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Lipid raft

Ceren Tunca, Fulya Akçimen, Cemre Coşkun, Aslı Gündoğdu-Eken, Cemile Kocoglu, Betül Çevik, Can Ebru Bekircan-Kurt, Ersin Tan, A Nazlı Başak
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset motor neuron disease with mostly dominant inheritance and a life expectancy of 2-5 years; however, a quite common occurrence of atypical forms of the disease, due to recessive inheritance, has become evident with the use of NGS technologies. In this paper, we describe a family with close consanguinity for at least four generations, suffering from a slowly progressive form of ALS. Spastic walking is observed since teenage years, while bulbar symptoms start much later, at the fifth or sixth decade of life...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Asma Zaidi, Mercy Adewale, Lauren McLean, Paul Ramlow
The plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA) pumps play a critical role in the maintenance of calcium (Ca 2+ ) homeostasis, crucial for optimal neuronal function and cell survival. Loss of Ca 2+ homeostasis is a key precursor in neuronal dysfunction associated with brain aging and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this article, we review evidence showing age-related changes in the PMCAs in synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) and lipid raft microdomains isolated from rat brain. Both PMCA activity and protein levels decline progressively with increasing age...
January 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Rola Abboud, Catherine Charcosset, Hélène Greige-Gerges
Human steroid hormones are involved in many aspects of physiology and have long been known to exert rapid and delayed effects. They are lipophilic molecules which can be incorporated into the lipid membranes. Through non-covalent interactions they can alter the properties of the membrane, including fluidity, lipid raft formation and others. In this review, different biophysical techniques were described to study the interaction of human steroid hormones with biological and biomimetic membranes such as differential scanning calorimetry, electron paramagnetic resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
February 13, 2018: Biochimie
Long Li, Jinglei Hu, Guangkui Xu, Fan Song
Cell-cell adhesion and the adhesion of cells to tissues and extracellular matrix, which are pivotal for immune response, tissue development, and cell locomotion, depend sensitively on the binding constant of receptor and ligand molecules anchored on the apposing surfaces. An important question remains of whether the immobilization of ligands affects the affinity of binding with cell adhesion receptors. We have investigated the adhesion of multicomponent membranes to a flat substrate coated with immobile ligands using Monte Carlo simulations of a statistical mesoscopic model with biologically relevant parameters...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Thomas C von Erlach, Sergio Bertazzo, Michele A Wozniak, Christine-Maria Horejs, Stephanie A Maynard, Simon Attwood, Benjamin K Robinson, Hélène Autefage, Charalambos Kallepitis, Armando Del Río Hernández, Christopher S Chen, Silvia Goldoni, Molly M Stevens
Cell size and shape affect cellular processes such as cell survival, growth and differentiation1-4, thus establishing cell geometry as a fundamental regulator of cell physiology. The contributions of the cytoskeleton, specifically actomyosin tension, to these effects have been described, but the exact biophysical mechanisms that translate changes in cell geometry to changes in cell behaviour remain mostly unresolved. Using a variety of innovative materials techniques, we demonstrate that the nanostructure and lipid assembly within the cell plasma membrane are regulated by cell geometry in a ligand-independent manner...
February 12, 2018: Nature Materials
Xiujing Dou, Yang Li, Junlan Han, Dante S Zarlenga, Weijuan Zhu, Xiaofeng Ren, Na Dong, Xunliang Li, Guangxing Li
BACKGROUND: Lipid rafts are major structural components in plasma membranes that play critical roles in many biological processes including virus infection. However, few reports have described the relationship between lipid rafts and porcine rotavirus (PRV) infection. In this study, we investigated whether or not the locally high concentrations (3-5 fold) of cholesterol present in lipid rafts are required for PRV infection, and further examined which stages of the infection process are most affected...
February 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Xiaobo Yu, Rebecca R Noll, Barbara P Romero Dueñas, Samual C Allgood, Kristi Barker, Jeffrey L Caplan, Matthias P Machner, Joshua LaBaer, Ji Qiu, M Ramona Neunuebel
BACKGROUND: The intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila proliferates in human alveolar macrophages, resulting in a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Throughout the course of infection, L. pneumophila remains enclosed in a specialized membrane compartment that evades fusion with lysosomes. The pathogen delivers over 300 effector proteins into the host cell, altering host pathways in a manner that sets the stage for efficient pathogen replication. The L. pneumophila effector protein AnkX targets host Rab GTPases and functions in preventing fusion of the Legionella-containing vacuole with lysosomes...
January 5, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Eshan D Mitra, Samuel C Whitehead, David A Holowka, Barbara A Baird, James P Sethna
Lipid phase heterogeneity in the plasma membrane is thought to be crucial for many aspects of cell signaling, but the physical basis of participating membrane domains such as "lipid rafts" remains controversial. Here we consider a lattice model yielding a phase diagram that includes several states proposed to be relevant for the cell membrane, including microemulsion - which can be related to membrane curvature - and Ising critical behavior. Using a neural network-based machine learning approach, we compute the full phase diagram of this lattice model...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Annika E Röcker, Janis A Müller, Erik Dietzel, Mirja Harms, Franziska Krüger, Christian Heid, Andrea Sowislok, Camilla Frich Riber, Alexandra Kupke, Sina Lippold, Jens von Einem, Judith Beer, Bernd Knöll, Stephan Becker, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Markus Otto, Olli Vapalahti, Alexander N Zelikin, Gal Bitan, Thomas Schrader, Jan Münch
Ebola (EBOV) and Zika viruses (ZIKV) are responsible for recent global health threats. As no preventive vaccines or antiviral drugs against these two re-emerging pathogens are available, we evaluated whether the molecular tweezer CLR01 may inhibit EBOV and ZIKV infection. This small molecule previously has been shown to inactivate HIV-1 and herpes viruses through a selective interaction with lipid-raft-rich regions in the viral envelope, which results in membrane disruption and loss of infectivity. We found that CLR01 indeed blocked infection of EBOV and ZIKV in a dose-dependent manner...
February 8, 2018: Antiviral Research
Ana L Santos, Giulio Preta
Lipids are fundamental building blocks of all cells and play important roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including inflammation, autoimmune disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The lipid composition of different organelles can vary substantially from cell to cell, but increasing evidence demonstrates that lipids become organised specifically in each compartment, and this organisation is essential for regulating cell function. For example, lipid microdomains in the plasma membrane, known as lipid rafts, are platforms for concentrating protein receptors and can influence intra-cellular signalling...
February 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Natsumi Kawasaki, Kazunobu Isogaya, Shingo Dan, Takao Yamori, Hiroshi Takano, Ryoji Yao, Yasuyuki Morishita, Luna Taguchi, Masato Morikawa, Carl-Henrik Heldin, Tetsuo Noda, Shogo Ehata, Kohei Miyazono, Daizo Koinuma
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is commonly activated in human cancers. The activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is supported by the intracellular positioning of cellular compartments and vesicle trafficking, regulated by Rab GTPases. Here we showed that tuftelin 1 (TUFT1) was involved in the activation of mTORC1 through modulating the Rab GTPase-regulated process. TUFT1 promoted tumor growth and metastasis. Consistently, the expression of TUFT1 correlated with poor prognosis in lung, breast and gastric cancers...
2018: Cell Discovery
Song-Pei Li, Zhong-Xiao Lin, Xue-Yan Jiang, Xi-Yong Yu
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles that serve as mediators for intercellular communication through the delivery of cargo, including protein, lipids, nucleic acids or other cellular components, to neighboring or distant cells. Exosomal cargo may vary in response to different physiological or pathological conditions. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) family has been widely accepted as a key mechanism in biogenesis and cargo sorting. On the other hand, accumulating evidence show that ESCRT-independent pathways exist...
February 8, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Seong-Hoon Yun, Eun-Hye Sim, Sang-Heum Han, Tae-Rang Kim, Mi-Ha Ju, Jin-Yeong Han, Jin-Sook Jeong, Sung-Hyun Kim, Alexandra S Silchenko, Valentin A Stonik, Joo-In Park
We previously demonstrated that the quinovose-containing hexaoside stichoposide C (STC) is a more potent anti-leukemic agent than the glucose-containing stichoposide D (STD), and that these substances have different molecular mechanisms of action. In the present study, we investigated the novel marine triterpene glycoside cladoloside C2 from Cladolabes schmeltzii, which has the same carbohydrate moiety as STC. We assessed whether cladoloside C2 could induce apoptosis in K562 and HL-60 cells. We also evaluated whether it showed antitumor action in mouse leukemia xenograft models, and its molecular mechanisms of action...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Jacob J Kinnun, Robert Bittman, Saame Raza Shaikh, Stephen R Wassall
Docosahexaenoic acid is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that relieves the symptoms of a wide variety of chronic inflammatory disorders. The structural mechanism is not yet completely understood. Our focus here is on the plasma membrane as a site of action. We examined the molecular organization of [2H31]-N-palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM-d31) mixed with 1-palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoylphosphatylcholine (PDPC) or 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), as a monounsaturated control, and cholesterol (chol) (1:1:1 mol) in a model membrane by solid-state 2H NMR...
January 23, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Heather Miller, Wenxia Song
B-lymphocytes have the ability to repair their plasma membranes following injury, such as by bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. The repair process includes the removal of the pore from the inflicted region of the plasma membrane via lipid raft-mediated internalization. Lipid rafts are critical for B cell receptor (BCR) activation. Cholesterol-dependent pore forming bacterial toxins provide a useful tool for examining the role of lipid rafts in B cell activation and the underlying cellular mechanisms...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Carlo Barnaba, Bikash Sahoo, Thirupathi Ravula, Ilce Medina-Meza, Sang-Choul Im, G Anantharamaiah, Lucy Waskell, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
Although membrane environment is known to boost drug metabolism by mammalian cytochrome P450s, the factors that stabilize the structural folding and enhance protein function are unclear. In this study, we use peptide-based lipid nanodiscs to "trap" the lipid boundaries of microsomal cytochrome P450 2B4. We report the first evidence that CYP2B4 is able to induce the formation of "raft" domains in a biomimetic of the endoplasmic reticulum. NMR experiments were used to identify and quantitatively determine the lipids present in nanodiscs...
January 31, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Lingyun Wang, Joanne E Murphy-Ullrich, Yuhua Song
Cell surface calreticulin (CRT) binding to thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), regulates cell adhesion, migration, anoikis resistance, and collagen production. Due to the essential role of membrane microdomains in CRT-mediated focal adhesion disassembly, we previously studied the effect of raft-like bilayers on TSP1-CRT interactions with all-atom molecular dynamics (AAMD) simulations. However, the simulated systems of protein on the surface of the bilayer(s) in the explicit solvent are too large for long time scale AAMD simulations due to computational expense...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Nauman Rahim Khan, Tin Wui Wong
This study focuses on the use of ethosome and microwave technologies to facilitate skin penetration and/or deposition of 5-fluorouracil in vitro and in vivo. Low ethanol ethosomes were designed and processed by mechanical dispersion technique and had their size, zeta potential, morphology, drug content and encapsulation efficiency characterized. The skin was pre-treated with microwave at 2450 MHz for 2.5 min with ethosomes applied topically and subjected to in vitro and in vivo skin drug permeation as well as retention evaluation...
January 29, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Tina Garofalo, Alberto Ferri, Maurizio Sorice, Pardis Azmoon, Maria Grasso, Vincenzo Mattei, Antonella Capozzi, Valeria Manganelli, Roberta Misasi
Since stressing conditions induce a relocalization of endogenous human neuroglobin (NGB) to mitochondria, this research is aimed to evaluate the protective role of NGB overexpression against neurotoxic stimuli, through mitochondrial lipid raft-associated complexes. To this purpose, we built a neuronal model of oxidative stress by the use of human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells, SK-N-BE2, stably overexpressing NGB by transfection and treated with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+). We preliminary observed the redistribution of NGB to mitochondria following MPP+ treatment...
January 26, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Alvaro Toledo, Zhen Huang, James L Coleman, Erwin London, Jorge L Benach
Lipid rafts are microdomains present in the membrane of eukaryotic organisms and bacterial pathogens. They are characterized by having tightly packed lipids and a subset of specific proteins. Lipid rafts are associated with a variety of important biological processes including signaling and lateral sorting of proteins. To determine whether lipid rafts exist in the inner membrane of B. burgdorferi, we separated the inner and outer membranes and analyzed the lipid constituents present in each membrane fraction...
January 27, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
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