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Cranial nerve clinical examination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082627/gastrointestinal-and-feeding-difficulties-in-charge-syndrome-a-review-from-head-to-toe
#1
REVIEW
Kim D Blake, Alexandra S Hudson
CHARGE syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that is primarily diagnosed based on clinical features, with genetic testing available for confirmation. The CHARGE mnemonic stands for some of the common characteristics: coloboma, heart defects, atresia/stenosis of the choanae, retardation of growth/development, genitourinary anomalies, and ear abnormalities (CHARGE). However, many of the common clinical features are not captured by this mnemonic, including cranial nerve dysfunction, considered by some to be one of the major diagnostic criteria...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068915/ocular-manifestations-of-systemic-amyloidosis
#2
Margaret M Reynolds, Kevin K Veverka, Morie A Gertz, Angela Dispenzieri, Steven R Zeldenrust, Nelson Leung, Jose S Pulido
PURPOSE: To describe ophthalmic manifestations of systemic amyloidosis, a group of devastating conditions. METHODS: A retrospective chart review including patients who had ocular examinations at Mayo Clinic between January 1, 1985, and April 1, 2014, and a diagnosis of light-chain (AL), secondary (AA), or nontransthyretin familial amyloidosis was undertaken. Sixty-eight patients with AL amyloidosis, eight patients with AA amyloidosis, and five patients with nontransthyretin familial amyloidosis were included...
October 24, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053833/clinical-pathological-and-functional-characterization-of-riboflavin-responsive-neuropathy
#3
Andreea Manole, Zane Jaunmuktane, Iain Hargreaves, Marthe H R Ludtmann, Vincenzo Salpietro, Oscar D Bello, Simon Pope, Amelie Pandraud, Alejandro Horga, Renata S Scalco, Abi Li, Balasubramaniem Ashokkumar, Charles M Lourenço, Simon Heales, Rita Horvath, Patrick F Chinnery, Camilo Toro, Andrew B Singleton, Thomas S Jacques, Andrey Y Abramov, Francesco Muntoni, Michael G Hanna, Mary M Reilly, Tamas Revesz, Dimitri M Kullmann, James E C Jepson, Henry Houlden
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome represents a phenotypic spectrum of motor, sensory, and cranial nerve neuropathy, often with ataxia, optic atrophy and respiratory problems leading to ventilator-dependence. Loss-of-function mutations in two riboflavin transporter genes, SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, have recently been linked to Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. However, the genetic frequency, neuropathology and downstream consequences of riboflavin transporter mutations are unclear. By screening a large cohort of 132 patients with early-onset severe sensory, motor and cranial nerve neuropathy we confirmed the strong genetic link between riboflavin transporter mutations and Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, identifying 22 pathogenic mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, 14 of which were novel...
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032218/the-hypoglossal-nerve-anatomical-study-of-its-entire-course
#4
Giorgio Iaconetta, Domenico Solari, Alessandro Villa, Clotilde Castaldo, Rosa Maria Gerardi, Gianluigi Califano, Stefania Montagnani, Paolo Cappabianca
OBJECT: Only a few anatomic studies concerning the entire course of the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) have been reported. The purpose of the present study is to analyze all the relationships of the XII nerve with the surrounding structures from the brainstem to the tongue through a microscopic perspective. A comprehensive anatomically and clinically oriented classification of its different segments is proposed. METHODS: Ten formalin-fixed adult human cadaveric heads (20 sides) were dissected with the aim to explore the entire course of the XII cranial nerve via the lateral suboccipital, the far lateral partial or total transcondilar routes...
October 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026664/supratentorial-extraparenchymal-schwannoma-mimicking-parasagittal-meningioma-a-rare-case-report
#5
Uday S Raswan, Irfan Bhat, Nuzhat Samoon, Sajad H Arif, Masood Laharwal, Sarbjit S Chhiber, Altaf Umar Ramzan
BACKGROUND: Intracranial schwannomas not related to cranial nerves are very rare. Young age, no known history of neurofibromatosis, and seizure as initial symptom have been reported to be associated with intraparenchymal schwannoma. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of supratentorial parasagittal schwannoma in the right frontal region presenting with seizure episode in a 70-year-old man. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a right frontal solid, enhancing extra-axial lesion based on anterior and middle third junction of superior sagittal sinus...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987316/bypass-for-symptomatic-in-stent-carotid-restenosis
#6
Francesco Stilo, Pasqualino Sirignano, Nunzio Montelione, Wassim Mansour, Laura Capoccia, Vincenzo Catanese, Francesco Spinelli, Francesco Speziale
BACKGROUND: To evaluate early and long-term outcomes of symptomatic patients treated for in-stent carotid restenosis (ISR) with carotid bypass (CB). METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from a prospectively compiled database on patients treated with CB in two high-volume Italian centers between 2008 and 2016, for symptomatic high-grade ISR after CAS. After carotid endarterectomy and stent removal, a greater saphenous vein (GSV) was preferentially employed as the graft; when the GSV was not accessible, a 6mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft was implanted...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983422/speech-language-pathology-evaluation-and-management-of-hyperkinetic-disorders-affecting-speech-and-swallowing-function
#7
REVIEW
Julie M Barkmeier-Kraemer, Heather M Clark
BACKGROUND: Hyperkinetic dysarthria is characterized by abnormal involuntary movements affecting respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory structures impacting speech and deglutition. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) play an important role in the evaluation and management of dysarthria and dysphagia. This review describes the standard clinical evaluation and treatment approaches by SLPs for addressing impaired speech and deglutition in specific hyperkinetic dysarthria populations. METHODS: A literature review was conducted using the data sources of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932362/clinical-radiological-pathological-correlation-of-cavernous-sinus-hemangioma-incremental-value-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#8
Abhishek Mahajan, Vedula Rajni Kanth Rao, Gudipati Anantaram, Ashwin M Polnaya, Sandeep Desai, Paresh Desai, Rammohan Vadapalli, Manas Panigrahi
AIM: To elucidate the clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathological features of these lesions and asses the incremental value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in diagnosing them. METHODS: Fifteen consecutive patients (11 females and 4 males; mean age 40.93 years; age range 13-63 years) with cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSH) who underwent examination between November 2008 and May 2016 were included for the analysis. MRI, clinical and surgical findings of each patient was retrospectively reviewed...
August 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894826/functional-and-histological-effects-of-chronic-neural-electrode-implantation
#9
REVIEW
Ronald Sahyouni, David T Chang, Omid Moshtaghi, Amin Mahmoodi, Hamid R Djalilian, Harrison W Lin
OBJECTIVES: Permanent injury to the cranial nerves can often result in a substantial reduction in quality of life. Novel and innovative interventions can help restore form and function in nerve paralysis, with bioelectric interfaces among the more promising of these approaches. The foreign body response is an important consideration for any bioelectric device as it influences the function and effectiveness of the implant. The purpose of this review is to describe tissue and functional effects of chronic neural implantation among the different categories of neural implants and highlight advances in peripheral and cranial nerve stimulation...
April 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887894/interobserver-variation-in-the-diagnosis-of-neurologic-abnormalities-in-the-horse
#10
W J A Saville, S M Reed, J P Dubey, D E Granstrom, P S Morley, K W Hinchcliff, C W Kohn, T E Wittum, J D Workman
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) relies heavily on the clinical examination. The accurate identification of neurologic signs during a clinical examination is critical to the interpretation of laboratory results. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the level of agreement between board-certified veterinary internists when performing neurologic examinations in horses. ANIMALS: Ninety-seven horses admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at The Ohio State University from December 1997 to June 1998...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845325/ocular-causes-of-abnormal-head-position-strabismus-clinic-data
#11
Kadriye Erkan Turan, Hande Taylan Şekeroğlu, İrem Koç, Esra Vural, Jale Karakaya, Emin Cumhur Şener, Ali Şefik Sanaç
OBJECTIVES: To determine the most common ocular causes and types of abnormal head position (AHP) and describe their clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with AHP who had been followed in the strabismus unit were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic features and orthoptic characteristics were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 163 patients including 61 women (37.4%) and 102 men (62.6%), with a mean age of 19.9±18.3 were recruited...
August 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798922/practical-approach-to-the-patient-with-acute-neuromuscular-weakness
#12
REVIEW
Rajeev Nayak
Acute neuromuscular paralysis (ANMP) is a clinical syndrome characterized by rapid onset muscle weakness progressing to maximum severity within several days to weeks (less than 4 wk). Bulbar and respiratory muscle weakness may or may not be present. It is a common neurological emergency which requires immediate and careful investigations to determine the etiology because accurate diagnosis has significant impact on therapy and prognosis. Respiratory failure caused by neuromuscular weakness is considered as more critical than lung disease because its development may be insidious or subtle until sudden decompensation leads to life threatening hypoxia...
July 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797998/the-effect-of-dose-volume-parameters-on-central-nervous-system-relapse-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-leukemia-receiving-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation
#13
Zeliha Guzeloz, Ayse Nur Demiral, Fatma Eren, Mehmet Adigul, Ahmet Ergin Capar, Handan Cakmakci, Sebnem Yilmaz, Ozlem Tufekci, Hale Oren, Riza Çetingoz
AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of dosevolume parameters of brain parenchyma, optic nerves (ONs) and cribriform plate (CP), which were determined on central nervous system (CNS) control in pediatric leukemia patients who have undergone prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) at our department. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the current study, the records of 14 patients were examined retrospectively. Along with the minimum and maximum doses for brain and CP, D95% (minimal dose received by the 95% volume of a structure) and V95% (percent volume of target receiving 95% of prescribed dose) could be obtained from the dose-volume histogram...
May 2017: Gulf Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772293/speech-language-pathologists-use-of-intelligibility-measures-in-adults-with-dysarthria
#14
Naomi Gurevich, Sydney L Scamihorn
Purpose: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who work with adults with dysarthria were surveyed to investigate trends of clinical practice for assessing speech intelligibility. Method: Two hundred ninety-six SLPs responded to an online survey October 22-November 30, 2015. Results: Findings showed that 35% of SLPs lacked access to any standardized assessments of intelligibility, with 66% of these implicating cost as the main reason. Work settings played a role, as all SLPs working in Veterans Affairs hospitals and 97% of SLPs working in university or research clinics reported access to at least one formal assessment...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750621/clinical-and-electrophysiological-features-of-post-traumatic-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#15
Xiaowen Li, Jinting Xiao, Yanan Ding, Jing Xu, Chuanxia Li, Yating He, Hui Zhai, Bingdi Xie, Junwei Hao
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rarely described potentially life-threatening cause of weakness. We sought to elucidate the clinical features and electrophysiological patterns of post-traumatic GBS as an aid to diagnosis. METHODS: We retrospectively studied six patients diagnosed with post-traumatic GBS between 2014 and 2016 at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, China. Clinical features, serum analysis, lumbar puncture results, electrophysiological examinations, and prognosis were assessed...
July 27, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723776/a-case-of-idiopathic-hypertrophic-pachymeningitis-presenting-with-chronic-headache-and-multiple-cranial-nerve-palsies-a-case-report
#16
Yuanyuan Huang, Jun Chen, Li Gui
RATIONALE: Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (IHP) is a rare condition, characterized by a chronic fibrosing inflammatory process usually involving either the intracranial or spinal dura mater, but rarely both. Here, we report a rare case of IHP affecting both the intracranial and spinal dura mater. We also discussed the diagnosis, management, and outcome of IHP. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reviewed the case of a 60-year-old woman presenting with chronic headache, multiple cranial nerve palsies and gait disturbance...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682828/criteria-for-intensive-care-admission-and-monitoring-after-elective-craniotomy
#17
Rafael Badenes, Lara Prisco, Armando Maruenda, Fabio S Taccone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article revises the recent evidence on ICU admission criteria and postoperative neuromonitoring for patients undergoing elective craniotomy. RECENT FINDINGS: Only a small proportion of elective postoperative neurosurgical patients require specific medical interventions and invasive monitoring. Among these, patients undergoing elective craniotomy are frequently admitted to neuro-ICU, specialist postanaesthesia care units or intermediate-level care unit in the postoperative period...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615421/outcomes-of-colorado-children-with-acute-flaccid-myelitis-at-1-year
#18
Jan A Martin, Kevin Messacar, Michele L Yang, John A Maloney, Jennifer Lindwall, Terri Carry, Patricia Kenyon, Stefan H Sillau, Joyce Oleszek, Kenneth L Tyler, Samuel R Dominguez, Teri L Schreiner
OBJECTIVE: We describe long-term functional, neurodiagnostic, and psychosocial outcomes of a cohort of 12 children from Colorado diagnosed with acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) in 2014. METHODS: Children were assessed every 3 months for 1 year or until clinical resolution. Assessments included neurologic examination, MRI, EMG/nerve conduction studies (NCS), functional measures (Assisting Hand Assessment, Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale), and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System questionnaires...
July 11, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606282/-risk-factors-of-rupture-of-internal-carotid-artery-during-surgical-resection-of-carotid-body-tumor
#19
Y H Li, J S Wang, C Yao, G Q Chang, H H Yin, S Q Li, W M Lü, Z J Hu, S M Wang
Objective: To investigate risk factors of rupture of internal carotid artery resection during carotid body tumor resection and to summarize our treatment experience. Methods: During the period from 1991 to 2016, rupture of internal carotid artery occurred in 27 patients (28 tumors) during surgical resection of carotid body tumor in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. Their clinical and follow-up data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. For all patients underwent surgical resection during this period, Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors of intraoperative rupture of internal carotid artery...
June 13, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589450/central-nervous-system-involvement-in-adults-with-haemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-a-single-center-study
#20
Guilan Cai, Yini Wang, Xiaojing Liu, Yanfei Han, Zhao Wang
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by proliferation and diffuse infiltration multiple organs with histiocytes, including the central nervous system (CNS). Neurological manifestations of HLH have been recognized in different studies with children, but they remain relatively ill-defined in adults with HLH. From March 2008 to October 2014, 289 adult patients with HLH were admitted to our center. Clinical, radiological, and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) data of the patients with CNS involvement were reviewed, and a retrospective study in our single-center was carried out...
August 2017: Annals of Hematology
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