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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094051/competition-policy-for-health-care-provision-in-portugal
#1
Pedro Pita Barros
We review the role of competition among healthcare providers in Portugal, which has a public National Health Service (NHS) at the core of the health system. There is little competition among healthcare providers within the NHS. Competition among NHS primary care providers is hindered by excess demand (many residents in Portugal do not have a designated family doctor). Competition among NHS hospitals has been traditionally limited to cases of maximum guaranteed waiting time for surgery being exceeded. The Portuguese Competition Authority enforces competition law...
December 23, 2016: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069857/market-share-matters-evidence-of-insurer-and-provider-bargaining-over-prices
#2
Eric T Roberts, Michael E Chernew, J Michael McWilliams
Proposed mergers among large US health insurers and growing consolidation among providers have renewed concerns about the effects of market concentration on commercial health care prices. Using multipayer claims for physician services provided in office settings, we estimated that-within the same provider groups-insurers with market shares of 15 percent or more (average: 24.5 percent), for example, negotiated prices for office visits that were 21 percent lower than prices negotiated by insurers with shares of less than 5 percent...
January 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059773/attosecond-physics-at-the-nanoscale
#3
Marcelo F Ciappina, J Perez-Hernandez, Alexandra Landsman, William Okell, Sergey Zherebtsov, Benjamin Förg, Johannes Schötz, Lennart Seiffert, Thomas Fennel, Tahir Shaaran, Tomas Zimmermann, Alexis Chacón, Roland Guichard, Amelle Zair, John Tisch, J Marangos, Tobias Witting, Avi Braun, Stefan Maier, Luis Roso, Michael Krüger, Peter Hommelhoff, Matthias Kling, Ferenc Krausz, Maciej Lewenstein
Recently two emerging areas of research, attosecond and nanoscale physics, have started to come together. Attosecond physics deals with phenomena occurring when ultrashort laser pulses, with duration on the femto- and sub-femtosecond time scales, interact with atoms, molecules or solids. The laser-induced electron dynamics occurs natively on a timescale down to a few hundred or even tens of attoseconds, which is comparable with the optical field. For comparison, the revolution of an electron on a 1s orbital of a hydrogen atom is 152 as...
January 6, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056785/determination-of-dosage-compensation-and-comparison-of-gene-expression-in-a-triploid-hybrid-fish
#4
Li Ren, Chenchen Tang, Wuhui Li, Jialin Cui, Xingjun Tan, Yafeng Xiong, Jie Chen, Jun Wang, Jun Xiao, Yi Zhou, Jing Wang, Min Tao, Chun Zhang, Shaojun Liu
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy and hybridization are both recognized as major forces in evolution. Most of our current knowledge about differences in gene regulation in polyploid hybrids comes from plant studies. The gene expression of diverged genomes and regulatory interactions are still unclear in lower vertebrates. RESULTS: We generated 229 million cleaned reads (42.23 Gbp) from triploid of maternal grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Cyprininae, 2n = 48) × paternal blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, Cultrinae, 2n = 48) and their diploid parents using next-generation sequencing...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054713/alternating-terminal-electron-acceptors-at-the-basis-of-symbiogenesis-how-oxygen-ignited-eukaryotic-evolution
#5
Dave Speijer
What kind of symbiosis between archaeon and bacterium gave rise to their eventual merger at the origin of the eukaryotes? I hypothesize that conditions favouring bacterial uptake were based on exchange of intermediate carbohydrate metabolites required by recurring changes in availability and use of the two different terminal electron chain acceptors, the bacterial one being oxygen. Oxygen won, and definitive loss of the archaeal membrane potential allowed permanent establishment of the bacterial partner as the proto-mitochondrion, further metabolic integration and highly efficient ATP production...
January 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039972/coupled-solitons-of-intense-high-frequency-and-low-frequency-waves-in-zakharov-type-systems
#6
Evgeny Gromov, Boris Malomed
One-parameter families of exact two-component solitary-wave solutions for interacting high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) waves are found in the framework of Zakharov-type models, which couple the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for intense HF waves to the Boussinesq (Bq) or Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the LF component through quadratic terms. The systems apply, in particular, to the interaction of surface (HF) and internal (LF) waves in stratified fluids. These solutions are two-component generalizations of the single-component Bq and KdV solitons...
December 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007837/the-impact-of-open-pollination-on-the-structural-evolutionary-dynamics-meiotic-behavior-and-fertility-of-resynthesized-allotetraploid-brassica-napus-l
#7
Mathieu Rousseau-Gueutin, Jérôme Morice, Olivier Coriton, Virginie Huteau, Gwenn Trotoux, Sylvie Nègre, Cyril Falentin, Gwennaëlle Deniot, Marie Gilet, Frédérique Eber, Alexandre Pelé, Sonia Vautrin, Joëlle Fourment, Maryse Lodé, Hélène Bergès, Anne-Marie Chèvre
Allopolyploidy, which results from the merger and duplication of two divergent genomes, has played a major role in the evolution and diversification of flowering plants. The genomic changes that occur in resynthesized or natural neopolyploids have been extensively studied, but little is known about the effects of the reproductive mode in the initial generations that may precede its successful establishment. To truly reflect the early generations of a nascent polyploid, two resynthesized allotetraploid Brassica napus populations were obtained for the first time by open pollination...
December 22, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004453/a-leaf-inspired-luminescent-solar-concentrator-for-energy-efficient-continuous-flow-photochemistry
#8
Dario Cambié, Fang Zhao, Volker Hessel, Michael G Debije, Timothy Noël
The use of solar light to promote chemical reactions holds significant potential with regard to sustainable energy solutions. While the number of visible light-induced transformations has increased significantly, the use of abundant solar light has been extremely limited. We report a leaf-inspired photomicroreactor that constitutes a merger between luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) and flow photochemistry to enable green and efficient reactions powered by solar irradiation. This device based on fluorescent dye-doped polydimethylsiloxane collects sunlight, focuses the energy to a narrow wavelength region, and then transports that energy to embedded microchannels where the flowing reactants are converted...
December 22, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000199/-meta-analysis-of-incidence-of-postoperative-complications-for-the-modified-posterior-sagittal-anorectoplasty-treatment-of-intermediate-or-high-anorectal-malformations
#9
Liqiong Duan, Hongxia Ren, Xiaobing Sun
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of postoperative complications of children with intermediate or high anorectal malformations treated by one-stage modified posterior sagittal anorectoplasty(PSARP) by meta-analysis. METHODS: Cases with intermediate or high anorectal malformations treated by one-stage modified PSARP nearly a decade at home and abroad were collected by searching in Wanfang Data, CNKI, and PubMed database, then all the papers that recorded the number of cases of postoperative complications were screened out according to inclusion and exclusion criteria...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976659/mobile-based-effective-vaccine-management-tool-an-m-health-initiative-implemented-by-unicef-in-bihar
#10
Preeti Negandhi, Monika Chauhan, Ankan Mukherjee Das, Sutapa B Neogi, Jyoti Sharma, Ghanashyam Sethy
BACKGROUND: UNICEF launched the mobile-based Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) system in Bihar in 2014 along with the state government to electronically capture information and identify gaps in the existing vaccine management system for appropriate action. OBJECTIVE: This study accessed the implementation process of this initiative. METHODS: Quantitative data related to vaccine supply chain management indicators were collected in November-December 2015 using factsheets and dashboards, representing the situation of the vaccine supply and cold chain management system at regular intervals since the launch...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960043/incorporation-of-log-odds-of-positive-lymph-nodes-into-the-ajcc-tnm-classification-improves-prediction-of-survival-in-oral-cancer
#11
C-C Lee, Y-S Lin, B-H Kang, K-P Chang, C-C Chi, M-Y Lin, H-H Su, T-S Chang, H-C Chen, P-C Chen, W-L Huang, C-I Huang, P Chou, C-C Yang
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prognostic performance of a new N classification that incorporates the log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) into the routinely used pathological N classification for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study utilising LODDS into pN category was performed, and the AJCC TNM stage and T-New N-M stage were compared with respect to 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates. The discriminability was evaluated from the linear trend chi-square test, Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Harrell's c-statistic...
December 13, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956096/policies-towards-hospital-and-gp-competition-in-five-european-countries
#12
Luigi Siciliani, Martin Chalkley, Hugh Gravelle
This study provides an overview of policies affecting competition amongst hospitals and GPs in five European countries: France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway and Portugal. Drawing on the policies and empirical evidence described in five case studies, we find both similarities and differences in the approaches adopted. Constraints on patients' choices of provider have been relaxed but countries differ in the amount and type of information that is provided in the public domain. Hospitals are increasingly paid via fixed prices per patient to encourage them to compete on quality but prices are set in different ways across countries...
November 22, 2016: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940614/host-competence-an-organismal-trait-to-integrate-immunology-and-epidemiology
#13
Lynn B Martin, S C Burgan, James S Adelman, Stephanie S Gervasi
The new fields of ecological immunology and disease ecology have begun to merge, and the classic fields of immunology and epidemiology are beginning to blend with them. This merger is occurring because the integrative study of host-parasite interactions is providing insights into disease in ways that traditional methods have not. With the advent of new tools, mathematical and technological, we could be on the verge of developing a unified theory of infectious disease, one that supersedes the barriers of jargon and tradition...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929014/a-massive-quiescent-population-ii-galaxy-at-a-redshift-of-2-1
#14
Mariska Kriek, Charlie Conroy, Pieter G van Dokkum, Alice E Shapley, Jieun Choi, Naveen A Reddy, Brian Siana, Freeke van de Voort, Alison L Coil, Bahram Mobasher
Unlike spiral galaxies such as the Milky Way, the majority of the stars in massive elliptical galaxies were formed in a short period early in the history of the Universe. The duration of this formation period can be measured using the ratio of magnesium to iron abundance ([Mg/Fe]) in spectra, which reflects the relative enrichment by core-collapse and type Ia supernovae. For local galaxies, [Mg/Fe] probes the combined formation history of all stars currently in the galaxy, including younger and metal-poor stars that were added during late-time mergers...
December 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923494/competition-policy-for-health-care-provision-in-the-netherlands
#15
Frederik T Schut, Marco Varkevisser
In the Netherlands in 2006 a major health care reform was introduced, aimed at reinforcing regulated competition in the health care sector. Health insurers were provided with strong incentives to compete and more room to negotiate and selectively contract with health care providers. Nevertheless, the bargaining position of health insurers vis-à-vis both GPs and hospitals is still relatively weak. GPs are very well organized in a powerful national interest association (LHV) and effectively exploit the long-standing trust relationship with their patients...
November 14, 2016: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910445/the-advanced-ligo-photon-calibrators
#16
S Karki, D Tuyenbayev, S Kandhasamy, B P Abbott, T D Abbott, E H Anders, J Berliner, J Betzwieser, C Cahillane, L Canete, C Conley, H P Daveloza, N De Lillo, J R Gleason, E Goetz, K Izumi, J S Kissel, G Mendell, V Quetschke, M Rodruck, S Sachdev, T Sadecki, P B Schwinberg, A Sottile, M Wade, A J Weinstein, M West, R L Savage
The two interferometers of the Laser Interferometry Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) recently detected gravitational waves from the mergers of binary black hole systems. Accurate calibration of the output of these detectors was crucial for the observation of these events and the extraction of parameters of the sources. The principal tools used to calibrate the responses of the second-generation (Advanced) LIGO detectors to gravitational waves are systems based on radiation pressure and referred to as photon calibrators...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893254/dynamic-interplay-between-merger-process-justice-and-cognitive-trust-in-top-management-a-longitudinal-study
#17
Janne Kaltiainen, Jukka Lipponen, Brian C Holtz
This study examines two fundamental concerns in the context of organizational change: employees' perceptions of merger process justice and cognitive trust in the top management team. Our main purpose is to better understand the nature of reciprocal relations between these important constructs through a significant change event. Previous research, building mainly on social exchange theory, has framed trust as a consequence of justice perceptions. More recently, scholars have suggested that this view may be overly simplistic and that trust-related cognitions may also represent an important antecedent of justice perceptions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886472/stochastic-gravitational-wave-background-due-to-primordial-binary-black-hole-mergers
#18
Vuk Mandic, Simeon Bird, Ilias Cholis
Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the Universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational-wave detectors, and conclude that constraining the dark matter component in the form of black holes using stochastic gravitational-wave background measurements will be very challenging...
November 11, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857415/double-pulse-pair-brillouin-optical-correlation-domain-analysis
#19
Orel Shlomi, Eyal Preter, Dexin Ba, Yosef London, Yair Antman, Avi Zadok
Brillouin optical correlation-domain analysis (B-OCDA) allows for distributed measurements of strain and temperature with sub-cm resolution. Time-multiplexing techniques have previously extended B-OCDA to the monitoring of many km of fiber and two million resolution points. Thus far, however, the number of scans of correlation peaks positions, necessary to cover the fiber under test, was restricted to the order of 100 or more. In this work we report a B-OCDA protocol that is able to address an entire fiber using only 11 pairs of position scans per choice of frequency...
November 14, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852480/use-of-computed-tomography-to-guide-mitral-interventions
#20
REVIEW
Vladimir Jelnin, Chad Kliger, Fabio Zucchetta, Carlos E Ruiz
With increasing utilization of cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and widespread adoption of fusion imaging technology allowing the merger of pre-procedural CTA with fluoroscopy, the ability of CTA to guide structural heart interventions has evolved significantly. It has opened new possibilities in mitral valve (MV) interventions with improved pre-procedural planning and intra-procedural guidance. Given the lack of fluoroscopic landmarks of the mitral apparatus and continued growth of native MV device technologies, the value of CTA will continue to develop...
January 2016: Interventional cardiology clinics
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