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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785074/challenges-in-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Lulu Zhang, Santosh Sanagapalli, Alina Stoita
Pancreatic cancer is a growing source of cancer related death, yet has poor survival rates which have not improved in the last few decades. Its high mortality rate is attributed to pancreatic cancer biology, difficulty in early diagnosis and the lack of standardised international guidelines in assessing suspicious pancreatic masses. This review aims to provide an update in the current state of play in pancreatic cancer diagnosis and to evaluate the benefits and limitations of available diagnostic technology...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773272/juvenile-dermatomyositis-latest-advances
#2
REVIEW
Qiong Wu, Lucy R Wedderburn, Liza J McCann
Registries and biobanks for juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have generated statistical power to help understand pathogenesis and determine treatment and long-term outcomes in this rare and heterogeneous disease. Genotype, autoantibodies, muscle histology and early clinical features may predict prognosis and guide personalised treatment. While corticosteroids and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs improve outcomes, there remain children who experience refractory disease. Ongoing research into the aberrant immune response and novel biological targets is necessary...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764354/impact-of-ethnicity-on-the-natural-history-of-parkinson-disease
#3
Anna Sauerbier, Azman Aris, Ee Wei Lim, Kalyan Bhattacharya, K Ray Chaudhuri
Parkinson disease (PD) affects people of all races and ethnicity worldwide. PD is a multineurotransmitter and multisystem disorder and our current concept of the natural history of PD has changed considerably over the past decades. Many aspects of this heterogeneous condition still remain unexplained; one aspect that is poorly studied is the role of ethnicity and manifest motor and non-motor PD. Some preliminary data suggest that the prodromal risk of developing PD, clinical symptom expression and the experience of living with the condition may vary between different ethnic groups...
May 21, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764353/non-motor-parkinson-disease-new-concepts-and-personalised-management
#4
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Most patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have non-motor symptoms (NMS), and on average these can range from four to 19 different symptoms. NMS dominate the prodromal phase of PD and some may serve as clinical biomarkers of PD. NMS can be dopaminergic, non-dopaminergic, of genetic origin or drug induced. Clinical assessment of NMS should include the NMS Questionnaire (completed by patients) for screening, as recommended by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society and other international societies...
May 21, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761775/-the-role-of-the-food-and-drug-administration-as-times-change
#5
Niels Keiding
The prestigious journal Biostatistics published in July 2017 six solicited commentaries on the role of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as times change, with ever developing technical tools for clinical trials and their evaluation, with increased focus on personalised medicine (possibly aided by genetic testing), and on patient self-determination. Two were written by American economists, four by leading biostatisticians, mostly from the USA. This paper summarises these texts for a Danish audience...
May 7, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757235/clinically-applicable-inhibitors-impacting-genome-stability
#6
REVIEW
Anu Prakash, Juan F Garcia-Moreno, James A L Brown, Emer Bourke
Advances in technology have facilitated the molecular profiling (genomic and transcriptomic) of tumours, and has led to improved stratification of patients and the individualisation of treatment regimes. To fully realize the potential of truly personalised treatment options, we need targeted therapies that precisely disrupt the compensatory pathways identified by profiling which allow tumours to survive or gain resistance to treatments. Here, we discuss recent advances in novel therapies that impact the genome (chromosomes and chromatin), pathways targeted and the stage of the pathways targeted...
May 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755651/the-clinical-impact-of-using-complex-molecular-profiling-strategies-in-routine-oncology-practice
#7
Jean-François Laes, Philippe Aftimos, Philippe Barthelemy, Joaquim Bellmunt, Guy Berchem, Carlos Camps, Ramón de Las Peñas, Ana Finzel, Jesús García-Foncillas, Petteri Hervonen, Ibrahim Wahid, Timo Joensuu, Louis Kathan, Anthony Kong, James Mackay, Christos Mikropoulos, Kefah Mokbel, Jean-Loup Mouysset, Sergey Odarchenko, Timothy J Perren, Rika Pienaar, Carlos Regonesi, Shadi Salem Alkhayyat, Abdul Rahman El Kinge, Omalkhair Abulkhair, Khaled Morsi Galal, Hady Ghanem, Fadi El Karak, Angel Garcia, Gregori Ghitti, Helen Sadik
Molecular profiling and functional assessment of signalling pathways of advanced solid tumours are becoming increasingly available. However, their clinical utility in guiding patients' treatment remains unknown. Here, we assessed whether molecular profiling helps physicians in therapeutic decision making by analysing the molecular profiles of 1057 advanced cancer patient samples after failing at least one standard of care treatment using a combination of next-generation sequencing (NGS), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and other specific tests...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749854/personalized-precision-medicine-personalised-healthcare-the-art-of-giving-different-names-to-the-same-thing
#8
Ruth March, Cecilia Schott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747699/clinical-chronobiology-a-timely-consideration-in-critical-care-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Helen McKenna, Gijsbertus T J van der Horst, Irwin Reiss, Daniel Martin
A fundamental aspect of human physiology is its cyclical nature over a 24-h period, a feature conserved across most life on Earth. Organisms compartmentalise processes with respect to time in order to promote survival, in a manner that mirrors the rotation of the planet and accompanying diurnal cycles of light and darkness. The influence of circadian rhythms can no longer be overlooked in clinical settings; this review provides intensivists with an up-to-date understanding of the burgeoning field of chronobiology, and suggests ways to incorporate these concepts into daily practice to improve patient outcomes...
May 11, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726967/distinguishing-prognostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-an-information-theoretic-approach
#10
Konstantinos Sechidis, Konstantinos Papangelou, Paul D Metcalfe, David Svensson, James Weatherall, Gavin Brown
Motivation: The identification of biomarkers to support decision-making is central to personalised medicine, in both clinical and research scenarios. The challenge can be seen in two halves: identifying predictive markers, which guide the development/use of tailored therapies; and identifying prognostic markers, which guide other aspects of care and clinical trial planning, i.e. prognostic markers can be considered as covariates for stratification. Mistakenly assuming a biomarker to be predictive, when it is in fact largely prognostic (and vice-versa) is highly undesirable, and can result in financial, ethical and personal consequences...
May 2, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726389/combining-precision-radiotherapy-with-molecular-targeting-and-immunomodulatory-agents-a-guideline-by-the-american-society-for-radiation-oncology
#11
REVIEW
Robert G Bristow, Brian Alexander, Michael Baumann, Scott V Bratman, J Martin Brown, Kevin Camphausen, Peter Choyke, Deborah Citrin, Joseph N Contessa, Adam Dicker, David G Kirsch, Mechthild Krause, Quynh-Thu Le, Michael Milosevic, Zachary S Morris, Jann N Sarkaria, Paul M Sondel, Phuoc T Tran, George D Wilson, Henning Willers, Rebecca K S Wong, Paul M Harari
The practice of radiation oncology is primarily based on precise technical delivery of highly conformal, image-guided external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. However, systematic research efforts are being made to facilitate individualised radiation dose prescriptions on the basis of gene-expressssion profiles that reflect the radiosensitivity of tumour and normal tissue. This advance in precision radiotherapy should complement those benefits made in precision cancer medicine that use molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapies...
May 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723484/investigational-drugs-for-alcohol-use-disorders-a-review-of-preclinical-data
#12
Sarah S Ch'ng, Andrew J Lawrence
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are one of the leading causes of preventable death in the developed world. In the U.S., only three FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for AUDs currently exist, but at a population level they display poor efficacy, low compliance rates, and adverse side effects. Therefore, identifying novel neurobiological targets for pharmacological treatment of AUDs is of urgent concern. Areas covered: We discuss recent preclinical data on investigational drugs that have been assessed for their therapeutic potential in AUDs...
May 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722186/nuclear-medicine-in-the-era-of-personalised-medicine
#13
EDITORIAL
Sze Ting Lee, Andrew M Scott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703226/individualised-short-term-therapy-for-adolescents-impaired-by-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-despite-previous-routine-care-treatment-escaadol-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-within-the-consortium-escalife
#14
Julia Geissler, Thomas Jans, Tobias Banaschewski, Katja Becker, Tobias Renner, Daniel Brandeis, Manfred Döpfner, Christina Dose, Christopher Hautmann, Martin Holtmann, Carolin Jenkner, Sabina Millenet, Marcel Romanos
BACKGROUND: Despite the high persistence rate of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) throughout the lifespan, there is a considerable gap in knowledge regarding effective treatment strategies for adolescents with ADHD. This group in particular often shows substantial psychosocial impairment, low compliance and insufficient response to psychopharmacological interventions. Effective and feasible treatments should further consider the developmental shift in ADHD symptoms, comorbidity and psychosocial adversity as well as family dysfunction...
April 27, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701682/circulating-microrna-biomarkers-in-melanoma-tools-and-challenges-in-personalised-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Sophie L Mumford, Benjamin P Towler, Amy L Pashler, Onur Gilleard, Yella Martin, Sarah F Newbury
Effective management of melanoma depends heavily on early diagnosis. When detected in early non-metastatic stages, melanoma is almost 100% curable by surgical resection, however when detected in late metastatic stages III and IV, 5-year survival rates drop to ~50% and 10⁻25%, respectively, due to limited efficacy of current treatment options. This presents a pressing need to identify biomarkers that can detect patients at high risk of recurrence and progression to metastatic disease, which will allow for early intervention and survival benefit...
April 26, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700411/a-dualistic-model-of-primary-anal-canal-adenocarcinoma-with-distinct-cellular-origins-etiologies-inflammatory-microenvironments-and-mutational-signatures-implications-for-personalised-medicine
#16
Michael Herfs, Patrick Roncarati, Benjamin Koopmansch, Olivier Peulen, Diane Bruyere, Alizee Lebeau, Elodie Hendrick, Pascale Hubert, Aurelie Poncin, William Penny, Nathalie Piazzon, Franck Monnien, David Guenat, Christiane Mougin, Jean-Luc Prétet, Lucine Vuitton, Karin Segers, Frederic Lambert, Vincent Bours, Laurence de Leval, Severine Valmary-Degano, Charles M Quick, Christopher P Crum, Philippe Delvenne
BACKGROUND: Primary adenocarcinoma of the anal canal is a rare and aggressive gastrointestinal disease with unclear pathogenesis. Because of its rarity, no clear clinical practice guideline has been defined and a targeted therapeutic armamentarium has yet to be developed. The present article aimed at addressing this information gap by in-depth characterising the anal glandular neoplasms at the histologic, immunologic, genomic and epidemiologic levels. METHODS: In this multi-institutional study, we first examined the histological features displayed by each collected tumour (n = 74) and analysed their etiological relationship with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection...
April 27, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699867/precision-medicine-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Anna L Gloyn, Daniel J Drucker
The study of type 2 diabetes has been driven by advances in human genetics, epigenetics, biomarkers, mechanistic studies, and large clinical trials, enabling new insights into disease susceptibility, pathophysiology, progression, and development of complications. Simultaneously, several new drug classes with different mechanisms of action have been introduced over the past two decades, accompanied by data about cardiovascular safety and non-glycaemic outcomes. In this Review, we critically examine the progress and integration of this new science into clinical practice, and review opportunities for enabling the use of precision medicine in the diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes...
April 23, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688886/new-perspectives-in-personalised-medicine-for-ethnicity-in-cancer-population-pharmacogenomics-and-pharmacometrics
#18
EDITORIAL
Sujit Nair, Adrián LLerena
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677946/patient-stratification-using-longitudinal-data-application-of-latent-class-mixed-models
#19
Nophar Geifman, Hannah Lennon, Niels Peek
Analysis of longitudinal data in medical research is becoming increasingly important, in particular for the identification of patient subgroups, as the focus of medical research is shifting toward personalised medicine. Here we present the use of a statistical learning approach for the identification of subgroups of hypertension patients demonstrating different patterns of response to treatment. This method, applied to large-scale patient-level data, has identified three such groups found to be associated with different clinical characteristics...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664087/a-linear-concentration-gradient-generator-based-on-multi-layered-centrifugal-microfluidics-and-its-application-in-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#20
Minghui Tang, Xinyu Huang, Qian Chu, Xinghai Ning, Yuye Wang, Siu-Kai Kong, Xuping Zhang, Guanghui Wang, Ho-Pui Ho
In almost any branch of chemistry or life sciences, it is often necessary to study the interaction between different components in a system by varying their respective concentrations in a systematic manner. Currently, many procedures for generating a series of samples of different solute concentration levels are still done manually by dilution. To address this issue, we present herein a highly automated linear concentration gradient generator based on centrifugal microfluidics. The operation of this device is based on the use of multi-layered microfluidics in which individual fluidic samples to be mixed together are stored and metered in their respective layers before finally being transferred to a mixing chamber...
April 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
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