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Lipid raft

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445864/tumor-antigen-glycosaminoglycan-modification-regulates-antibody-drug-conjugate-delivery-and-cytotoxicity
#1
Helena C Christianson, Julien A Menard, Vineesh Indira Chandran, Erika Bourseau-Guilmain, Dmitry Shevela, Jon Lidfeldt, Ann-Sofie Månsson, Silvia Pastorekova, Johannes Messinger, Mattias Belting
Aggressive cancers are characterized by hypoxia, which is a key driver of tumor development and treatment resistance. Proteins specifically expressed in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment thus represent interesting candidates for targeted drug delivery strategies. Carbonic anhydrase (CAIX) has been identified as an attractive treatment target as it is highly hypoxia specific and expressed at the cell-surface to promote cancer cell aggressiveness. Here, we find that cancer cell internalization of CAIX is negatively regulated by post-translational modification with chondroitin or heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442546/modeled-structural-basis-for-the-recognition-of-%C3%AE-2-3-sialyllactose-by-soluble-klotho
#2
Jon D Wright, Sung-Wan An, Jian Xie, Joonho Yoon, Nicole Nischan, Jennifer J Kohler, Noelynn Oliver, Carmay Lim, Chou-Long Huang
Soluble Klotho (sKlotho) is the shed ectodomain of antiaging membrane Klotho that contains 2 extracellular domains KL1 and KL2, each of which shares sequence homology to glycosyl hydrolases. sKlotho elicits pleiotropic cellular responses with a poorly understood mechanism of actions. Notably, in injury settings, sKlotho confers cardiac and renal protection by down-regulating calcium-permeable transient receptor potential canonical type isoform 6 (TRPC6) channels in cardiomyocytes and glomerular podocytes. Inhibition of PI3K-dependent exocytosis of TRPC6 is thought to be the underlying mechanism, and recent studies showed that sKlotho interacts with α2-3-sialyllactose-containing gangliosides enriched in lipid rafts to inhibit raft-dependent PI3K signaling...
April 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433506/heifers-express-g-protein-coupled-receptor-61-in-anterior-pituitary-gonadotrophs-in-stage-dependent-manner
#3
Kiran Pandey, Onalenna Kereilwe, Vitaliano Borromeo, Hiroya Kadokawa
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRHRs) colocalize with insulin and glucocorticoid receptors in lipid rafts of the gonadotroph plasma membrane, where they facilitate downstream signaling. We recently found that orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)61 is expressed in the anterior pituitary (AP) of heifers, leading us to speculate that GPR61 colocalizes with GnRHR in the plasma membrane of gonadotroph and is expressed at specific times of the reproductive cycle. To test this hypothesis, we examined the coexpression of GnRHR, GPR61, and either luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit in AP tissue and cultured AP cells by immunofluorescence microscopy...
April 4, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425215/lipid-raft-dynamics-linked-to-sperm-competency-for-fertilization-in-mice
#4
Hitomi Watanabe, Rie Takeda, Keiji Hirota, Gen Kondoh
It is well known that mammalian sperm acquires fertilization ability after several maturation processes, particularly within the female reproductive tract. In a previous study, we found that both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein (GPI-AP) release and lipid raft movement occur during the sperm maturation process. In several genetic studies, release of GPI-AP is a crucial step for sperm fertilization ability in the mouse. Here, we show that lipid raft movement is also fundamental for sperm to be competent for fertilization by comparing the sperm maturation process of two mouse inbred strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c...
April 20, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420408/sialylation-regulates-myofibroblast-differentiation-of-human-skin-fibroblasts
#5
Norihiko Sasaki, Yoko Itakura, Masashi Toyoda
BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts are key players in maintaining skin homeostasis and in orchestrating physiological tissue repair and skin regeneration. Dysfunctions in fibroblasts that occur with aging and the senescent process lead to the delayed healing observed in elderly people. The molecular mechanisms leading to fibroblast dysfunction during aging and the senescent process have not yet been clarified. Previously, changes in patterns of glycosylation were observed in fibroblasts in aging and the senescent process, but the effect of these changes on the function of fibroblasts has not been well documented...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420346/linoleic-acid-is-this-the-key-that-unlocks-the-quantum-brain-insights-linking-broken-symmetries-in-molecular-biology-mood-disorders-and-personalistic-emergentism
#6
REVIEW
Massimo Cocchi, Chiara Minuto, Lucio Tonello, Fabio Gabrielli, Gustav Bernroider, Jack A Tuszynski, Francesco Cappello, Mark Rasenick
In this paper we present a mechanistic model that integrates subneuronal structures, namely ion channels, membrane fatty acids, lipid rafts, G proteins and the cytoskeleton in a dynamic system that is finely tuned in a healthy brain. We also argue that subtle changes in the composition of the membrane's fatty acids may lead to down-stream effects causing dysregulation of the membrane, cytoskeleton and their interface. Such exquisite sensitivity to minor changes is known to occur in physical systems undergoing phase transitions, the simplest and most studied of them is the so-called Ising model, which exhibits a phase transition at a finite temperature between an ordered and disordered state in 2- or 3-dimensional space...
April 19, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415343/normal-vibrational-modes-of-phospholipid-bilayers-observed-by-low-frequency-raman-scattering
#7
N V Surovtsev, A A Dmitriev, S A Dzuba
Low-frequency Raman spectra of multilamellar vesicles made either of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) have been studied in a wide temperature range. Below 0^{∘}C two peaks are found at frequencies around 8-9 and 14-17cm^{-1} and attributed to the normal vibrational modes of the phospholipid bilayer, which are determined by the bilayer thickness and stiffness (elastic modulus). The spectral positions of the peaks depend on the temperature and the bilayer composition...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413194/dual-role-of-cellular-prion-protein-in-normal-host-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Takashi Onodera
Using PrP(C)-knockout cell lines, it has been shown that the inhibition of apoptosis through STI1 is mediated by PrP(C)-dependent SOD activation. Antioxidant PrP(C) may contribute to suppression of inflammasome activation. PrP(C) is functionally involved in copper metabolism, signal transduction, neuroprotection, and cell maturation. Recently several reports have shown that PrP(C) participates in trans-membrane signaling processes associated with hematopoietic stem cell replication and neuronal differentiation...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404641/nlrp3-inflammasome-as-a-novel-target-for-docosahexaenoic-acid-metabolites-to-abrogate-glomerular-injury
#9
Guangbi Li, Zhida Chen, Owais M Bhat, Qinghua Zhang, Justine M Abais-Battad, Sabena M Conley, Joseph K Ritter, Pin-Lan Li
The NOD-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been implicated in podocyte injury and glomerular sclerosis during hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys). However, it remains unclear whether NLRP3 inflammasome can be a therapeutic target for treatment of hHcys-induced kidney injury. Given that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) metabolites-resolvins have potent anti-inflammatory effects, the present study tested whether the prototype resolvin D1 (RvD1) and 17S-hydroxy DHA (17S-HDHA), an intermediate product abrogate hHcys-induced podocyte injury by targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403518/formation-of-the-igf1r-cav1-src-tri-complex-antagonizes-trail-induced-apoptosis-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#10
Tianshu Guo, Ling Xu, Xiaofang Che, Simeng Zhang, Ce Li, Jin Wang, Jing Gong, Rui Ma, Yibo Fan, Kezuo Hou, Huiming Zhou, Xuejun Hu, Yunpeng Liu, Xiujuan Qu
Lipid rafts provide a biological platform for apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). We previously reported that insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) translocation into lipid rafts helped to explain TRAIL resistance. However, it was not clear whether TRAIL resistance was caused by the interaction of IGF1R with caveolin-1 (CAV1) and the non-receptor tyrosine kinase SRC in lipid rafts of gastric cancer cells. Here, we observed high IGF1R expression in TRAIL-resistant gastric cancer cells, and showed that IGF1R combined with both CAV1 and SRC in a native complex...
April 12, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402890/cholesterol-regulates-monocyte-rolling-through-cd44-distribution
#11
Amit K Saha, Pawel Osmulski, Shatha F Dallo, Maria Gaczynska, Tim H-M Huang, Anand K Ramasubramanian
Cholesterol is an important risk factor of atherosclerosis, due to its active uptake by monocytes/macrophages. Monocyte recruitment from flowing blood to atherosclerotic foci is the key first step in the development of atherosclerosis. Cholesterol content alters cell membrane stiffness, and lateral lipid and protein diffusion. We hypothesized that cholesterol content will modulate the recruitment of monocytes to inflamed endothelial surface by altering the dynamics of adhesion receptors. We depleted or enriched the cellular cholesterol levels using methyl-β-cyclodextran in freshly isolated human monocytes...
April 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399876/emerging-roles-of-lipid-metabolism-in-cancer-metastasis
#12
REVIEW
Xiangjian Luo, Can Cheng, Zheqiong Tan, Namei Li, Min Tang, Lifang Yang, Ya Cao
Cancer cells frequently display fundamentally altered cellular metabolism, which provides the biochemical foundation and directly contributes to tumorigenicity and malignancy. Rewiring of metabolic programmes, such as aerobic glycolysis and increased glutamine metabolism, are crucial for cancer cells to shed from a primary tumor, overcome the nutrient and energy deficit, and eventually survive and form metastases. However, the role of lipid metabolism that confers the aggressive properties of malignant cancers remains obscure...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399628/examination-of-mixtures-containing-sphingomyelin-and-cholesterol-by-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#13
Eric Wang, Jeffery B Klauda
The all-atom CHARMM36 (C36) force field is used to simulate bilayers of pure palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM) as well as binary mixtures of PSM and stearoylsphingomyelin (SSM) at various cholesterol concentrations (XC) and temperatures. C36 simulation data is in good agreement with experimental deuterium order parameters and previous computational results, providing evidence of the utility of the force field for potentially studying more complex membranes. The area compressibility modulus is shown to achieve a large value of 2...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396236/skin-inflammation-induced-by-lupus-serum-was-inhibited-in-il-1r-deficient-mice
#14
Xiaoyan Li, Xuanxuan Guo, Huicheng Liu, Gongming Gao, Guangqiong Xu, Xibin Fei, Xiang Fang, Wei Qiao, Guo-Min Deng
Skin inflammation induced by lupus serum is a useful tool to investigate the pathogenesis of lupus skin injury. IL-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine, and its role in lupus skin lesion is still unclear. We determined the role of IL-1 in lupus skin injury by using gene deficient mice. We found that skin inflammation induced by lupus serum was significantly reduced in IL-1R deficient mice and caspase-1 deficient mice. IL-1R deficiency did not affect the expression of FcγRI (CD64), FcγRII (CD32) and MHC class II (CD74) induced by lupus serum...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389202/interaction-of-saponin-1688-with-phase-separated-lipid-bilayers
#15
Maohui Chen, Vinod Balhara, Ana Maria Jaimes Castillo, John Balsevich, Linda J Johnston
Saponins are a diverse family of naturally occurring plant triterpene or steroid glycosides that have a wide range of biological activities. They have been shown to permeabilize membranes and in some cases membrane disruption has been hypothesized to involve saponin/cholesterol complexes. We have examined the interaction of steroidal saponin 1688-1 with lipid membranes that contain cholesterol and have a mixture of liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases as a model for lipid rafts in cellular membranes...
April 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383262/cholesterol-induced-structural-changes-in-saturated-phospholipid-model-membranes-revealed-through-x-ray-scattering-technique
#16
Rajendra P Giri, Abhijit Chakrabarti, Mrinmay K Mukhopadhyay
Lateral and out-of-plane organization of cholesterol and its effect on regulating the physicochemical properties of zwitterionic phospholipid model membranes have been investigated by a pressure-area isotherm study from the Langmuir monolayer, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements from supported binary monolayer films. The systematic isotherm studies on the Langmuir monolayer of phospholipids and the subsequent extraction of excess Gibbs free energy (ΔGexc) revealed the mechanism of cholesterol interaction and the molecular cooperativeness for different arrangements in the phospholipid model membranes...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379200/green-tea-catechins-for-prostate-cancer-prevention-present-achievements-and-future-challenges
#17
REVIEW
Valeria Naponelli, Ileana Ramazzina, Chiara Lenzi, Saverio Bettuzzi, Federica Rizzi
Green tea catechins (GTCs) are a family of chemically related compounds usually classified as antioxidant molecules. Epidemiological evidences, supported by interventional studies, highlighted a more than promising role for GTCs in human prostate cancer (PCa) chemoprevention. In the last decades, many efforts have been made to gain new insights into the mechanism of action of GTCs. Now it is clear that GTCs' anticancer action can no longer be simplistically limited to their direct antioxidant/pro-oxidant properties...
April 5, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373446/alpha-bisabolol-promotes-glioma-cell-death-by-modulating-the-adenosinergic-system
#18
Franciane Brackmann Mendes, Letícia Scussel Bergamin, Cristiane Dos Santos Stuepp, Elizandra Braganhol, Thatiana Terroso, Adriana Rafin Pohlmann, Sílvia Stanisçuaski Guterres, Ana Maria Oliveira Battastini
BACKGROUND/AIM: Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant type of glioma. Alpha-bisabolol is an essential oil reported as a potent cell death agent. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of alpha-bisabolol on ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73, the most well-characterized enzymatic source of adenosine, present in lipid rafts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Glioma cells were treated with alpha-bisabolol and, in some experiments, pre-treated with an A3 antagonist. MTT assay (viability), malachite green method (ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 activity) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (A3 mRNA) were carried out...
April 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368351/lipid-raft-regulator-of-plasmodesmal-callose-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Arya Bagus Boedi Iswanto, Jae-Yean Kim
Abstract: The specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts are enriched by sterols and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts facilitate cellular signal transduction by controlling the assembly of signaling molecules and membrane protein trafficking. Another specialized compartment of plant cells, the plasmodesmata (PD), which regulates the symplasmic intercellular movement of certain molecules between adjacent cells, also contains a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The dynamic permeability of plasmodesmata (PDs) is highly controlled by plasmodesmata callose (PDC), which is synthesized by callose synthases (CalS) and degraded by β-1,3-glucanases (BGs)...
April 3, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356571/the-mystery-of-membrane-organization-composition-regulation-and-roles-of-lipid-rafts
#20
REVIEW
Erdinc Sezgin, Ilya Levental, Satyajit Mayor, Christian Eggeling
Cellular plasma membranes are laterally heterogeneous, featuring a variety of distinct subcompartments that differ in their biophysical properties and composition. A large number of studies have focused on understanding the basis for this heterogeneity and its physiological relevance. The membrane raft hypothesis formalized a physicochemical principle for a subtype of such lateral membrane heterogeneity, in which the preferential associations between cholesterol and saturated lipids drive the formation of relatively packed (or ordered) membrane domains that selectively recruit certain lipids and proteins...
March 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
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