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Lipid raft

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915128/cholesterol-reducing-agents-inhibit-assembly-of-type-i-parainfluenza-viruses
#1
Shringkhala Bajimaya, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Tünde Frankl, Peter Bryk, Brian Ward, Toru Takimoto
Many enveloped RNA viruses utilize lipid rafts for the assembly of progeny virions, but the role of cholesterol, a major component of rafts, on paramyxovirus budding and virion formation is controversial. In this study, we analyzed the effects of FDA-approved cholesterol-reducing agents, gemfibrozil and lovastatin, on raft formation and assembly of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) and Sendai virus (SeV). Treatment of the human airway epithelial A549 cells with the agents, especially when combined, significantly decreased production of infectious hPIV1 and SeV...
December 1, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914621/glycolipid-crosslinking-is-required-for-cholera-toxin-to-partition-into-and-stabilize-ordered-domains
#2
Krishnan Raghunathan, Tiffany H Wong, Daniel J Chinnapen, Wayne I Lencer, Michael G Jobling, Anne K Kenworthy
Current models of lipid rafts propose that lipid domains exist as nanoscale compositional fluctuations and these fluctuations can potentially be stabilized into larger domains, consequently better compartmentalizing cellular functions. However, the mechanisms governing stabilized raft assembly and function remain unclear. Here, we test the role of glycolipid crosslinking as a raft targeting and ordering mechanism using the well-studied raft marker cholera toxin B pentamer (CTxB) that binds up to five GM1 glycosphingolipids to enter host cells...
November 30, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908440/lipid-raft-dependent-endocytosis-negatively-regulates-responsiveness-of-j774-macrophage-like-cells-to-lps-by-down-regulating-the-cell-surface-expression-of-lps-receptors
#3
Szczepan Józefowski, Małgorzata Śróttek
Acting through CD14 and TLR4/MD-2, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers strong pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages, which, if not appropriately controlled, may lead to lethal septic shock. Therefore, numerous mechanisms of negative regulation of responses to LPS exist, but whether they include down-regulation of LPS receptors is not clear. We have found that in J774 cells, the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway enables activation of TRIF-dependent TLR4 signaling within endosomes, but is not associated with the down-regulation of TLR4 or CD14 surface expression...
November 23, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896850/zebrafish-larva-as-a-reliable-model-for-in-vivo-assessment-of-membrane-remodeling-involvement-in-the-hepatotoxicity-of-chemical-agents
#4
Normand Podechard, Martine Chevanne, Morgane Fernier, Arnaud Tête, Aurore Collin, Doris Cassio, Olivier Kah, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Odile Sergent
The easy-to-use in vivo model, zebrafish larva, is being increasingly used to screen chemical-induced hepatotoxicity, with a good predictivity for various mechanisms of liver injury. However, nothing is known about its applicability in exploring the mechanism called membrane remodeling, depicted as changes in membrane fluidity or lipid raft properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to substantiate the zebrafish larva as a suitable in vivo model in this context. Ethanol was chosen as a prototype toxicant because it is largely described, both in hepatocyte cultures and in rodents, as capable of inducing a membrane remodeling leading to hepatocyte death and liver injury...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896622/caveolin-proteins-a-molecular-insight-into-disease
#5
REVIEW
Hongli Yin, Tianyi Liu, Ying Zhang, Baofeng Yang
Caveolae are a kind of specific cystic structures of lipid rafts in the cytoplasmic membrane and are rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids. In recent years, many researchers have found that both caveolins and caveolae play a role in the development of various human diseases, including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and nervous system disorders. The specific mechanisms by which caveolins induce diseases have been a topic of interest. However, a number of detailed molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood...
November 28, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895179/thymic-dendritic-cell-subsets-display-distinct-efficiencies-and-mechanisms-of-intercellular-mhc-transfer
#6
Charles J Kroger, Nicholas A Spidale, Bo Wang, Roland Tisch
Thymic dendritic cells (DC) delete self-antigen-specific thymocytes, and drive development of Foxp3-expressing immunoregulatory T cells. Unlike medullary thymic epithelial cells, which express and present peripheral self-antigen, DC must acquire self-antigen to mediate thymic negative selection. One such mechanism entails the transfer of surface MHC-self peptide complexes from medullary thymic epithelial cells to thymic DC. Despite the importance of thymic DC cross-dressing in negative selection, the factors that regulate the process and the capacity of different thymic DC subsets to acquire MHC and stimulate thymocytes are poorly understood...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892604/interleukin-il-6-modulates-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-receptor-i-and-ii-tgf-%C3%AE-ri-and-ii-function-in-epidermal-keratinocytes
#7
Lerin R Luckett-Chastain, Mackenzie L Cottrell, Bethany M Kawar, Michael A Ihnat, Randle M Gallucci
It been shown that IL-6 modulates TGF-β1 expression in fibroblasts, however; what role IL-6 plays concerning TGF-βR expression and function in skin is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which IL-6 might modulates TGF-β receptors in skin. Skin from WT, IL-6 overexpressing mice, and IL-6 treated keratinocyte cultures were analyzed for TGF-βRI and TGF-βRII expression via histology, PCR, and flow cytometry. Receptor function was assessed by cell migration, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) proliferation assays, and Smad7 expression and Smad2/3 phosphorylation...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888215/super-resolution-microscopy-reveals-the-reorganization-of-glut4-on-plasma-membrane-regulated-by-insulin-resistance
#8
Lan Gao, Junling Chen, Jing Gao, Hongda Wang, Wenyong Xiong
GLUT4 is essential for glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipocytes, which play central roles in whole-body glucose metabolism. Here, using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to investigate the characteristics of the plasma membrane (PM) fused GLUT4 at the single-molecule level, we demonstrated that insulin and insulin resistance regulated the spatial organization of GLUT4 in adipocytes. Stimulation of insulin shifted the balance of GLUT4 on the PM toward a more dispersed configuration...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886660/evaluation-of-the-safety-and-adjuvant-effect-of-a-detoxified-listeriolysin-o-mutant-on-the-humoral-response-to-dengue-virus-antigens
#9
K G Hernández-Flores, A L Calderón-Garcidueñas, G Mellado-Sánchez, R Ruiz-Ramos, L A Sánchez-Vargas, P Thomas-Dupont, I Y Izaguirre-Hernández, J Téllez-Sosa, J Martínez-Barnetche, L Wood, Y Paterson, L Cedillo-Barrón, O López-Franco, H Vivanco-Cid
Listeriolysin O (LLO) has been proposed as a potential carrier or adjuvant molecule in the vaccination field. However, the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of LLO are the major limitations for this purpose. Here, we have performed a preclinical safety evaluation and characterized a new potential adjuvant application for a non-cytolytic LLO mutant (dtLLO) to enhance and modulate the immune response against the envelope (E) protein from Dengue virus. In addition, we have studied the adjuvant effects of dtLLO on human immune cells and the role of membrane cholesterol for the binding and the pro-inflammatory property of the toxoid...
November 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884599/influence-of-sequence-and-lipid-type-on-membrane-perturbation-by-human-and-rat-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-1-42
#10
Anne M Brown, David R Bevan
The hallmark characteristics of plaque formation and neuronal cell death in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused principally by the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ). Aβ sequence and lipid composition are essential variables to consider when elucidating the impact of biological membranes on Aβ structure and the effect of Aβ on membrane integrity. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations testing two Aβ sequences, human and rat Aβ (HAβ and RAβ, respectively), and five lipid types were performed to assess the effect of these variables on membrane perturbation and potential link to AD phenotype differences based on differences in sequence...
November 21, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883084/nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase-of-p-gingivalis-is-secreted-from-epithelial-cells-in-the-absence-of-a-leader-sequence-through-a-pannexin-1-interactome
#11
Kalina Atanasova, Jungnam Lee, JoAnn Roberts, Kyulim Lee, David M Ojcius, Özlem Yilmaz
Nucleoside-diphosphate-kinases (NDKs) are leaderless, multifunctional enzymes. The mode(s) of NDK secretion is currently undefined, while extracellular translocation of bacterial NDKs is critical for avoidance of host pathogen clearance by opportunistic pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis-NDK during infection inhibits extracellular-ATP (eATP)/P2X7-receptor mediated cell death in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) via eATP hydrolysis. Furthermore, depletion of pannexin-1-hemichannel (PNX1) coupled with P2X7-receptor blocks the infection-induced eATP release in GECs, and P...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882809/mechanisms-of-cell-uptake-inflammatory-potential-and-protein-corona-effects-with-gold-nanoparticles
#12
Yang Li, Nancy A Monteiro-Riviere
AIM: To assess inflammation, cellular uptake and endocytic mechanisms of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in human epidermal keratinocytes with and without a protein corona. MATERIALS & METHODS: Human epidermal keratinocytes were exposed to 40 and 80 nm AuNP with lipoic acid, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) coatings with and without a protein corona up to 48 h. Inhibitors were selected to characterize endocytosis. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: BPEI-AuNP showed the greatest uptake, while PEG-AuNP had the least...
November 24, 2016: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881869/netrin-1-induced-stem-cell-bioactivity-contributes-to-the-regeneration-of-injured-tissues-via-the-lipid-raft-dependent-integrin-%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-4-signaling-pathway
#13
Soo Sang Lee, Sei-Jung Lee, Sang Hun Lee, Jung Min Ryu, Hyeon Su Lim, Jun Sung Kim, Eun Ju Song, Young Hyun Jung, Hyun Jik Lee, Chung Hun Kim, Ho Jae Han
Netrin-1 (Ntn-1) is a multifunctional neuronal signaling molecule; however, its physiological significance, which improves the tissue-regeneration capacity of stem cells, has not been characterized. In the present study, we investigate the mechanism by which Ntn-1 promotes the proliferation of hUCB-MSCs with regard to the regeneration of injured tissues. We found that Ntn-1 induces the proliferation of hUCB-MSCs mainly via Inα6β4 coupled with c-Src. Ntn-1 induced the recruitment of NADPH oxidases and Rac1 into membrane lipid rafts to facilitate ROS production...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877101/from-molecules-to-the-clinic-linking-schizophrenia-and-metabolic-syndrome-through-sphingolipids-metabolism
#14
REVIEW
Rolando I Castillo, Leonel E Rojo, Marcela Henriquez-Henriquez, Hernán Silva, Alejandro Maturana, María J Villar, Manuel Fuentes, Pablo A Gaspar
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a prevalent and severe comorbidity observed in schizophrenia (SZ). The exact nature of this association is controversial and very often accredited to the effects of psychotropic medications and disease-induced life-style modifications, such as inactive lifestyle, poor dietary choices, and smoking. However, drug therapy and disease-induced lifestyle factors are likely not the only factors contributing to the observed converging nature of these conditions, since an increased prevalence of MS is also observed in first episode and drug-naïve psychosis populations...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875558/palmitoylated-app-forms-dimers-cleaved-by-bace1
#15
Raja Bhattacharyya, Rebecca H Fenn, Cory Barren, Rudolph E Tanzi, Dora M Kovacs
A major rate-limiting step for Aβ generation and deposition in Alzheimer's disease brains is BACE1-mediated cleavage (β-cleavage) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We previously reported that APP undergoes palmitoylation at two cysteine residues (Cys186 and Cys187) in the E1-ectodomain. 8-10% of total APP is palmitoylated in vitro and in vivo. Palmitoylated APP (palAPP) shows greater preference for β-cleavage than total APP in detergent resistant lipid rafts. Protein palmitoylation is known to promote protein dimerization...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866837/high-density-lipoproteins-exert-pro-inflammatory-effects-on-macrophages-via-passive-cholesterol-depletion-and-pkc-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-stat1-irf1-signaling
#16
Emiel P C van der Vorst, Kosta Theodorou, Yongzheng Wu, Marten A Hoeksema, Pieter Goossens, Christina A Bursill, Taghi Aliyev, Leonie F A Huitema, Sander W Tas, Ine M J Wolfs, Marijke J E Kuijpers, Marion J Gijbels, Casper G Schalkwijk, Debby P Y Koonen, Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Kimberly McDaniels, Chih-Chieh Wang, Michael Leitges, Toby Lawrence, Jogchum Plat, Miranda Van Eck, Kerry-Anne Rye, Lhousseine Touqui, Menno P J de Winther, Erik A L Biessen, Marjo M P C Donners
Membrane cholesterol modulates a variety of cell signaling pathways and functions. While cholesterol depletion by high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) has potent anti-inflammatory effects in various cell types, its effects on inflammatory responses in macrophages remain elusive. Here we show overt pro-inflammatory effects of HDL-mediated passive cholesterol depletion and lipid raft disruption in murine and human primary macrophages in vitro. These pro-inflammatory effects were confirmed in vivo in peritoneal macrophages from apoA-I transgenic mice, which have elevated HDL levels...
November 16, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863378/aberrant-localization-of-apoptosis-protease-activating-factor-1-in-lipid-raft-sub-domains-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphomas
#17
Jayshree L Hirpara, Thomas Loh, Siok Bian Ng, Wee Joo Chng, Shazib Pervaiz
Resistance to chemotherapy remains a challenge in the clinical management of diffuse B cell lymphomas despite aggressive chemotherapy such as CHOP and monoclonal CD20. Here we provide evidence that the apoptosome adaptor protein, Apaf-1, is mislocalized in primary cells derived from patients with diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL). Whereas, the total expression of Apaf-1 did not change, its sub-cellular localization was significantly different in DLBCL, compared to T cell lymphomas as well as cells derived from reactive lymphadenopathy biopsies...
November 14, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862220/7-dehydrocholesterol-7-dhc-but-not-cholesterol-causes-suppression-of-canonical-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-and-is-likely-involved-in-the-development-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-ascvd
#18
Shuan Shian Huang, I-Hua Liu, Chun-Lin Chen, Jia-Ming Chang, Frank E Johnson, Jung San Huang
For several decades, cholesterol has been thought to cause ASCVD. Limiting dietary cholesterol intake has been recommended to reduce the risk of the disease. However, several recent epidemiological studies do not support a relationship between dietary cholesterol and/or blood cholesterol and ASCVD. Consequently, the role of cholesterol in atherogenesis is now uncertain. Much evidence indicates that TGF-β, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, protects against ASCVD and that suppression of canonical TGF-β signaling (Smad2-dependent) is involved in atherogenesis...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853933/lipid-rafts-promote-trans-fatty-acid-induced-inflammation-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#19
Yao Pan, Benxin Liu, Zeyuan Deng, Yawei Fan, Jing Li, Hongyan Li
The effects of two fatty acids, oleic acid (OLA) and elaidic acid (ELA) on normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and non-rafts HUVEC were investigated in this study. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and IL-6) were analyzed. Western blot was used to analyze the expression levels of inflammation-related proteins (NF-κB, ERK1/2) and toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). The results showed that the levels of nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 were significantly decreased only in non-lipid rafts cells pretreated with trans fatty acid (TFA)...
November 16, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837530/freeze-fracture-electron-microscopy-on-domains-in-lipid-mono-and-bilayer-on-nano-resolution-scale
#20
Brigitte Papahadjopoulos-Sternberg
Freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM) as a cryofixation, replica, and transmission electron microscopy technique is unique in membrane bilayer and lipid monolayer research because it enables us to excess and visualize pattern such as domains in the hydrophobic center of lipid bilayer as well as the lipid/gas interface of lipid monolayer. Since one of the preparation steps of this technique includes fracturing the frozen sample and since during this fracturing process the fracture plane follows the area of weakest forces, these areas are exposed allowing us to explore pattern built up by lipids and/or intrinsic proteins but also initiated by peptides, drugs, and toxins reaching into these normally hard to access areas...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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