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Cranial nerve clinical examination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424010/olfactory-development-part-1-function-from-fetal-perception-to-adult-wine-tasting
#1
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat, Xing-Chang Wei
Discrimination of odorous molecules in amniotic fluid occur after 30 weeks' gestation; fetuses exhibit differential responses to maternal diet. Olfactory reflexes enable reliable neonatal testing. Olfactory bulbs can be demonstrated reliably by MRI after 30 weeks' gestation, and their hypoplasia or aplasia also documented by late prenatal and postnatal MRI. Olfactory axons project from nasal epithelium to telencephalon before olfactory bulbs form. Fetal olfactory maturation remains incomplete at term for neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and persistence of the transitory fetal ventricular recess...
May 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416425/-bilateral-facial-nerve-palsy-associated-with-epstein-barr-virus-infection-in-a-3-year-old-boy
#2
M Grassin, A Rolland, N Leboucq, A Roubertie, F Rivier, P Meyer
Bilateral facial nerve palsy is a rare and sometimes difficult diagnosis. We describe a case of bilateral simultaneous facial nerve palsy associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in a 3-year-old boy. Several symptoms led to the diagnosis of EBV infection: the clinical situation (fever, stomachache, and throat infection), white blood cell count (5300/mm(3) with 70% lymphocyte count), seroconversion with EBV-specific antibodies, lymphocytic meningitis, and a positive blood EBV polymerase chain reaction (9...
April 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387560/clinical-evaluation-of-the-concussed-athlete-a-view-from-the-sideline
#3
Margot Putukian
CONTEXT: The sideline assessment of concussion is challenging, given its variable presentations, the limited sensitivity and specificity of sideline assessment tools, and how the presentation of the injury evolves over time. In addition, the diagnostic process, as well as the tools used to assess and manage concussion, continue to progress as research and what we know about concussion advance. This paper focuses on the initial assessment on the sideline by reviewing the concussion-evaluation literature, drawing from clinical experience to emphasize a standardized approach, and underscoring the importance of both familiarity with the athlete and clinical judgment...
March 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362892/sellar-and-parasellar-imaging
#4
Carlos Zamora, Mauricio Castillo
The skull base is a complex anatomical region that harbors many important neurovascular structures in a relatively confined space. The pathology that can develop at this site is varied, and many disease processes may present with similar clinical and neuroimaging findings. While computed tomography maintains a role in the evaluation of many entities and can, for instance, delineate osseous erosion with great detail and characterize calcified tumor matrices, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the mainstay in the neuroimaging assessment of most pathology occurring at the skull base...
January 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302606/trochlear-groove-and-trochlear-cistern-useful-anatomic-landmarks-for-identifying-the-tentorial-segment-of-cranial-nerve-iv-on-mri
#5
P M Bunch, H R Kelly, D A Zander, H D Curtin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The trochlear groove and trochlear cistern are anatomic landmarks closely associated with the tentorial segment of cranial nerve IV. The purposes of this study were to describe the MR imaging appearances of the trochlear groove and trochlear cistern and to test our hypothesis that knowledge of these anatomic landmarks facilitates identification of cranial nerve IV in routine clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this retrospective study, consecutive MR imaging examinations of the sinuses performed in 25 patients (50 sides) at our institution were reviewed...
March 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302242/vanishing-white-matter-vwm-disease-presenting-as-neuro-ovarian-failure
#6
Abidullah Khan, Mohammad Humayun, Maimoona Ayub, Iqbal Haider, Fahad Ajmal, Syed Saad Shah
A 19-year girl was admitted with a one-month history of worsening spastic paraparesis, cerbellar ataxia, visual decline and worsening headaches on a background of walking difficulty, progressive quadriparesis and migraine since the age of 10 years. She had no sensory loss, and cranial nerves examination was notable for optic atrophy with crescent formation only. She had primary amenorrhea and underdeveloped secondary sexual characteristics. Ultrasonograhic studies of the pelvis confirmed small ovaries, and uterus...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296237/inpatient-treatment-of-patients-with-acute-idiopathic-peripheral-facial-palsy-a-population-based-healthcare-research-study
#7
K Plumbaum, G F Volk, D Boeger, J Buentzel, D Esser, A Steinbrecher, K Hoffmann, P Jecker, A Mueller, G Radtke, O W Witte, O Guntinas-Lichius
OBJECTIVES: To determine the inpatient management for patients with acute idiopathic facial palsy (IFP) in Thuringia, Germany. DESIGN: Population-based study. SETTING: All inpatients with IFP in all hospitals with departments of otolaryngology and neurology in 2012, in the German federal state, Thuringia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients' characteristics and treatment were compared between departments, and the probability of recovery was tested...
March 10, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270941/a-lip-lump-an-unexpected-histological-diagnosis-of-a-lip-schwannoma
#8
Thomas Haigh, John Raad Glore, David Gouldesbrough, Winson Wong
Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumours arising from Schwann cells. They comprise 1% of all benign tumours. In the 2016 World Health Organisation Classification of Central Nervous System, they are classified as a tumour of the cranial and paraspinal nerves, Schwannoma 9560/0. A 23-year-old Caucasian lady presented with a seven-month history of a painless right upper lip lump. Examination revealed a small cystic 0.5 cm diameter lesion within the right upper lip. The clinical impression was that of a mucocele...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255284/clinical-evaluation-of-blepharoptosis-distinguishing-age-related-ptosis-from-masquerade-conditions
#9
REVIEW
Michelle W Latting, Alison B Huggins, Douglas P Marx, Joseph N Giacometti
Aponeurotic ptosis accounts for the majority of acquired ptosis encountered in clinical practice. Other types of ptosis include traumatic, mechanical, neurogenic, and myogenic. In addition to true ptosis, some patients present with pseudoptosis caused by globe dystopia, globe asymmetry, ocular misalignment, or retraction of the contralateral lid. It is particularly important for the clinician to rule out neurologic causes of ptosis such as dysfunction of the third cranial nerve, Horner's syndrome, and myasthenia gravis, as these conditions can be associated with significant systemic morbidity and mortality...
February 2017: Seminars in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238529/innovations-in-endovascular-treatment-strategies-for-large-carotid-cavernous-aneurysms-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-a-flow-diverter
#10
Shigeru Miyachi, Hiroyuki Ohnishi, Ryo Hiramatsu, Takashi Izumi, Noriaki Matsubara, Toshihiko Kuroiwa
BACKGROUND: The efficacy for the treatment of large carotid cavernous aneurysms (CCAs) was compared between conventional endovascular treatments, stent-assisted coiling (SAC), parent artery occlusion (PAO), and the flow diverter (FD). METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2015, 49 patients with large, broad-necked, unruptured CCA underwent endovascular treatment at our institution. We performed PAO in 22 patients, SAC in 18 patients, and FD in 9 patients. Safety and efficacy were assessed in all patients by periodic clinical and radiological examinations during a 6-month follow-up...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214652/unilateral-oculomotor-palsy-in-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-1a-cmt-1a
#11
A Posa, A Emmer, M E Kornhuber
BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 1A is the most common form of CMT 1 and one of the autosomal dominant demyelinating hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN). Cranial nerves may be frequently subclinically affected in CMT disease. However manifest clinical signs of cranial nerve involvement are rare. METHODS: This case comprise neurological, ophthalmological, internal medicine and ear-nose-throat investigation, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, auditory evoked potentials and orbicularis-oculi reflex measurements, lumbar puncture and blood examination, inclusive molecular genetic testing, as well as electrocardiogram and cranial imaging such as computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging RESULTS: The present case shows a Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) 1A patient with complete unilateral oculomotor palsy in combination with predominant ipsilateral subclinical trigeminal demyelination...
April 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163843/outcome-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-children-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-upper-egypt
#12
Abdelrahim Abdrabou Sadek, Ashraf Abou-Taleb, Wafaa Ahmed Ali
INTRODUCTION: Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis in children, and defined as an acute inflammatory polyneuropathy. The objective of this study was to assess the clinico-laboratory profile, and outcome of Guillain-Barré syndrome in children at Sohag University Hospital. METHODS: This prospective cohort observational study was conducted in 2014-2015. The included children were subjected to through medical history and detailed systemic and neurological examination...
December 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159637/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-tms-responses-elicited-in-hindlimb-muscles-as-an-assessment-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-spino-muscular-circuitry-after-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Hayk A Petrosyan, Valentina Alessi, Sue A Sisto, Mark Kaufman, Victor L Arvanian
Electromagnetic stimulation applied at the cranial level, i.e. transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is a technique for stimulation and neuromodulation used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in clinical and research settings. Although recordings of TMS elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEP) are an essential diagnostic tool for spinal cord injured (SCI) patients, they are reliably recorded from arm, and not leg muscles. Mid-thoracic contusion is a common SCI that results in locomotor impairments predominantly in legs...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149099/bilateral-ptosis-without-upward-gaze-palsy-unusual-presentation-of-midbrain-tuberculoma
#14
Shatanik Sarkar, Chaitali Patra, Malay Kumar Dasgupta
Central nervous system tuberculoma can have variable presentations depending on the site and number of tuberculomas. We are reporting a rare case of an 11-year-old male child presenting with ptosis and ataxia. Clinical examination revealed bilateral partial 3(rd) cranial nerve palsy (ptosis without any upward gaze palsy) associated with dysdiadochokinesia and ataxia on the right side. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a single ring-enhancing lesion in the dorsal midbrain with perifocal edema...
January 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079960/successful-medical-management-of-a-domestic-longhair-cat-with-subdural-intracranial-empyema-and-multifocal-pneumonia
#15
Thomas J A Cardy, Richard Lam, Laureen M Peters, Philippa J McLaren, Màrian Matas Riera, Steven De Decker
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of successful medical management of subdural intracranial empyema and multifocal pneumonia in a domestic longhaired cat. CASE SUMMARY: A 7-year-and-8-month-old male neutered domestic longhair cat presented with tachypnea, respiratory compromise, vestibular ataxia, obtundation, left-sided head tilt, and multiple cranial nerve deficits. Neuroanatomical localization was multifocal with central vestibular involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head indicated diffuse subdural empyema, mainly affecting the middle cranial fossa and the right cerebrum...
March 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050631/head-to-head-comparison-between-18-f-fdopa-pet-ct-and-mr-ct-angiography-in-clinically-recurrent-head-and-neck-paragangliomas
#16
Céline Heimburger, Francis Veillon, David Taïeb, Bernard Goichot, Sophie Riehm, Julie Petit-Thomas, Gerlinde Averous, Marcela Cavalcanti, Fabrice Hubelé, Gerard Chabrier, Izzie Jacques Namer, Anne Charpiot, Alessio Imperiale
PURPOSE: Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) can relapse after primary treatment. Optimal imaging protocols have not yet been established for posttreatment evaluation. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of (18)F-FDOPA PET/CT and MR/CT angiography (MRA/CTA) in HNPGL patients with clinical relapse during their follow-up. METHODS: Sixteen consecutive patients presenting with local pain, tinnitus, dysphagia, hoarse voice, cranial nerve involvement, deafness, or retrotympanic mass appearing during follow-up after the initial treatment of HNPGLs were retrospectively evaluated...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050353/an-osteologic-study-of-cranial-opening-of-optic-canal-in-gujarat-region
#17
Binita Jigneshkumar Purohit, Praveen R Singh
INTRODUCTION: Optic canal is a bony canal situated in between the roots of lesser wings of sphenoid, lateral to body of sphenoid. It transmits optic nerve and ophthalmic artery, surrounded by meninges. Various authors have studied variations in skull foramina and correlated clinically, as variants in the body structures have been found to be associated with many inherited or acquired diseases. AIM: The present study aimed to examine morphologic and morphometric variations in cranial openings of optic canals...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050208/tonic-investigation-concept-of-cervico-vestibular-muscle-afferents
#18
Linda Josephine Dorn, Annabelle Lappat, Winfried Neuhuber, Hans Scherer, Heidi Olze, Matthias Hölzl
Introduction Interdisciplinary research has contributed greatly to an improved understanding of the vestibular system. To date, however, very little research has focused on the vestibular system's somatosensory afferents. To ensure the diagnostic quality of vestibular somatosensory afferent data, especially the extra cranial afferents, stimulation of the vestibular balance system has to be precluded. Objective Sophisticated movements require intra- and extra cranial vestibular receptors. The study's objective is to evaluate an investigation concept for cervico-vestibular afferents with respect to clinical feasibility...
January 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025450/application-of-fiber-tractography-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-to-evaluate-spinal-cord-diseases-in-dogs
#19
Yuko Konishi, Hiroyuki Satoh, Yasuyoshi Kuroiwa, Mizuki Kusaka, Atsushi Yamashita, Yujiro Asada, Taketoshi Asanuma
Fiber tractography is a technique capable of depicting the three-dimensional structure and connectivity of nerve fibers using serial magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). To establish fiber tractography and DTI methods in veterinary clinical medicine, we evaluated fiber tractography and DTI parameters: apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and fractional anisotropy (FA) values, in various spinal cord diseases. Spinal cord DTI was examined in 28 dogs with spinal cord diseases. The ADC and FA values were measured at lesion sites and cranial normal sites on spinal cords, and both values of lesion sites were compared with normal sites...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923753/intra-and-extramedullary-dumbbell-shaped-schwannoma-of-the-medulla-oblongata-a%C3%A2-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Qing Zhang, Ming Ni, Wei-Ming Liu, Wang Jia, Gui-Jun Jia, Jun-Ting Zhang
BACKGROUND: Brainstem intramedullary schwannomas (ISs) are extremely rare. Various theories have been suggested to explain its origin. It was first speculated that ISs arise from the region where the nerve roots lose their sheaths on penetrating the pia mater. Later, it was further predicted that ISs would contain both intra- and extramedullary parts and would be shaped like a dumbbell. However, no cases reported previously can support this assumption adequately. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 40-year-old woman presented with constant cervical pain, accompanied by progressive weakness of upper extremities and glove distribution numbness...
February 2017: World Neurosurgery
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