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) recommended by the 2005 classification of the World Health Organization (WHO). The calcifying odontogenic cyst is not a common lesion; the dentinogenic ghost cell tumor is even less common and should be considered rare...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160743/left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-sensitivity-to-phonetic-competition-in-receptive-language-processing-a-comparison-of-clear-and-conversational-speech
#2
Xin Xie, Emily Myers
The speech signal is rife with variations in phonetic ambiguity. For instance, when talkers speak in a conversational register, they demonstrate less articulatory precision, leading to greater potential for confusability at the phonetic level compared with a clear speech register. Current psycholinguistic models assume that ambiguous speech sounds activate more than one phonological category and that competition at prelexical levels cascades to lexical levels of processing. Imaging studies have shown that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is modulated by phonetic competition between simultaneously activated categories, with increases in activation for more ambiguous tokens...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160558/simpson-s-paradox-in-the-integrated-discrimination-improvement
#3
J Chipman, D Braun
The integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) is commonly used to compare two risk prediction models; it summarizes the extent a new model increases risk in events and decreases risk in non-events. The IDI averages risks across events and non-events and is therefore susceptible to Simpson's paradox. In some settings, adding a predictive covariate to a well calibrated model results in an overall negative (positive) IDI. However, if stratified by that same covariate, the strata-specific IDIs are positive (negative)...
December 10, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160145/the-graded-and-redefined-assessment-of-strength-sensibility-and-prehension-grassp-version-2-provides-interval-measure-properties
#4
Inge-Marie Velstra, Carolina Saskia Fellinghauer, Rainer Frank Abel, Sukhvinder Kalsi-Ryan, Rüdiger Rupp, Armin Curt
The GRASSP is a valid, reliable and responsive outcome measure to evaluate upper limb function in individuals with tetraplegia. GRASSP generates ordinal total scores; thus, applicability as an interval level measurement requires testing of its measurement properties. Therefore, this study examined the metric characteristics with Rasch analysis to derive interval level scales of the respective GRASSP subtests. The GRASSP was recorded within 10 days, at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159957/evaluating-performance-of-a-user-trained-mr-lung-tumor-autocontouring-algorithm-in-the-context-of-intra-and-inter-observer-variations
#5
Eugene Yip, Jihyun Yun, Zsolt Gabos, Sarah Baker, Don Yee, Keith Wachowicz, Satyapal Rathee, B Gino Fallone
PURPOSE: Real-time tracking of lung tumors using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as a potential strategy to mitigate the ill-effects of breathing motion in radiation therapy. Several autocontouring methods have been evaluated against a "gold standard" of a single human expert user. However, contours drawn by experts have inherent intra- and inter-observer variations. In this study, we aim to evaluate our user-trained autocontouring algorithm with manually drawn contours from multiple expert users, and to contextualize the accuracy of these autocontours within intra- and inter- observer variations...
November 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159844/incidence-and-predictors-of-30-day-postoperative-readmission-in-children
#6
Daniel Vo, David Zurakowski, David Faraoni
BACKGROUND: Hospital readmissions are being used as a quality metric for hospital reimbursement without a clear understanding of the factors that contribute to readmission. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to report the incidence of 30-day postsurgical readmission in children, identify the predictors for readmission, and create an algorithm to identify high-risk children. METHODS: Data from the 2012-2014 Pediatric database of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistical regression analysis...
November 20, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159756/patient-provider-communication-and-health-outcomes-among-individuals-with-hepato-pancreato-biliary-disease-in-the-usa
#7
Qinyu Chen, Eliza W Beal, Eric B Schneider, Victor Okunrintemi, Xu-Feng Zhang, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: Patient-provider communication (PPC) is utilized as a value-based metric in pay-for-performance programs. We sought to evaluate the association of PPC with patient-reported health outcomes, as well as healthcare resource utilization among a nationally representative cohort of patients with hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) diagnoses. METHODS: Patients with HPB diseases were identified from the 2008-2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey cohort. A weighted PPC composite score was categorized using the responses from the CAHPS (Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) survey as optimal, average, or poor...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159675/diffusion-weighted-imaging-demystified-the-technique-and-potential-clinical-applications-for-soft-tissue-imaging
#8
REVIEW
Shivani Ahlawat, Laura M Fayad
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement...
November 20, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159523/quantitating-whole-lesion-tumor-biology-in-rectal-cancer-mri-taking-a-lesson-from-fdg-pet-tumor-metrics
#9
Marc J Gollub, Andreas M Hotker, Kaitlin M Woo, Yousef Mazaheri, Mithat Gonen
PURPOSE: To determine the value of novel whole tumor metrics in DWI-MRI and DCE-MRI of rectal cancer treatment assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 24 uniformly treated patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent MRI including diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) sequences, before and after chemoradiotherapy. Two experienced readers independently measured tumor volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on DWI-MRI and tumor volume and transfer constant K (trans) on DCE-MRI...
November 20, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159041/white-matter-alterations-and-their-associations-with-motor-function-in-young-adults-born-preterm-with-very-low-birth-weight
#10
Ingrid Marie Husby Hollund, Alexander Olsen, Jon Skranes, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Asta K Håberg, Live Eikenes, Kari Anne I Evensen
Very low birth weight (VLBW: ≤ 1500 g) individuals have an increased risk of white matter alterations and neurodevelopmental problems, including fine and gross motor problems. In this hospital-based follow-up study, the main aim was to examine white matter microstructure and its relationship to fine and gross motor function in 31 VLBW young adults without cerebral palsy compared with 31 term-born controls, at mean age 22.6 ± 0.7 years. The participants were examined with tests of fine and gross motor function (Trail Making Test-5: TMT-5, Grooved Pegboard, Triangle from Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2: MABC-2 and High-level Mobility Assessment Tool: HiMAT) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158502/competing-tradeoffs-between-increasing-marine-mammal-predation-and-fisheries-harvest-of-chinook-salmon
#11
Brandon E Chasco, Isaac C Kaplan, Austen C Thomas, Alejandro Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Dawn P Noren, Michael J Ford, M Bradley Hanson, Jonathan J Scordino, Steven J Jeffries, Kristin N Marshall, Andrew O Shelton, Craig Matkin, Brian J Burke, Eric J Ward
Many marine mammal predators, particularly pinnipeds, have increased in abundance in recent decades, generating new challenges for balancing human uses with recovery goals via ecosystem-based management. We used a spatio-temporal bioenergetics model of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to quantify how predation by three species of pinnipeds and killer whales (Orcinus orca) on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) has changed since the 1970s along the west coast of North America, and compare these estimates to salmon fisheries...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158254/weight-history-and-subclinical-myocardial-damage
#12
Chiadi E Ndumele, Laura Cobb, Mariana Lazo, Natalie A Bello, Amil Shah, Vijay Nambi, Roger S Blumenthal, Gary Gerstenblith, Scott D Solomon, Christie M Ballantyne, Elizabeth Selvin, Josef Coresh
BACKGROUND: Excess weight is associated with subclinical myocardial damage, as reflected by high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations, which portends high heart failure risk. However, the association between weight history and myocardial damage is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated 9062 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) visit 4 (1996-1999) participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and no previous cardiovascular disease. We cross-tabulated visit 4 ("current") BMI categories of normal weight, overweight, and obese with those at visit 1 (1987-1989) and with BMI categories calculated from self-reported weight at age 25 years...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158175/changes-in-gray-and-white-matter-in-subgroups-within-the-tinnitus-population
#13
Sara A Schmidt, Benjamin Zimmerman, Richard O Bido Medina, Jake R Carpenter-Thompson, Fatima T Husain
In this study, we investigated gray and white matter changes in subgroups within the larger tinnitus population related to differences in severity or duration of tinnitus symptoms. Tinnitus is the illusory perception of sound in the absence of an external source, most often experienced as a chronic condition. The psychological reaction to the sound constitutes the severity, or degree of discomfort experienced, and the duration refers to the time since onset of chronic tinnitus. We used voxel- and surface-based morphometry to investigate gray matter changes and diffusion tensor imaging (using fractional anisotropy, or FA, metrics) to assess changes in orientation of white matter tracts, using both whole brain and region of interest analyses...
November 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157848/diffusion-mr-imaging-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
REVIEW
Maria J Borja, Sohae Chung, Yvonne W Lui
Remarkable advances have been made in the last decade in the use of diffusion MR imaging to study mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Diffusion imaging shows differences between mTBI patients and healthy control groups in multiple different metrics using a variety of techniques, supporting the notion that there are microstructural injuries in mTBI patients that radiologists have been insensitive to. Future areas of discovery in diffusion MR imaging and mTBI include larger longitudinal studies to better understand the evolution of the injury and unravel the biophysical meaning that the detected changes in diffusion MR imaging represent...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157460/correlation-analysis-of-respiratory-signals-by-using-parallel-coordinate-plots
#15
Esra Saatci
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The understanding of the bonds and the relationships between the respiratory signals, i.e. the airflow, the mouth pressure, the relative temperature and the relative humidity during breathing may provide the improvement on the measurement methods of respiratory mechanics and sensor designs or the exploration of the several possible applications in the analysis of respiratory disorders. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to propose a new combination of methods in order to determine the relationship between respiratory signals as a multidimensional data...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157449/paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-prediction-based-on-hrv-analysis-and-non-dominated-sorting-genetic-algorithm-iii
#16
K H Boon, M Khalil-Hani, M B Malarvili
This paper presents a method that able to predict the paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The method uses shorter heart rate variability (HRV) signals when compared to existing methods, and achieves good prediction accuracy. PAF is a common cardiac arrhythmia that increases the health risk of a patient, and the development of an accurate predictor of the onset of PAF is clinical important because it increases the possibility to electrically stabilize and prevent the onset of atrial arrhythmias with different pacing techniques...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157393/new-concepts-related-to-disease-appreciation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Christina J Azevedo, Amirhossein Jaberzadeh, Daniel Pelletier
In the past several decades, MRI has become an indispensable tool in the field of multiple sclerosis (MS) for clinicians and researchers. However, the MS field still faces several challenges. This review focuses on 2 current areas of difficulty: 1) discriminating MS from other diseases when the clinical history and imaging features are atypical or nonspecific, and 2) the lack of quantitative imaging metrics with which to follow MS patients over time in clinical practice. This review highlights promising MRI and postprocessing techniques that have potential applications in these areas...
February 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157308/characterization-of-the-upper-and-lower-respiratory-tract-microbiota-in-piedmontese-calves
#18
Isabella Nicola, Francesco Cerutti, Elena Grego, Iride Bertone, Paola Gianella, Antonio D'Angelo, Simone Peletto, Claudio Bellino
BACKGROUND: The microbiota of the bovine upper respiratory tract has been recently characterized, but no data for the lower respiratory tract are available. A major health problem in bovine medicine is infectious bronchopneumonia, the most common respiratory syndrome affecting cattle. With this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize and compare the microbial community composition of the upper and lower respiratory tracts in calves. RESULTS: The microbiota of the upper (nasal swab [NS]) and the lower (trans-tracheal aspiration [TTA]) respiratory tracts of 19 post-weaned Piedmontese calves with (8/19) and without (11/19) clinical signs of respiratory disease, coming from six different farms, was characterized by 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding...
November 21, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157187/quantitative-weight-of-evidence-assessment-of-higher-tier-studies-on-the-toxicity-and-risks-of-neonicotinoid-insecticides-in-honeybees-1-methods
#19
Keith R Solomon, Gladys L Stephenson
A quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) methodology was developed and used to assess many higher-tier studies on the effects of three neonicotinoid insecticides: clothianidin (CTD), imidacloprid (IMI), and thiamethoxam (TMX) on honeybees. A general problem formulation, a conceptual model for exposures of honeybees, and an analysis plan were developed. A QWoE methodology was used to characterize the quality of the available studies from the literature and unpublished reports of studies conducted by or for the registrants...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157104/using-previous-trial-results-to-inform-hypothesis-testing-of-new-interventions
#20
Changyu Shen, Xiaochun Li
Results of industry-sponsored Phase III trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov include a rich amount of information on the efficacy of medical interventions. We propose that these results can be used to inform hypothesis testing of a new intervention through the Bayes principle. The posterior probability of positive efficacy offers an accessible interpretation of the uncertainty of efficacy and a convenient metric for global false-positive control.
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
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