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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328702/peeling-off-neutron-skins-from-neutron-rich-nuclei-constraints-on-the-symmetry-energy-from-neutron-removal-cross-sections
#1
T Aumann, C A Bertulani, F Schindler, S Typel
An experimentally constrained equation of state of neutron-rich matter is fundamental for the physics of nuclei and the astrophysics of neutron stars, mergers, core-collapse supernova explosions, and the synthesis of heavy elements. To this end, we investigate the potential of constraining the density dependence of the symmetry energy close to saturation density through measurements of neutron-removal cross sections in high-energy nuclear collisions of 0.4 to 1 GeV/nucleon. We show that the sensitivity of the total neutron-removal cross section is high enough so that the required accuracy can be reached experimentally with the recent developments of new detection techniques...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322613/forward-view-advancing-health-library-and-knowledge-services-in-england
#2
Sue Lacey Bryant, Helen Bingham, Ruth Carlyle, Alison Day, Linda Ferguson, David Stewart
This article is the fourth in a series on New Directions. The National Health Service is under pressure, challenged to meet the needs of an ageing population, whilst striving to improve standards and ensure decision making is underpinned by evidence. Health Education England is steering a new course for NHS library and knowledge services in England to ensure access to knowledge and evidence for all decision makers. Knowledge for Healthcare calls for service transformation, role redesign, greater coordination and collaboration...
January 10, 2018: Health Information and Libraries Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303345/implications-of-the-neutron-star-merger-gw170817-for-cosmological-scalar-tensor-theories
#3
Jeremy Sakstein, Bhuvnesh Jain
The LIGO and VIRGO Collaborations have recently announced the detection of gravitational waves from a neutron star-neutron star merger (GW170817) and the simultaneous measurement of an optical counterpart (the γ-ray burst GRB 170817A). The close arrival time of the gravitational and electromagnetic waves limits the difference in speed of photons and gravitons to be less than about 1 part in 10^{15}. This has three important implications for cosmological scalar-tensor gravity theories that are often touted as dark energy candidates and alternatives to the Λ cold dark matter model...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303333/strong-constraints-on-cosmological-gravity-from-gw170817-and-grb-170817a
#4
T Baker, E Bellini, P G Ferreira, M Lagos, J Noller, I Sawicki
The detection of an electromagnetic counterpart (GRB 170817A) to the gravitational-wave signal (GW170817) from the merger of two neutron stars opens a completely new arena for testing theories of gravity. We show that this measurement allows us to place stringent constraints on general scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories, while allowing us to place an independent bound on the graviton mass in bimetric theories of gravity. These constraints severely reduce the viable range of cosmological models that have been proposed as alternatives to general relativistic cosmology...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303304/dark-energy-after-gw170817-dead-ends-and-the-road-ahead
#5
Jose María Ezquiaga, Miguel Zumalacárregui
Multimessenger gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy has commenced with the detection of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 and its associated electromagnetic counterparts. The almost coincident observation of both signals places an exquisite bound on the GW speed |c_{g}/c-1|≤5×10^{-16}. We use this result to probe the nature of dark energy (DE), showing that a large class of scalar-tensor theories and DE models are highly disfavored. As an example we consider the covariant Galileon, a cosmologically viable, well motivated gravity theory which predicts a variable GW speed at low redshift...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300137/disabling-reenactment-imagery-after-violent-dying
#6
Edward K Rynearson
Reenactment imagery that remains fixating after violent dying is associated with diminished psychological resilience. The nonresilient teller struggles to maintain an integrative orientation within the recounting. Reestablishing the resilient capacities of pacification (mastery of terror through self-calming), partition (mastery of intrusive thoughts through self-differentiation), and perspective (mastery of self-determination through self-transcendence) is an important preparatory goal with intervention. Without these resilient capacities, premature exposure increases the risk that patients will experience a dysfunctional merger with the possessive reenactment representation...
January 4, 2018: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289241/strategies-and-tactics-for-the-synthesis-of-complex-alkaloids
#7
Scott A Snyder
Efforts to achieve the laboratory synthesis of complex natural products have long served as a means to advance the science of organic chemistry. Indeed, core physical organic principles, new reagents and synthetic transformations, effective strategies for stereocontrolled synthesis, and useful pharmaceutical agents are but a few advances that have issued from such endeavors over the course of the past century. Within this review are recounted selected research programs from the author's laboratory seeking to add to that repertoire of discoveries by targeting complex polycyclic alkaloids for synthesis...
December 1, 2017: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286802/maximum-redshift-of-gravitational-wave-merger-events
#8
Savvas M Koushiappas, Abraham Loeb
Future generations of gravitational wave detectors will have the sensitivity to detect gravitational wave events at redshifts far beyond any detectable electromagnetic sources. We show that if the observed event rate is greater than one event per year at redshifts z≥40, then the probability distribution of primordial density fluctuations must be significantly non-Gaussian or the events originate from primordial black holes. The nature of the excess events can be determined from the redshift distribution of the merger rate...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286684/three-dimensional-general-relativistic-magnetohydrodynamic-simulations-of-remnant-accretion-disks-from-neutron-star-mergers-outflows-and-r-process-nucleosynthesis
#9
Daniel M Siegel, Brian D Metzger
The merger of binary neutron stars, or of a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole, can result in the formation of a massive rotating torus around a spinning black hole. In addition to providing collimating media for γ-ray burst jets, unbound outflows from these disks are an important source of mass ejection and rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. We present the first three-dimensional general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of neutrino-cooled accretion disks in neutron star mergers, including a realistic equation of state valid at low densities and temperatures, self-consistent evolution of the electron fraction, and neutrino cooling through an approximate leakage scheme...
December 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286057/notable-licensing-deals-in-the-biopharma-industry-in-the-third-quarter-of-2017
#10
P D'Souza
During the third quarter of 2017, Cortellis Competitive Intelligence registered 949 new deals (excluding mergers and acquisitions) added as part of its ongoing coverage of pharmaceutical licensing activity compared to 1,007 in Q2 this year and 1,023 in Q3 the previous year.
October 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285867/quality-competition-and-hospital-mergers-an-experiment
#11
Johann Han, Nadja Kairies-Schwarz, Markus Vomhof
On the basis of a Salop model with regulated prices, we investigate quality provision behaviour of competing hospitals before and after a merger. For this, we use a controlled laboratory experiment where subjects decided on the level of treatment quality as head of a hospital. We find that the post-merger average quality is significantly lower than the average pre-merger quality. However, for merger insiders and outsiders, average quality choices are significantly higher than predicted for pure profit-maximising hospitals...
December 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261643/a-mildly-relativistic-wide-angle-outflow-in-the-neutron-star-merger-event-gw170817
#12
K P Mooley, E Nakar, K Hotokezaka, G Hallinan, A Corsi, D A Frail, A Horesh, T Murphy, E Lenc, D L Kaplan, K De, D Dobie, P Chandra, A Deller, O Gottlieb, M M Kasliwal, S R Kulkarni, S T Myers, S Nissanke, T Piran, C Lynch, V Bhalerao, S Bourke, K W Bannister, L P Singer
GW170817 was the first gravitational wave detection of a binary neutron-star merger1. It was accompanied by radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum and localized2 to the galaxy NGC 4993 at a distance of 40 megaparsecs. It has been proposed that the observed γ-ray, X-ray and radio emission is due to an ultra-relativistic jet launched during the merger, directed away from our line of sight3-6. The presence of such a jet is predicted from models that posit neutron-star mergers as the central engines that drive short hard γ-ray bursts7,8...
December 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244232/synthesis-of-phenols-organophotoredox-ni-dual-catalytic-hydroxylation-of-aryl-halides-with-water
#13
Dong Xue, Liu Yang, Zhiyan Huang, Gang Li, Wei Zhang, Rui Cao, Chao Wang, Jianliang Xiao
A highly effective hydroxylation reaction of aryl halides with water under the synergistic merger of organophotoredox and nickel-catalysis is reported. The OH group of phenols originates from water following deprotonation facilitated by an intramolecular base group on the ligand. Significantly, aryl bromides as well as less reactive aryl chlorides can also serve as effective substrates, affording phenols with a wide range of functional groups. Using no strong inorganic bases and no expensive noble metal catalysts, this process can be applied to the efficient preparation of diverse phenols and enables the hydroxylation of several multifunctional pharmaceutical aryl halides...
December 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243501/critical-analysis-of-valuation-and-strategical-orientation-of-merger-and-acquisition-deals-in-the-pharmaceutical-industry
#14
Raphaela Marie Louisa Dierks, Olivier Bruyère, Jean-Yves Reginster
the pharmaceutical industry is undergoing major shifts due to changing macro and micro factors. As the industry is highly capital intensive and patents are expiring, the outlook is on generating inorganic growth, mainly through M&A. Using the income valuation approach, one analyses two completed deals in 2016 above 1bn USD. Thereafter one outlines the main motives behind M&A deals and concluded by discussing whether M&A harms medical innovations. Areas covered: the paper is based on empirical study questioning existing literature in order to critically analyse valuation and the strategical orientation of pharmaceutical companies Expert commentary: pharmaceutical companies understand the changing market conditions and favour their expertise...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222755/integrated-host-pathogen-metabolic-reconstructions
#15
Anu Raghunathan, Neema Jamshidi
The science and art of Genome scale metabolic network reconstructions have been explicitly documented in the literature for organisms across all the three kingdoms of life. Constraints-based models derived from such reconstructions have been used to assess metabolic phenotypes of their complex connections to genotype accurately. The problem of infectious disease is complex due to the multifactorial response of the host to the pathogen. Systems biology approaches and modeling allow one to study, understand, and predict emergent properties of such complex responses...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219430/gravitational-waves-from-binary-black-hole-mergers-inside-stars
#16
Joseph M Fedrow, Christian D Ott, Ulrich Sperhake, Jonathan Blackman, Roland Haas, Christian Reisswig, Antonio De Felice
We present results from a controlled numerical experiment investigating the effect of stellar density gas on the coalescence of binary black holes (BBHs) and the resulting gravitational waves (GWs). This investigation is motivated by the proposed stellar core fragmentation scenario for BBH formation and the associated possibility of an electromagnetic counterpart to a BBH GW event. We employ full numerical relativity coupled with general-relativistic hydrodynamics and set up a 30+30  M_{⊙} BBH (motivated by GW150914) inside gas with realistic stellar densities...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212939/the-heptad-repeat-c-domain-of-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein-plays-a-key-role-in-membrane-fusion
#17
Imogen M Bermingham, Keith J Chappell, Daniel Watterson, Paul R Young
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) mediates host cell entry through the fusion (F) protein, which undergoes a conformational change to facilitate the merger of viral and host lipid membrane envelopes. RSV F comprises a trimer of disulfide bonded F1 and F2 subunits that is present on the virion surface in a 'metastable' pre-fusion state. This pre-fusion form is readily triggered to undergo refolding to bring two heptad repeats (HRA and HRB) into close proximity to form a six-helix bundle that stabilizes the post-fusion form and provides the free energy required for membrane fusion...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212874/the-na-k-h-exchanger-nhx1-controls-multivesicular-body-vacuolar-lysosome-fusion
#18
Mahmoud Abdul Karim, Christopher Leonard Brett
Loss-of-function mutations in human endosomal Na+(K+)/H+ Exchangers (NHEs) NHE6 and NHE9 are implicated in neurological disorders including Christianson Syndrome, autism and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These mutations disrupt retention of surface receptors within neurons and glial cells by affecting their delivery to lysosomes for degradation. However, the molecular basis of how these endosomal NHEs control endocytic trafficking is unclear. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model, we conducted cell-free organelle fusion assays to show that transport activity of the orthologous endosomal NHE Nhx1 is important for multivesicular body (MVB)-vacuolar lysosome fusion, the last step of endocytosis required for surface protein degradation...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212001/mechanism-of-kin-discriminatory-demarcation-line-formation-between-colonies-of-swarming-bacteria
#19
Pintu Patra, Christopher N Vassallo, Daniel Wall, Oleg A Igoshin
Swarming bacteria use kin discrimination to preferentially associate with their clonemates for certain cooperative behaviors. Kin discrimination can manifest as an apparent demarcation line (a region lacking cells or with much lower cell density) between antagonist strains swarming toward each other. In contrast, two identical strains merge with no demarcation. Experimental studies suggest contact-dependent killing between different strains as a mechanism of kin discrimination, but it is not clear whether this killing is sufficient to explain the observed patterns...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211049/living-organisms-author-their-read-write-genomes-in-evolution
#20
REVIEW
James A Shapiro
Evolutionary variations generating phenotypic adaptations and novel taxa resulted from complex cellular activities altering genome content and expression: (i) Symbiogenetic cell mergers producing the mitochondrion-bearing ancestor of eukaryotes and chloroplast-bearing ancestors of photosynthetic eukaryotes; (ii) interspecific hybridizations and genome doublings generating new species and adaptive radiations of higher plants and animals; and, (iii) interspecific horizontal DNA transfer encoding virtually all of the cellular functions between organisms and their viruses in all domains of life...
December 6, 2017: Biology
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