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Wash complex

Morgan Pommells, Corinne Schuster-Wallace, Susan Watt, Zachariah Mulawa
The purpose of this study was to better understand the gender violence risks that exist in communities where poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) access is a known problem. Focus groups and key informant interviews were used to capture the lived experiences of community and health care practitioners from Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya. This article provides lived narratives of the various cultural and environmental conditions leading to assaults directly attributable to inadequate WaSH. The results shed light on the complex intersections between water access and violence and have significant implications for achieving gender equity and universal access to WaSH...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Mohammad Hadi Aazami, Mohammad Hasan Fathi Nasri, Mohsen Mojtahedi, Shahla Roudbar Mohammadi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of heat-killed baker's yeast (HKBY), the cell wall of baker's yeast (CWBY), and cell wall (1→3)-β-d-glucan of baker's yeast (BGBY) to bind aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) spiked with 0.5 μg/mL AFB1 . Baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was heat killed by autoclaving at 121°C for 10 min. The cell wall was physically extracted, and (1→3)-β-d-glucan was extracted by a modified method. The concentration of AFB1 was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after exposure to binders for three contact times, 30 min, 5 h, and 24 h, at room temperature...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Alua Omarova, Kamshat Tussupova, Ronny Berndtsson, Marat Kalishev, Kulyash Sharapatova
Improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are significant in preventing diarrhea morbidity and mortality caused by protozoa in low- and middle-income countries. Due to the intimate and complex relationships between the different WASH components, it is often necessary to improve not just one but all of these components to have sustainable results. The objective of this paper was to review the current state of WASH-related health problems caused by parasitic protozoa by: giving an overview and classification of protozoa and their effect on people's health, discussing different ways to improve accessibility to safe drinking water, sanitation services and personal hygiene behavior; and suggesting an institutional approach to ensure improved WASH...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Merideth A Cooper, Joseph E Taris, Changhua Shi, David W Wood
In this work, we describe a novel self-cleaving tag technology based on a highly modified split-intein cleaving element. In this system, the N-terminal segment of an engineered split intein is expressed in E. coli and covalently immobilized onto a capture resin, while the smaller C-terminal intein segment is fused to the N-terminus of the desired target protein. The tagged target can then be expressed in an appropriate expression system, without concern for premature intein cleaving. During the purification, strong association between the intein segments effectively captures the tagged target onto the capture resin while simultaneously generating a cleaving-competent intein complex...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Chao-Pin Hsiao, Charles Hoppel
Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is responsible for producing most of the adenosine triphosphate required by eukaryotic cells. Lymphocytes make up the majority of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells are readily obtainable, providing an ideal sample to monitor systemic changes and understand molecular signaling mechanisms in disease processes. Mitochondrial energy metabolism of lymphocyte has been used to screen for OXPHOS disorders. While there are increasing studies of lymphocyte OXPHOS, few studies examined activity of electron transport chain of lymphocyte mitochondria...
March 2, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Stephen Wai Cheung Chung, Chi-Ho Lam
Suspected non-targeted, without analytical reference standard, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were observed and interfered the determination of targeted PAs in complex food matrices, especially for spices samples. Selectivity and applicability of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions, multistage fragmentation (MS3) and MRM with differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) for eliminating false positive identifications were evaluated. Afterwards, a selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of 15 PAs and 13 PA N-oxides in foodstuffs was developed...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Chih-Hsuan Hsia, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Joen-Rong Sheu, Shin-Yi Tsao, Marappan Velusamy, Chih-Wei Hsia, Duen-Suey Chou, Chao-Chien Chang, Chi-Li Chung, Themmila Khamrang, Kao-Chang Lin
The regulation of platelet function by pharmacological agents that modulate platelet signaling has proven to be a positive approach to the prevention of thrombosis. Ruthenium complexes are fascinating for the development of new drugs, as they possess numerous chemical and biological properties. The present study aims to evaluate the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of newly synthesized ruthenium (II) complexes, TQ-1, TQ-2 and TQ-3 in agonists-induced washed human platelets. Silica gel column chromatography, aggregometry, immunoblotting, NMR, and X-ray analyses were performed in this study...
February 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Can Feng, Shirong Zhang, Linxian Li, Guiyin Wang, Xiaoxun Xu, Ting Li, Qinmei Zhong
Soil washing is one of the permanent techniques to remove heavy metals, and washing agent is a key influence factor for this technique, but there is still lack of high-efficiency, eco-friendly, and inexpensive agents. In this study, four wastes including pineapple peel (PP), soybean straw (SS), broad bean straw (BBS) and tea residue (TR) were employed to remove cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in contaminated soils. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that hydroxyl, carboxyl, amine, carbonyl and amide groups were involved in the interaction with metal ions by complexation or ion exchange...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Rui Wang, Srivathsan V Ranganathan, Phensinee Haruehanroengra, Song Mao, Matteo Scalabrin, Daniele Fabris, Alan Chen, Hehua Liu, Abdalla E A Hassan, Jianhua Gan, Jia Sheng
The facile construction of metal-DNA complexes by using 'Click' reactions is reported here. A series of 2'-propargyl-modified DNA oligonucleotides were initially synthesized as structure scaffolds and were then modified through 'Click' reaction to incorporate a bipyridine ligand equipped with an azido group. These metal chelating ligands can be placed in the DNA context in site-specific fashion to provide versatile templates for binding various metal ions, which are exchangeable by using a simple EDTA washing-and-filtration step...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Charlotte A Scarff, Martin J G Fuller, Rebecca F Thompson, Matthew G Iadaza
Negative stain electron microscopy (EM) allows relatively simple and quick observation of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes through the use of contrast enhancing stain reagent. Although limited in resolution to a maximum of ~18 - 20 Å, negative stain EM is useful for a variety of biological problems and also provides a rapid means of assessing samples for cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The negative stain workflow is straightforward method; the sample is adsorbed onto a substrate, then a stain is applied, blotted, and dried to produce a thin layer of electron dense stain in which the particles are embedded...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Marcus Antonio Rossi Feliciano, Ricardo Andrés Uscategui Ramirez, Marjury Cristina Maronezi, Giovanna Serpa Maciel, Michelle Lopes Avante, Igor Luiz Salardani Senhorello, Talita Mucédola, Beatriz Gasser, Cibele Figueira Carvalho, Wilter Ricardo Russiano Vicente
Due to the importance of presurgical, noninvasive, and accurate diagnostic tools in mammary carcinoma characterization, this prospective secondary observational cohort study was designed to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of B-mode, Doppler, contrast enhancement ultrasonography, or acoustic radiation force impulse-elastography in identifying mammary carcinomas types with high degree of malignancy. A total of 246 mammary carcinomas from 141 female dogs were analyzed using B-mode, Doppler, contrast enhancement ultrasonography, and acoustic radiation force impulse ultrasonography prior to their histopathological classification according to types (simple, complex, or special) and grade (I, II, or III)...
February 11, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Dilek Sari, Derya Kadifeli, Ayşe Akbiyik, Nihal Taşkiran
BACKGROUND: Medication administration via enteral tubes is a complex and key application for which nurses in intensive care units are responsible. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate drug administrations via enteral tubes by nurses in intensive care units. METHODS: This research was conducted using a descriptive and cross-sectional research design. The study was conducted with 289 nurses at intensive care units in hospitals in İzmir, Turkey...
February 8, 2018: Nursing in Critical Care
Mamdooh Alzyood, Debra Jackson, Debra Brooke, Helen Aveyard
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To review patients' and healthcare professionals' perceptions of patient involvement in promoting hand hygiene compliance in the hospital setting. BACKGROUND: Initiatives continue to emphasise the importance of involving patients in their safety at the point of care. A patient-centred care approach aims to empower patients to become active members of the healthcare team. However, understanding the perceptions of patients and healthcare professionals of patient involvement in promoting hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals has yet to be fully explored...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Gloria Wada, Michael Vincent, Marcia Lee
Fungi, particularly molds that are cosmopolitan in soils, are frequent etiologic agents of opportunistic mycoses. Members of the Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum species complexes are the most commonly implicated etiologic agents of opportunistic fusarial infections in mammals, while Paecilomyces variotii is one of the most frequently encountered Paecilomyces species in human infections. Prevention and treatment of these mycoses are problematic because available antimycotics are limited and often have toxic side effects...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Katalin Tamás, Enikő Wachter-Kiss, Róbert Kormány
Hydrazine is a useful building block in the synthesis of organic pharmaceuticals but it is highly toxic so its determination at low ppm range is required. In this work, hydrazine was determined in allopurinol active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) sample at 2.5 ppm level by using derivatization and solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). Hydrazine does not contain chromophore part and is not retained in RPLC thus derivatization was necessary for its determination...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Christopher L Bianco, Anton Savitsky, Martin Feelisch, Miriam M Cortese-Krott
In addition to their role as oxygen transporters, red blood cells (RBCs) contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis by regulating nitric oxide (NO) metabolism via interaction of hemoglobin (Hb) with nitrite and NO itself. RBCs were proposed to also participate in sulfide metabolism. Although Hb is known to react with sulfide, sulfide metabolism by intact RBCs has not been characterized so far. Therefore we explored the role of Hb in sulfide metabolism in intact human RBCs. We find that upon exposure of washed RBCs to sulfide, no changes in oxy/deoxyhemoglobin (oxy/deoxyHb) are observed by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy...
January 30, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
R Hermes, J Saragusty, I Moser, S Holtze, J Nieter, K Sachse, T Voracek, A Bernhard, T Bouts, F Göritz, T B Hildebrandt
Tuberculosis (TB) has been known to affect elephants for thousands of years. It was put into spotlight when few circus elephants were diagnosed carrying Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis. Because of the zoonotic risk and high susceptibility to M. tuberculosis, periodic testing was enacted since, in captive breeding programmes. Presently, trunk wash is the recommended diagnostic procedure for TB. Trunk wash, however, puts the operator at risk, has low sensitivity, and is prone to contamination. Here, bronchoalveolar lavage is described for the first time for TB diagnosis in elephants...
February 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Tsi-Shu Huang, Chia-Chien Lee, Hui-Zin Tu, Susan Shin-Jung Lee
BACKGROUND: Rapid identification of mycobacteria is important for timely treatment and the implementation of public health measures. The MGIT system ensures rapid detection of mycobacteria, but identification is usually delayed by days to weeks due to further subculture on solid medium. Matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was demonstrated to effectively identify mycobacteria isolates subcultured from solid or liquid media. Reports of identification directly from MGIT broths of both sterile and non-sterile clinical specimens, omitting the subculture step, were limited and not satisfactory before...
2018: PloS One
Camille Favre, Lucie de Cremoux, Jerome Badaut, Frédéric Friscourt
Bioorthogonal fluorescent turn-on reactions are attractive for the sensitive real-time detection of a variety of phenomena including bioconjugation, chemical reactivity, and material assembly. Herein we describe the use of 3,4-disubstituted sydnones, a singular class of mesoionic dipoles, for highly fluorescent turn-on copper-free click cycloadditions with the fluorogenic dibenzocyclooctyne Fl-DIBO. Coherent with time-dependent density functional theory calculations, the pyrazole cycloadducts were found to be highly fluorescent with compelling photophysical properties including excellent fluorescence enhancement (up to 240-fold), high quantum yields (over 45%), and large Stokes shift (over 100 nm)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Svetla Gadzhanova, Elizabeth E Roughead, Lisa G Pont
BACKGROUND: Switching between antidepressants is complex due to potential adverse outcomes such as serotonin syndrome and antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, yet switching is often required due to non-response to initial treatment. This study aimed to examine the patterns and extent of antidepressant switching in a cohort of older adults in long-term residential care. METHODS: A cohort study of medication supply data from 6011 aged care residents in 60 long-term care facilities was conducted...
January 30, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
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