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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429416/modulation-of-heterotypic-and-homotypic-cell-cell-interactions-via-zwitterionic-lipid-masks
#1
Matthew Park, Wongu Youn, Doyeon Kim, Eun Hyea Ko, Beom Jin Kim, Sung Min Kang, Kyungtae Kang, Insung S Choi
Since the pioneering work by Whitesides, innumerable platforms that aim to spatio-selectively seed cells and control the degree of cell-cell interactions in vitro have been developed. These methods, however, have generally been technically and methodologically complex, or demanded stringent materials and conditions. In this work, we introduce zwitterionic lipids as patternable, cell-repellant masks for selectively seeding cells. The lipid masks are easily removed with a routine washing step under physiological conditions (37 °C, pH 7...
April 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425967/a-simple-and-specific-noncompetitive-elisa-method-for-ht-2-toxin-detection
#2
Henri O Arola, Antti Tullila, Alexis V Nathanail, Tarja K Nevanen
We developed an HT-2 toxin-specific simple ELISA format with a positive read-out. The assay is based on an anti-immune complex (IC) scFv antibody fragment, which is genetically fused with alkaline phosphatase (AP). The anti-IC antibody specifically recognizes the IC between a primary anti-HT-2 toxin Fab fragment and an HT-2 toxin molecule. In the IC ELISA format, the sample is added together with the scFv-AP antibody to the ELISA plate coated with the primary antibody. After 15 min of incubation and a washing step, the ELISA response is read...
April 20, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424231/mroh1-a-lysosomal-regulator-localised-by-wash-generated-actin
#3
Peter A Thomason, Jason S King, Robert H Insall
The steps leading to constitutive exocytosis are poorly understood. In Dictyostelium WASH complex mutants, exocytosis is blocked, so cells that take up fluorescent dextran from the medium retain it and remain fluorescent. Here we establish a FACS-based method to select cells that retain fluorescent dextran, allowing identification of mutants with disrupted exocytosis. Screening a pool of random mutants identified the WASH complex, as expected, and multiple mutants in the conserved HEAT-repeat containing protein Mroh1...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411649/nanoarmoring-of-enzymes-by-interlocking-in-cellulose-fibers-with-poly-acrylic-acid
#4
Caterina M Riccardi, Rajeswari M Kasi, Challa V Kumar
A simple method for interlocking glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in cellulose fibers using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as an armor around the enzyme, without any need for activation of the cellulose support, is reported here. The resulting enzyme paper is an inexpensive, stable, simple, wearable, and washable biosensor. PAA functions as a multifunctional tether to interlock the enzyme molecules around the paper fibers so that the enzymes are protected against thermal/chemical denaturation and not released from the paper when washed with a detergent...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402305/the-binding-of-metal-ions-to-molecularly-imprinted-polymers
#5
Rukshan Perera, Syed Ashraf, Anja Mueller
Imprinting polymerization is a flexible method to make resins specific for different compounds. Imprinting polymerization involves the polymerization of the resin in the presence of a template, here cadmium ions or arsenate. The template is then removed by washing, leaving specific binding sites in the resin. In water treatment, the removal of toxic metal ions is difficult due to the limited affinity of these ions to ion exchange resins. Imprinting polymerization of ion-exchange resins is used to develop resins with high capacity and some selectivity for cadmium ions or arsenate for water treatment that still function as general ion-exchange resins...
April 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399507/the-emerging-role-of-retromer-in-neuroprotection
#6
REVIEW
Kirsty J McMillan, Hendrick C Korswagen, Peter J Cullen
Efficient sorting and transportation of integral membrane proteins, such as ion channels, nutrient transporters, signalling receptors, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules is essential for the function of cellular organelles and hence organism development and physiology. Retromer is a master controller of integral membrane protein sorting and transport through one of the major sorting station within eukaryotic cells, the endosomal network. Subtle de-regulation of retromer is an emerging theme in the pathoetiology of Parkinson's disease...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390305/reactive-transport-in-the-complex-heterogeneous-alluvial-aquifer-of-fortymile-wash-nevada
#7
Mohamad Reza Soltanian, Alexander Sun, Zhenxue Dai
Yucca Mountain, Nevada, had been extensively investigated as a potential deep geologic repository for storing high-level nuclear wastes. Previous field investigations of stratified alluvial aquifer downstream of the site revealed that there is a hierarchy of sedimentary facies types. There is a corresponding log conductivity and reactive surface area subpopulations within each facies at each scale of sedimentary architecture. Here we use a Lagrangian-based transport model in order to analyze radionuclide dispersion in the saturated alluvium of Fortymile Wash, Nevada...
April 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389476/defects-in-er-endosome-contacts-impact-lysosome-function-in-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia
#8
Rachel Allison, James R Edgar, Guy Pearson, Tania Rizo, Timothy Newton, Sven Günther, Fiamma Berner, Jennifer Hague, James W Connell, Jürgen Winkler, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Christian Beetz, Beate Winner, Evan Reid
Contacts between endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) promote endosomal tubule fission, but the mechanisms involved and consequences of tubule fission failure are incompletely understood. We found that interaction between the microtubule-severing enzyme spastin and the ESCRT protein IST1 at ER-endosome contacts drives endosomal tubule fission. Failure of fission caused defective sorting of mannose 6-phosphate receptor, with consequently disrupted lysosomal enzyme trafficking and abnormal lysosomal morphology, including in mouse primary neurons and human stem cell-derived neurons...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378612/an-open-source-automated-peptide-synthesizer-based-on-arduino-and-python
#9
Hariprasad Gali
The development of the first open-source automated peptide synthesizer, PepSy, using Arduino UNO and readily available components is reported. PepSy was primarily designed to synthesize small peptides in a relatively small scale (<100 µmol). Scripts to operate PepSy in a fully automatic or manual mode were written in Python. Fully automatic script includes functions to carry out resin swelling, resin washing, single coupling, double coupling, Fmoc deprotection, ivDde deprotection, on-resin oxidation, end capping, and amino acid/reagent line cleaning...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372755/immobilization-of-cu-2-and-cd-2-by-earthworm-manure-derived-biochar-in-acidic-circumstance
#10
Zhanghong Wang, Fei Shen, Dekui Shen, Yahui Jiang, Rui Xiao
Earthworm manure, the by-product obtained from the disposing of biowastes by earthworm breeding, is largely produced and employed as a feedstock for biochar preparation through pyrolysis. For repairing acidic soil or acidic electroplating effluent, biochar physicochemical properties would suffer from some changes like an acidic washing process, which hence affected its application functions. Pristine biochar (UBC) from pyrolysis of earthworm manure at 700°C and biochar treated by HCl (WBC) were comparatively investigated regarding their physicochemical properties, adsorption capability and adsorption mechanism of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) from aqueous solution to explore the immobilization characteristics of biochar in acidic environment...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372175/identification-and-quantification-of-ethyl-carbamate-occurring-in-urea-complexation-processes-commonly-utilized-for-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-concentration
#11
Luis Vázquez, Isabel M Prados, Guillermo Reglero, Carlos F Torres
The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids by formation of urea adducts from three different sources was studied to elucidate the formation of ethyl carbamates in the course of these procedures. Two different methodologies were performed: with ethanol at high temperature and with hexane/ethanol mixtures at room temperature. It was proved that the amount of urethanes generated at high temperature was higher than at room temperature. Besides, subsequent washing steps of the PUFA fraction with water were efficient to remove the urethanes from the final products...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371090/a-biomimetic-phosphatidylcholine-terminated-monolayer-greatly-improves-the-in-vivo-performance-of-electrochemical-aptamer-based-sensors
#12
Hui Li, Philippe Dauphin-Ducharme, Netzahualcóyotl Arroyo-Currás, Claire H Tran, Philip A Vieira, Shaoguang Li, Christina Shin, Jacob Somerson, Tod E Kippin, Kevin W Plaxco
The real-time monitoring of specific analytes in situ in the living body would greatly advance our understanding of physiology and the development of personalized medicine. Because they are continuous (wash-free and reagentless) and are able to work in complex media (e.g., undiluted serum), electrochemical aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors are promising candidates to fill this role. E-AB sensors suffer, however, from often-severe baseline drift when deployed in undiluted whole blood either in vitro or in vivo...
March 28, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369665/immunoblotting-and-immunodetection
#13
Duojiao Ni, Peng Xu, Sean Gallagher
Immunoblotting (western blotting) is used to identify specific antigens recognized by polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies. This unit provides protocols for all steps, starting with solubilization of the protein samples, usually by means of SDS and reducing agents. Following solubilization, the material is separated by SDS-PAGE and the antigens are electrophoretically transferred to a membrane, a process that can be monitored by reversible staining with Ponceau S. The transferred proteins are bound to the surface of the membrane, providing access to immunodetection reagents...
April 3, 2017: Current Protocols in Protein Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350832/metal-removal-and-associated-binding-fraction-transformation-in-contaminated-river-sediment-washed-by-different-types-of-agents
#14
Hong Wang, Tongzhou Liu, Shuai Feng, Weihua Zhang
In ex-situ washing, HCl, EDTA and H2O2 solutions can effectively extract heavy metals in river sediment. Nevertheless they often target different sediment components, possibly transforming metal species into more bioavailable and hence toxic ones. This study, in batch settings, investigated the influences of different types of washing agents (i.e. HCl, EDTA and H2O2) on metal (i.e. Cu and Zn) removal from contaminated river sediment, destroy or dissolution of sediment components, and transformation of metal fractions during chemical washing treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336842/sers-based-flavonoid-detection-using-ethylenediamine-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-as-a-capturing-ligand
#15
Jae Min Choi, Eunil Hahm, Kyeonghui Park, Daham Jeong, Won-Yeop Rho, Jaehi Kim, Dae Hong Jeong, Yoon-Sik Lee, Sung Ho Jhang, Hyun Jong Chung, Eunae Cho, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Bong-Hyun Jun, Seunho Jung
Ethylenediamine-modified β-cyclodextrin (Et-β-CD) was immobilized on aggregated silver nanoparticle (NP)-embedded silica NPs (SiO₂@Ag@Et-β-CD NPs) for the effective detection of flavonoids. Silica NPs were used as the template for embedding silver NPs to create hot spots and enhance surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. Et-β-CD was immobilized on Ag NPs to capture flavonoids via host-guest inclusion complex formation, as indicated by enhanced ultraviolet absorption spectra. The resulting SiO₂@Ag@Et-β-CD NPs were used as the SERS substrate for detecting flavonoids, such as hesperetin, naringenin, quercetin, and luteolin...
January 6, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335974/selective-solid-phase-extraction-of-lanthanides-from-tap-and-river-waters-with-ion-imprinted-polymers
#16
Manel Moussa, Massamba Mbacké Ndiaye, Thomas Pinta, Valérie Pichon, Thomas Vercouter, Nathalie Delaunay
For the first time, an ion imprinted polymer (IIP) able to selectively extract simultaneously all the lanthanide ions was successfully synthesized in acetonitrile using Nd(3+) as a template ion, methacrylic acid as a complexing monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. A non-imprinted polymer (NIP) was synthesized under the same conditions as those of the IIP, but in the absence of the template ion. After the removal of the template ions, grounding and sieving, the IIP particles were packed in solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges...
April 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303638/a-review-of-the-methods-for-storing-floral-nectars-in-the-field
#17
REVIEW
B Amato, S Petit
The knowledge of floral nectar sugar characteristics such as concentration, ratio, and mass is essential to understand the complex nature of nectar production and pollination systems. Although nectar is commonly stored in ecology, storage reliability and effectiveness have rarely been quantified. Inappropriate nectar storage between sampling and analysis can alter nectar chemistry as a result of enzyme or microbial action. Our review of the literature indicates that measures to preserve nectar sugars before analysis include refrigeration, freezing, the addition of an antimicrobial agent, spotting and drying on filter paper, the addition of a desiccant, or a combination of these storage treatments...
March 17, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287572/rapid-mix-preparation-of-bioinspired-nanoscale-hydroxyapatite-for-biomedical-applications
#18
Caroline J Wilcock, Piergiorgio Gentile, Paul V Hatton, Cheryl A Miller
Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used as a medical ceramic due to its good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Recently there has been interest regarding the use of bioinspired nanoscale hydroxyapatite (nHA). However, biological apatite is known to be calcium-deficient and carbonate-substituted with a nanoscale platelet-like morphology. Bioinspired nHA has the potential to stimulate optimal bone tissue regeneration due to its similarity to bone and tooth enamel mineral. Many of the methods currently used to fabricate nHA both in the laboratory and commercially, involve lengthy processes and complex equipment...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257572/bead-extractor-assisted-ready-to-use-reagent-system-bears-for-immunoprecipitation-coupled-to-maldi-ms
#19
Huiyan Li, Robert Popp, Michael Chen, Elizabeth M MacNamara, David Juncker, Christoph H Borchers
Quantitative protein assays play an important role in the study of biological functions. Immunoassays and mass spectrometry are two main technologies for quantifying proteins in biological samples. The combination of immunoprecipitation (IP) with MALDI technology delivers high assay sensitivity and specificity, but the sample preparation procedure involves multiple washing and transfer steps. These steps can be performed either manually (requiring significant time and labor) or automatically (requiring the purchase of a complex liquid-handling workstation)...
March 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256723/immunoblotting-and-immunodetection
#20
Duojiao Ni, Peng Xu, Sean Gallagher
Immunoblotting (western blotting) is used to identify specific antigens recognized by polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies. This unit provides protocols for all steps, starting with solubilization of the protein samples, usually by means of SDS and reducing agents. Following solubilization, the material is separated by SDS-PAGE and the antigens are electrophoretically transferred to a membrane, a process that can be monitored by reversible staining with Ponceau S. The transferred proteins are bound to the surface of the membrane, providing access to immunodetection reagents...
March 3, 2017: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
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