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Lipid raft

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819244/light-scattering-by-optically-trapped-vesicles-affords-unprecedented-temporal-resolution-of-lipid-raft-dynamics
#1
Liam Collard, David Perez-Guaita, Bayan H A Faraj, Bayden R Wood, Russell Wallis, Peter W Andrew, Andrew J Hudson
A spectroscopic technique is presented that is able to identify rapid changes in the bending modulus and fluidity of vesicle lipid bilayers on the micrometer scale, and distinguish between the presence and absence of heterogeneities in lipid-packing order. Individual unilamellar vesicles have been isolated using laser tweezers and, by measuring the intensity modulation of elastic back-scattered light, changes in the biophysical properties of lipid bilayers were revealed. Our approach offers unprecedented temporal resolution and, uniquely, physical transformations of lipid bilayers can be monitored on a length scale of micrometers...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815528/alzheimer-disease
#2
Estela Area-Gomez, Eric A Schon
The most widely accepted hypothesis to explain the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the amyloid cascade, in which the accumulation of extraneuritic plaques and intracellular tangles plays a key role in driving the course and progression of the disease. However, there are other biochemical and morphological features of AD, including altered calcium, phospholipid, and cholesterol metabolism and altered mitochondrial dynamics and function that often appear early in the course of the disease, prior to plaque and tangle accumulation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811708/involvement-of-crf2-signaling-in-enterocyte-differentiation
#3
Benjamin Ducarouge, Marjolaine Pelissier-Rota, Rebecca Powell, Alain Buisson, Bruno Bonaz, Muriel Jacquier-Sarlin
AIM: To determine the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor (CRF2) in epithelial permeability and enterocyte cell differentiation. METHODS: For this purpose, we used rat Sprague Dawley and various colon carcinoma cell lines (SW620, HCT8R, HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines). Expression of CRF2 protein was analyzed by fluorescent immunolabeling in normal rat colon and then by western blot in dissociated colonic epithelial cells and in the lysates of colon carcinoma cell lines or during the early differentiation of HT-29 cells (ten first days)...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800062/cellular-entry-of-clostridium-perfringens-iota-toxin-and-clostridium-botulinum-c2-toxin
#4
REVIEW
Masaya Takehara, Teruhisa Takagishi, Soshi Seike, Masataka Oda, Yoshihiko Sakaguchi, Junzo Hisatsune, Sadayuki Ochi, Keiko Kobayashi, Masahiro Nagahama
Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin are composed of two non-linked proteins, one being the enzymatic component and the other being the binding/translocation component. These latter components recognize specific receptors and oligomerize in plasma membrane lipid-rafts, mediating the uptake of the enzymatic component into the cytosol. Enzymatic components induce actin cytoskeleton disorganization through the ADP-ribosylation of actin and are responsible for cell rounding and death...
August 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799243/escherichia-coli-k1-utilises-host-macropinocytic-pathways-for-invasion-of-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#5
Lip Nam Loh, Elizabeth M C McCarthy, Priyanka Narang, Naveed A Khan, Theresa H Ward
Eukaryotic cells utilise multiple endocytic pathways for specific uptake of ligands or molecules, and these pathways are commonly hijacked by pathogens to enable host cell invasion. Escherichia coli K1, a pathogenic bacterium that causes neonatal meningitis, invades the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier, but the entry route remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the bacteria trigger an actin-mediated uptake route, stimulating fluid phase uptake, membrane ruffling and macropinocytosis. The route of uptake requires intact lipid rafts as shown by cholesterol depletion...
August 11, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798222/an-integrated-approach-to-explore-composition-and-dynamics-of-cholesterol-rich-membrane-microdomains-in-sexual-stages-of-malaria-parasite
#6
Federica Fratini, Carla Raggi, Gabriella Sferra, Cecilia Birago, Anna Sansone, Felicia Grasso, Chiara Curr Agrave, Anna Olivieri, Tomasino Pace, Stefania Mochi, Leonardo Picci, Carla Ferreri, Antonella Di Biase, Elisabetta Pizzi, Marta Ponzi
Membrane microdomains that include lipid rafts, are involved in key physiological and pathological processes and participate in the entry of endocellular pathogens. These assemblies, enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, form highly dynamic, liquid-ordered phases that can be separated from the bulk membranes thanks to their resistance to solubilization by non-ionic detergents. To characterize complexity and dynamics of detergent-resistant membranes of sexual stages of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, here we propose an integrated study of raft components based on proteomics, lipid analysis and bioinformatics...
August 10, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797930/%C3%AE-tocotrienol-induced-disruption-of-lipid-rafts-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-is-associated-with-a-reduction-in-exosome-heregulin-content
#7
Osama A Alawin, Rayan A Ahmed, Venkateshwararao Dronamraju, Karen P Briski, Paul W Sylvester
Overexpression of heregulin, a potent ligand that activates HER3 and HER4 receptors, plays a significant role in the development of chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer patients. Exosomes released from cancer cells are small vesicles originating from the outward budding of lipid rafts that carry various mitogenic proteins that then act locally in an autocrine/paracrine manner to stimulate cancer cell growth. Since the anticancer activity of γ-tocotrienol has been shown to be mediated in part through the disruption of lipid rafts, studies were conducted to determine the effect of γ-tocotrienol on exosomes mitogenic biopotency...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796901/from-peroxisomal-disorders-to-common-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-role-of-ether-phospholipids-in-the-nervous-system
#8
REVIEW
Fabian Dorninger, Sonja Forss-Petter, Johannes Berger
The emerging diverse roles of ether (phospho)lipids in nervous system development and function in health and disease are currently attracting growing interest. Plasmalogens, a subgroup of ether lipids, are important membrane components involved in vesicle fusion and membrane raft composition. They store polyunsaturated fatty acids and may serve as antioxidants. Ether lipid metabolites act as precursors for the formation of glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchors; others, like platelet-activating factor, are implicated in signaling functions...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782808/lipid-composition-of-membrane-microdomains-isolated-detergent-free-from-pufa-supplemented-raw264-7-macrophages
#9
Christine Hellwing, Feven Tigistu-Sahle, Herbert Fuhrmann, Reijo Käkelä, Julia Schumann
Profound alterations in the lipid profile of raft and non-raft plasma membrane microdomains were found when RAW264.7 macrophages were supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in physiologically relevant concentrations. For the first time lipids in the detergent-free isolated membrane domains of phagocytic immune cells were characterized by mass spectrometry. The extent of remodeling of the membrane lipids differed with different n3 and n6 PUFA supplements. The mildest effects were detected for -linolenic acid (LNA) and linoleic acid (LA), the C18 precursors of the n3 and n6 families, respectively...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780125/effects-of-fullerene-on-lipid-bilayers-displaying-different-liquid-ordering-a-coarse-grained-molecular-dynamics-study
#10
Judit Sastre, Ilaria Mannelli, Ramon Reigada
BACKGROUND: The toxic effects and environmental impact of nanomaterials, and in particular of Fullerene particles, are matters of serious concern. It has been reported that fullerene molecules enter the cell membrane and occupy its hydrophobic region. Understanding the effects of carbon-based nanoparticles on biological membranes is therefore of critical importance to determine their exposure risks. METHODS: We report on a systematic coarse-grained molecular dynamics study of the interaction of fullerene molecules with simple model cell membranes...
August 2, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772148/a-type-ecg-and-egcg-dimers-inhibit-3t3-l1-differentiation-by-binding-to-cholesterol-in-lipid-rafts
#11
Wei Zhu, Xiangyi Deng, Jinming Peng, Bo Zou, Chunmei Li
The present study aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of epicatechin-3-gallate-(4β→8, 2β→O→7)-epicatechin-3-gallate (A-type ECG dimer) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate-(4β→8, 2β→O→7)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (A-type EGCG dimer) involved in their strong inhibitory effects on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiation. In the synthetic "lipid raft-like" liposome, A-type ECG and EGCG dimers incorporated into the liposome with high affinity and decreased the fluidity of the liposome. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, A-type ECG and EGCG dimers possibly bonded to lipid rafts cholesterol and disrupted the integrity of lipid rafts, thus exerting their notable inhibitory effects on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiation by suppressing mitotic clonal expansion process and mRNA levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα and SREBP1C...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760925/the-cholesterol-ester-cycle-regulates-signalling-complexes-and-synapse-damage-caused-by-amyloid-%C3%AE
#12
Ewan West, Craig Osborne, Clive Bate
Cholesterol is required for the formation and function of some signalling platforms. In synaptosomes amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, the causative agent in Alzheimer's disease, bind to cellular prion proteins (PrP(C)) resulting in increased cholesterol concentrations, translocation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) to lipid rafts and activation of cPLA2 The formation of Aβ:PrP(C) complexes was controlled by the cholesterol ester cycle. Aβ activated cholesterol ester hydrolases which released cholesterol from stores of cholesterol esters and stabilised Aβ:PrP(C) complexes resulting in activated cPLA2 Conversely, cholesterol esterification reduced cholesterol concentrations causing the dispersal of Aβ:PrP(C) complexes...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751307/esglut4-and-chhbp-are-involved-in-the-regulation-of-glucose-homeostasis-in-the-crustacean-eriocheir-sinensis
#13
Ran Li, Jin-Ze Tian, Mo-Ran Wang, Li-Na Zhu, Jin-Sheng Sun
Glucose is an essential energy source for both vertebrates and invertebrates. In mammals, glucose uptake is mediated primarily by glucose transporters (GLUTs), members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of passive transporters. Among the GLUTs, GLUT4 is the main glucose transporter in muscles and adipocytes. In skeletal muscle cells, GLUT4 interacts with the lipid raft protein flotillin to transport glucose upon stimulation by insulin. Although several studies have examined GLUT4 function in mammals, few have been performed in crustaceans, which also use glucose as their main energy source...
July 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750327/cholesterol-is-required-for-stability-and-infectivity-of-influenza-a-and-respiratory-syncytial-viruses
#14
Shringkhala Bajimaya, Tünde Frankl, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Toru Takimoto
Cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains in the plasma membrane are considered to play a major role in the enveloped virus lifecycle. However, the functional role of cholesterol in assembly, infectivity and stability of respiratory RNA viruses is not fully understood. We previously reported that depletion of cellular cholesterol by cholesterol-reducing agents decreased production of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) particles by inhibiting virus assembly. In this study, we analyzed the role of cholesterol on influenza A virus (IAV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) production...
July 24, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747506/hcv-induces-the-localization-of-lipid-rafts-to-autophagosomes-for-its-rna-replication
#15
Ja Yeon Kim, Linya Wang, Jiyoung Lee, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Autophagy plays important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis. It uses double- or multiple- membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes to remove protein aggregates and damaged organelles from the cytoplasm for recycling. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown to induce autophagy to enhance its own replication. Here we describe a procedure that combines membrane flotation and affinity chromatography for the purification of autophagosomes from cells that harbor a HCV subgenomic RNA replicon. The purified autophagosomes had double- or multiple- membrane structures with a diameter ranging from 200 nm to 600 nm...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747438/palmitoylation-is-a-prerequisite-for-dimerization-dependent-raftophilicity-of-rhodopsin
#16
Keiji Seno, Fumio Hayashi
The visual photopigment rhodopsin (Rh) is a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) responsible for initiation of the phototransduction cascade in rod photoreceptors. Similar to other GPCRs, Rh can form dimers or even higher oligomers, and tends to have a supramolecular organization that is likely important in the dim light response. Rh also exhibits high affinity for lipid rafts (raftophilicity) upon light-dependent binding with cognate G protein transducin (Gt), suggesting the presence of lipid raft-like domains in the retinal disk membrane and their importance in phototransduction...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744223/modulation-of-the-plasma-kallikrein-kinin-system-proteins-performed-by-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans
#17
REVIEW
Guacyara Motta, Ivarne L S Tersariol
Human plasma kallikrein-kinin system proteins are related to inflammation through bradykinin. In the proximity of its target cells, high molecular weight kininogen (H-kininogen) is the substrate of plasma kallikrein, which releases bradykinin from H-kininogen. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a critical role in either recruiting kinin precursors from the plasma, or in the assembly of kallikrein-kinin system components on the cell surface. Furthermore, HSPGs mediate the endocytosis and activation of H-kininogen and plasma prekallikrein...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743494/neural-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-proteins-in-synaptic-specification
#18
REVIEW
Ji Won Um, Jaewon Ko
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are a specialized class of lipid-associated neuronal membrane proteins that perform diverse functions in the dynamic control of axon guidance, synaptic adhesion, cytoskeletal remodeling, and localized signal transduction, particularly at lipid raft domains. Recent studies have demonstrated that a subset of GPI-anchored proteins act as critical regulators of synapse development by modulating specific synaptic adhesion pathways via direct interactions with key synapse-organizing proteins...
July 22, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743280/exosomes-derived-from-gemcitabine-resistant-cells-transfer-malignant-phenotypic-traits-via-delivery-of-mirna-222-3p
#19
Feng Wei, Chengyuan Ma, Tong Zhou, Xuechao Dong, Qinghua Luo, Li Geng, Lijuan Ding, Yandong Zhang, Li Zhang, Nan Li, Yang Li, Yan Liu
BACKGROUND: Although gemcitabine-based chemotherapy has been established as a core multimodal therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment, its clinical efficacy remains limited by the development of acquired resistance following tumor metastasis and relapse. In this study, we investigated how gemcitabine-resistant (GR) cells contribute to the development of NSCLC tumor malignancy via exosome-mediated transfer of microRNAs. METHODS: We first studied the mechanism of exosome internalization via PKH-67 staining and an immunofluorescence assay, then confirmed our finding by transmission electron microscopy and western blot analysis...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739689/lxr-activation-down-regulates-lipid-raft-markers-flot2-and-dhhc5-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#20
Delphine Carbonnelle, Trang H Luu, Chloe Chaillou, Jean-Michel Huvelin, Jean-Marie Bard, Hassan Nazih
BACKGROUND/AIM: Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains of the plasma membrane. Recent studies have underlined that their integrity is critical for cancer cell survival. Liver X receptor (LXR) has a central role in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and its stimulation inhibits proliferation of several cancer cell lines. This study investigated whether LXR could modulate lipid rafts integrity and consequently alter proliferation of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Effect of LXR agonist T0901317 on integrity of MCF-7 lipid rafts was examined by studying the expression of rafts marker flotillin-2 (FLOT2) and DHHC5, which palmitoylates FLOT2, and by studying the expression of phospho-Akt...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
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