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Lipid raft

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544957/zebrafish-as-a-visual-and-dynamic-model-to-study-the-transport-of-nanosized-drug-delivery-systems-across-the-biological-barriers
#1
Ye Li, Xiaoqing Miao, Tongkai Chen, Xiang Yi, Ruibing Wang, Haitao Zhao, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Xueqing Wang, Ying Zheng
With the wide application of nanotechnology to drug delivery systems, a simple, dynamic and visual in vivo model for high-throughput screening of novel formulations with fluorescence markers across biological barriers is desperately needed. In vitro cell culture models have been widely used, although they are far from a complimentary in vivo system. Mammalian animal models are common predictive models to study transport, but they are costly and time consuming. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small vertebrate model, have the potential to be developed as an "intermediate" model for quick evaluations...
May 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542493/the-in-vivo-structure-of-biological-membranes-and-evidence-for-lipid-domains
#2
Jonathan D Nickels, Sneha Chatterjee, Christopher B Stanley, Shuo Qian, Xiaolin Cheng, Dean A A Myles, Robert F Standaert, James G Elkins, John Katsaras
Examining the fundamental structure and processes of living cells at the nanoscale poses a unique analytical challenge, as cells are dynamic, chemically diverse, and fragile. A case in point is the cell membrane, which is too small to be seen directly with optical microscopy and provides little observational contrast for other methods. As a consequence, nanoscale characterization of the membrane has been performed ex vivo or in the presence of exogenous labels used to enhance contrast and impart specificity...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536532/phase-partitioning-of-gm1-and-its-bodipy-labeled-analog-determine-their-different-binding-to-cholera-toxin
#3
Sami Rissanen, Michal Grzybek, Adam Orłowski, Tomasz Róg, Oana Cramariuc, Ilya Levental, Christian Eggeling, Erdinc Sezgin, Ilpo Vattulainen
Driven by interactions between lipids and proteins, biological membranes display lateral heterogeneity that manifests itself in a mosaic of liquid-ordered (Lo) or raft, and liquid-disordered (Ld) or non-raft domains with a wide range of different properties and compositions. In giant plasma membrane vesicles and giant unilamellar vesicles, specific binding of Cholera Toxin (CTxB) to GM1 glycolipids is a commonly used strategy to label raft domains or Lo membrane environments. However, these studies often use acyl-chain labeled bodipy-GM1 (bdGM1), whose headgroup accessibility and membrane order or phase partitioning may differ from those of GM1, rendering the interpretation of CTxB binding data quite problematic...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536108/inflammatory-stress-promotes-the-development-of-obesity-related-chronic-kidney-disease-via-cd36-in-mice
#4
Ping Yang, Yayun Xiao, Xuan Luo, Yunfei Zhao, Lei Zhao, Yan Wang, Tingting Wu, Li Wei, Zac Varghese, John F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
Ectopic fat located in the kidney has emerged as a novel cause of obesity-related chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether inflammatory stress promotes ectopic lipid deposition in the kidney and causes renal injury in obese mice and whether the pathological process is mediated by the fatty acid translocase CD36. HFD feeding alone resulted in obesity, hyperlipidemia and slight renal lipid accumulation in mice, which nevertheless had normal kidney function. HFD-fed mice with chronic inflammation had severe renal steatosis and obvious glomerular and tubular damage, which was accompanied by increased CD36 expression...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535513/pkc-%C3%AE-triggers-egfr-ubiquitination-endocytosis-and-erk-activation-in-podocytes-stimulated-with-high-glucose
#5
Chun-Tao Lei, Yan-Hong Wei, Hui Tang, Qian Wen, Chen Ye, Chun Zhang, Hua Su
BACKGROUND: Protein Kinase C-α (PKC-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are both involved in diabetic kidney disease; however, the connection between these two proteins during high glucose-induced podocyte injury remains uncertain. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in SD rats by streptozotocin (STZ). Fourteen days later, the kidney cortex was removed and subjected to plasma membrane isolation and lipid raft fractionation. In vitro study human podocyte cell line was differentiated and subjected to various treatments...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535204/colocalization-of-receptors-for-shiga-toxins-with-lipid-rafts-in-primary-human-renal-glomerular-endothelial-cells-and-influence-of-d-pdmp-on-synthesis-and-distribution-of-glycosphingolipid-receptors
#6
Nadine Legros, Gottfried Pohlentz, Jana Runde, Stefanie Dusny, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Helge Karch, Johannes Müthing
Damage of human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs) of the kidney represents the linchpin in the pathogenesis of the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Shiga toxins (Stxs) of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). We performed a comprehensive structural analysis of the Stx receptor glycosphingolipids (GSLs) globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer, Galα4alβ4Glcβ1Cer) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer, GalNAcβ3Galα4Galβ4Glcβ1Cer) and their distribution in lipid raft analogue detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) and nonDRMs prepared from primary HRGECs...
May 23, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532689/lipid-composition-of-microdomains-is-altered-in-neuronopathic-gaucher-disease-sheep-brain-and-spleen
#7
Leanne K Hein, Tina Rozaklis, Melissa K Adams, John J Hopwood, Litsa Karageorgos
Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in glucocerebrosidase activity that leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine. Membrane raft microdomains are discrete, highly organized microdomains with a unique lipid composition that provide the necessary environment for specific protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions to take place. In this study we purified detergent resistant membranes (DRM; membrane rafts) from the occipital cortex and spleen from sheep affected with acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease and wild-type controls...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532212/soft-matter-in-lipid-protein-interactions
#8
Michael F Brown
Membrane lipids and cellular water (soft matter) are becoming increasingly recognized as key determinants of protein structure and function. Their influences can be ascribed to modulation of the bilayer properties or to specific binding and allosteric regulation of protein activity. In this review, we first consider hydrophobic matching of the intramembranous proteolipid boundary to explain the conformational changes and oligomeric states of proteins within the bilayer. Alternatively, membranes can be viewed as complex fluids, whose properties are linked to key biological functions...
May 22, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531236/psychosine-enhances-the-shedding-of-membrane-microvesicles-implications-in-demyelination-in-krabbe-s-disease
#9
Ludovic D'Auria, Cory Reiter, Emma Ward, Ana Lis Moyano, Michael S Marshall, Duc Nguyen, Giuseppe Scesa, Zane Hauck, Richard van Breemen, Maria I Givogri, Ernesto R Bongarzone
In prior studies, our laboratory showed that psychosine accumulates and disrupts lipid rafts in brain membranes of Krabbe's disease. A model of lipid raft disruption helped explaining psychosine's effects on several signaling pathways important for oligodendrocyte survival and differentiation but provided more limited insight in how this sphingolipid caused demyelination. Here, we have studied how this cationic inverted coned lipid affects the fluidity, stability and structure of myelin and plasma membranes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529926/manipulation-of-host-cholesterol-by-obligate-intracellular-bacteria
#10
REVIEW
Dhritiman Samanta, Minal Mulye, Tatiana M Clemente, Anna V Justis, Stacey D Gilk
Cholesterol is a multifunctional lipid that plays important metabolic and structural roles in the eukaryotic cell. Despite having diverse lifestyles, the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens Chlamydia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia all target cholesterol during host cell colonization as a potential source of membrane, as well as a means to manipulate host cell signaling and trafficking. To promote host cell entry, these pathogens utilize cholesterol-rich microdomains known as lipid rafts, which serve as organizational and functional platforms for host signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523433/structural-and-functional-roles-of-ether-lipids
#11
REVIEW
John M Dean, Irfan J Lodhi
Ether lipids, such as plasmalogens, are peroxisome-derived glycerophospholipids in which the hydrocarbon chain at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone is attached by an ether bond, as opposed to an ester bond in the more common diacyl phospholipids. This seemingly simple biochemical change has profound structural and functional implications. Notably, the tendency of ether lipids to form non-lamellar inverted hexagonal structures in model membranes suggests that they have a role in facilitating membrane fusion processes...
May 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522140/membrane-fusion-stalks-and-lipid-rafts-a-love-hate-relationship
#12
Herre Jelger Risselada
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are applied to explore the experimentally observed ability of the liquid-ordered (lo)/liquid-disordered (ld) phase boundary to facilitate viral membrane fusion. Surprisingly, a formed fusion stalk can be both attracted (i.e., stalkophilic) and repelled (i.e., stalkophobic) by the lo/ld phase boundary. The phase boundary becomes stalkophilic if the lo phase constituents have the larger negative spontaneous curvature. In such a case, location of the highly curved stalk near the less-ordered and thus (relatively) softer boundary region becomes energetically favorable...
May 15, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510132/methyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-modulates-thapsigargin-induced-store-dependent-ca-2-entry-in-macrophages
#13
Z I Krutetskaya, L S Milenina, A A Naumova, S N Butov, V G Antonov, A D Nozdrachev
Using Fura-2AM microfluorimetry, we have shown for the first time that preincubation of macrophages with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, inducing cholesterol extraction from membranes and raft disruption, leads to significant inhibition of thapsigargin-induced store-dependent Ca(2+) entry in rat peritoneal macrophages. In contrast, macrophage treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin after Ca(2+) entry mechanisms were activated by store depletion by thapsigargin application leads to potentiation of subsequent store-dependent Ca(2+) entry...
March 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499815/new-insight-into-the-interaction-of-traf2-c-terminal-domain-with-lipid-raft-microdomains
#14
Arianna Ceccarelli, Almerinda Di Venere, Eleonora Nicolai, Anastasia De Luca, Nicola Rosato, Enrico Gratton, Giampiero Mei, Anna Maria Caccuri
In this study we provide the first evidence of the interaction of a truncated-TRAF2 with lipid raft microdomains. We have analyzed this interaction by measuring the diffusion coefficient of the protein in large and giant unilamellar vesicles (LUVs and GUVs, respectively) obtained both from synthetic lipid mixtures and from natural extracts. Steady-state fluorescence measurements performed with synthetic vesicles indicate that this truncated form of TRAF2 displays a tighter binding to raft-like LUVs with respect to the control (POPC-containing LUVs), and that this process depends on the protein oligomeric state...
May 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495796/phosphorylation-of-nhe3-s-719-regulates-nhe3-activity-through-the-formation-of-multiple-signaling-complexes
#15
Rafiquel Sarker, Boyoung Cha, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Robert Cole, Sandra Gabelli, Chung Ming Tse, Mark Donowitz
Casein kinase 2 (CK2) binds to the NHE3 C-terminus and constitutively phosphorylates a down-stream site (S719) that accounts for 40% of basal NHE3 activity. The role of CK2 in regulation of NHE3 activity in polarized Caco-2/bbe cells was further examined by mutation of NHE3-S(719) to A (not phosphorylated) or D (phosphomimetic). NHE3-S719A but not -S719D had multiple changes in NHE3 activity consisting of a) reduced basal NHE3 activity: specifically, inhibition of the PI3-K/ AKT-dependent component. b) reduced acute stimulation of NHE3 activity by LPA/LPA5R stimulation...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495591/the-hla-dr-mediated-signalling-increases-the-migration-and-invasion-of-melanoma-cells-the-expression-and-lipid-raft-recruitment-of-adhesion-receptors-pd-l1-and-signal-transduction-proteins
#16
Francesca Costantini, Giovanna Barbieri
The constitutive expression of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II molecules is restricted to professional Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs), nevertheless almost 50% of melanomas express constitutively the MHC class II molecules. Therefore, in two MHC class II constitutive expressing melanoma cell lines we studied the signalling mediated by the HLA-DR molecules in the aim to understand the consequence of class II mediated signalling on metastatic dissemination of melanoma. In particular, we reported that the HLA-DR mediated signalling play a new role in melanoma progression, increasing the migration and invasion of melanoma cells...
May 8, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493563/nalmefene-prevents-alcohol-induced-neuroinflammation-and-alcohol-drinking-preference-in-adolescent-female-mice-role-of-tlr4
#17
Jorge Montesinos, Anabel Gil, Consuelo Guerri
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that, by activating innate immune receptors toll-like 4 (TLR4), adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure causes neuroinflammation, myelin damage and behavioral dysfunctions. Recent findings reveal that clinically-used opioid antagonists naltrexone (NT) and naloxone (NX) inhibit opioid-induced TLR4 signaling, and that NT, NX and nalmefene (NF), the 6-methylene derivative of NX, are able to reduce alcohol drinking escalation. METHODS: NF (0...
May 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487538/fret-based-visualization-of-pdgf-receptor-activation-at-membrane-microdomains
#18
Jihye Seong, Min Huang, Kyoung Mi Sim, Hyunbin Kim, Yingxiao Wang
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) senses extracellular growth factors and transfer the signals inside the cells regulating cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has been controversial at which membrane microdomains PDGFRs reside and how they control such diverse intracellular signaling pathways. Here, we developed a novel PDGFR biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), which can detect the real-time PDGFR activity in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolutions...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485208/the-distribution-of-vinculin-to-lipid-rafts-plays-an-important-role-in-sensing-stiffness-of-extracellular-matrix
#19
Ayaka Ichikawa Nagasato, Hiroshi Yamashita, Michinori Matsuo, Kazumitsu Ueda, Noriyuki Kioka
Extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness regulates cell differentiation, survival, and migration. Our previous study has shown that the interaction of the focal adhesion protein vinculin with vinexin α plays a critical role in sensing ECM stiffness and regulating stiffness-dependent cell migration. However, the mechanism how vinculin-vinexin α interaction affects stiffness-dependent cell migration is unclear. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains that are known to affect ECM-induced signals and cell behaviors...
June 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482520/synthesis-of-lipid-based-amphiphilic-block-copolymer-and-its-evaluation-as-nano-drug-carrier
#20
Muhammad Arshad, Rehan A Pradhan, Aman Ullah
In current study, we report the synthesis and characterization of renewable fatty acid-based block copolymer. The block copolymer was synthesized via RAFT polymerization under microwave irradiations. Firstly, the homopolymer of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) was prepared and used as a macro-CTA to copolymerize with modified stearic acid monomer (SAM). The characterization of copolymer p-DMA-b-SAM was done by (1)H NMR, ATR-FTIR and GPC. The block copolymer was allowed to self-assemble and the entrapment of carbamazepine (CBZ) into hydrophobic core of polymeric micelles was investigated in aqueous media...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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