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Personalised medicine

P D Tar, N A Thacker, M Babur, Y Watson, S Cheung, R A Little, R G Gieling, K J Williams, J P B O'Connor
Motivation: Imaging demonstrates that preclinical and human tumors are heterogeneous, i.e. a single tumor can exhibit multiple regions that behave differently during both normal development and also in response to treatment. The large variations observed in control group tumors can obscure detection of significant therapeutic effects due to the ambiguity in attributing causes of change. This can hinder development of effective therapies due to limitations in experimental design, rather than due to therapeutic failure...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Margarita Zachariou, George Minadakis, Anastasis Oulas, Sotiroula Afxenti, George M Spyrou
The abundance of available information for each disease from multiple sources (e.g. as genetic, regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction) constitutes both an advantage and a challenge in identifying disease-specific underlying mechanisms. Integration of multi-source data is a rising topic and a great challenge in precision medicine and is crucial in enhancing disease understanding, identifying meaningful clusters of molecular mechanisms and increasing precision and personalisation towards the goal of Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine (PPPM)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Seyed Mohammad Hossein Kashfi, Sheema Almozyan, Nicholas Jinks, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Abdolrahman S Nateri
Organoids have extensive applications in many fields ranging from modelling human development and disease, personalised medicine, drug screening, etc. Moreover, in the last few years, several studies have evaluated the capacity of organoids as transplantation sources for therapeutic approaches and regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, depending on the origin of the cells and anatomical complications, an organoid transplant may make tissue regeneration difficult. However, some essential aspects of organoids including the morphological alterations and the growth pattern of the matched tumour and their healthy derived organoids have received less attention...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Sarah J Trenfield, Atheer Awad, Alvaro Goyanes, Simon Gaisford, Abdul W Basit
3D printing (3DP) is forecast to be a highly revolutionary technology within the pharmaceutical sector. In particular, the main benefits of 3DP lie in the production of small batches of medicines, each with tailored dosages, shapes, sizes and release characteristics. The manufacture of medicines in this way may finally lead to the concept of personalised medicines becoming a reality. In the shorter term, 3DP could be extended throughout the drug development process, ranging from preclinical development and clinical trials, through to frontline medical care...
March 10, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Agnes Norbury, Ben Seymour
Response rates to available treatments for psychological and chronic pain disorders are poor, and there is a considerable burden of suffering and disability for patients, who often cycle through several rounds of ineffective treatment. As individuals presenting to the clinic with symptoms of these disorders are likely to be heterogeneous, there is considerable interest in the possibility that different constellations of signs could be used to identify subgroups of patients that might preferentially benefit from particular kinds of treatment...
2018: F1000Research
I Myin-Germeys, B W J H Penninx
The goal of personalised medicine is to adapt the therapy precisely to an individual's specific needs. But how can we practise personalised medicine from a scientific perspective? <br/> AIM: To discuss how we can progress from a science based on group findings to a science based on individual cases.<br/> METHOD: We will outline various research designs that may be helpful for investigating an approach to personalised medicine.<br/> RESULTS: One approach is to focus on more homogenous groups, e...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
J van Os
Personalised psychiatry is the promise that biological stratification and analysis of 'big' data will enable clinical prediction.<br/> AIM: To analyse promises and problems regarding personalised medicine in the psychiatry.<br/> METHOD: Analysis of current challenges.<br/> RESULTS: Essential challenges are: 1. Biological psychiatry yields weak findings and clinically negligible diagnostic likelihood ratios. 2. The impact of biological stratification in medicine is relatively small yet may result in explosive health care costs...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
K R Goethals
Personalised medicine promises to provide us with a diagnostic predictive system of stratification that is based on a wide variety of tests; these can include biological, cognitive, demographic, psychopathological tests and other clearly defined tests. The purpose of forensic psychiatry is not only to take care of and treat mentally impaired patients but also to engage in risk assessment and risk management.<br/> AIM: To explain risk assessment in forensic psychiatry as a nomothetic approach to personalised medicine, and also to demonstrate the link with offence paralleling behaviour, which is an illustration of the ideographic approach...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
W Veling, I E C Sommer, R Bruggeman, L de Haan
Personalised medicine (pm) means treatment that specifically targets the needs of individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic or psychosocial characteristics.<br/> AIM: To update our knowledge about the current use of pm in the treatment of psychotic disorders.<br/> METHOD: Review of the literature on pm for psychoses.<br/> RESULTS: At the moment, genetic and other biological characteristics cannot be used for the diagnosis and treatment of psychotic disorders because they are not sensitive enough and their specificity is too low...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
R F van Vollenhoven, M L'ami, G Wolbink
BACKGROUND: An important goal in medicine is to provide patients with individualised and personalised treatment. Personalised medicine is making an important contribution. AIM: To summarise developments in the field of personalised medicine in rheumatology. METHOD: We review the results so far and discuss what developments we can expect in the future. RESULTS: In rheumatology there have been advances in three main areas: 1...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
A T F Beekman, T van Amelsvoort, H L Van, K R Goethals
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Hana You, Louise-Laure Mariani, Graziella Mangone, Delphine Le Febvre de Nailly, Fanny Charbonnier-Beaupel, Jean-Christophe Corvol
There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease. The symptomatic therapeutic strategy essentially relies on dopamine replacement whose efficacy was demonstrated more than 50 years ago following the introduction of the dopamine precursor, levodopa. The spectacular antiparkinsonian effect of levodopa is, however, balanced by major limitations including the occurrence of motor complications related to its particular pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Other therapeutic strategies have thus been developed to overcome these problems such as the use of dopamine receptor agonists, dopamine metabolism inhibitors and non-dopaminergic drugs...
March 7, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Olga Golubnitschaja, Josef Flammer
This case report introduces a female patient, who since her teenager age evidently suffers from Flammer syndrome (FS) as the clearly defined sub-optimal health condition. Further, the patient has experienced collateral pathological conditions which primarily might be linked to the family (genetic) predisposition, but the development of which could be synergistically promoted by the FS-phenotype. The facts are thoroughly analysed and consequent hypotheses are presented, which are indicative for highly desirable predictive diagnostics and targeted preventive measures to be created based on the accurate interpretation of the individualised patient profile...
March 2018: EPMA Journal
Carlo Castellani, Alistair J A Duff, Scott C Bell, Harry G M Heijerman, Anne Munck, Felix Ratjen, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Kevin W Southern, Jurg Barben, Patrick A Flume, Pavla Hodková, Nataliya Kashirskaya, Maya N Kirszenbaum, Sue Madge, Helen Oxley, Barry Plant, Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg, Alan R Smyth, Giovanni Taccetti, Thomas O F Wagner, Susan P Wolfe, Pavel Drevinek
Developments in managing CF continue to drive dramatic improvements in survival. As newborn screening rolls-out across Europe, CF centres are increasingly caring for cohorts of patients who have minimal lung disease on diagnosis. With the introduction of mutation-specific therapies and the prospect of truly personalised medicine, patients have the potential to enjoy good quality of life in adulthood with ever-increasing life expectancy. The landmark Standards of Care published in 2005 set out what high quality CF care is and how it can be delivered throughout Europe...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Pras Pathmanathan, Richard A Gray
Computational models of cardiac electrophysiology have a long history in basic science applications and device design and evaluation, but have significant potential for clinical applications in all areas of cardiovascular medicine, including functional imaging and mapping, drug safety evaluation, disease diagnosis, patient selection, and therapy optimisation or personalisation. For all stakeholders to be confident in model-based clinical decisions, cardiac electrophysiological (CEP) models must be demonstrated to be trustworthy and reliable...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Andrea Lavazza, Marcello Massimini
Organoids are three-dimensional biological structures grown in vitro from different kinds of stem cells that self-organise mimicking real organs with organ-specific cell types. Recently, researchers have managed to produce human organoids which have structural and functional properties very similar to those of different organs, such as the retina, the intestines, the kidneys, the pancreas, the liver and the inner ear. Organoids are considered a great resource for biomedical research, as they allow for a detailed study of the development and pathologies of human cells; they also make it possible to test new molecules on human tissue...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Bram Verstockt, Kenneth Gc Smith, James C Lee
Over the course of the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revolutionised our understanding of complex disease genetics. One of the diseases that has benefitted most from this technology has been Crohn's disease (CD), with the identification of autophagy, the IL-17/IL-23 axis and innate lymphoid cells as key players in CD pathogenesis. Our increasing understanding of the genetic architecture of CD has also highlighted how a failure to suppress aberrant immune responses may contribute to disease development - a realisation that is now being incorporated into the design of new treatments...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Jean Louis Pépin, Sebastien Bailly, Renaud Tamisier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2018: Thorax
Jochen Arlt, Vincent A Martinez, Angela Dawson, Teuta Pilizota, Wilson C K Poon
Self-assembly is a promising route for micro- and nano-fabrication with potential to revolutionise many areas of technology, including personalised medicine. Here we demonstrate that external control of the swimming speed of microswimmers can be used to self assemble reconfigurable designer structures in situ. We implement such 'smart templated active self assembly' in a fluid environment by using spatially patterned light fields to control photon-powered strains of motile Escherichia coli bacteria. The physics and biology governing the sharpness and formation speed of patterns is investigated using a bespoke strain designed to respond quickly to changes in light intensity...
February 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Simon Carley, Simon Laing
As the Royal College of Emergency Medicine looks back on 50 years of progress towards the future it is clear that new and emerging technologies have the potential to substantially change the practice of emergency medicine. Education, diagnostics, therapeutics are all likely to change as algorithms, personalised medicine and insights into complexity become more readily available to the emergency clinician. This paper outlines areas of our practice that are already changing and speculates on how we might need to prepare our workforce for a technologically enhanced future...
March 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
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