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Jiangtong Peng, Yutian Li, Xiaohong Wang, Shan Deng, Jenna Holland, Emily Yates, Jing Chen, Haitao Gu, Kobina Essandoh, Xingjiang Mu, Boyu Wang, Robert K McNamara, Tianqing Peng, Anil G Jegga, Tiemin Liu, Takahisa Nakamura, Kai Huang, Diego Perez-Tilve, Guo-Chang Fan
Exposure to cold temperature is well known to upregulate heat shock protein (Hsp) expression and recruit and/or activate brown adipose tissue and beige adipocytes in humans and animals. However, whether and how Hsps regulate adipocyte function for energy homeostatic responses is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of Hsp20 as a negative regulator of adipocyte function. Deletion of Hsp20 enhances non-shivering thermogenesis and suppresses inflammatory responses, leading to improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism under both chow diet and high-fat diet conditions...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr, Xiaoli Chen
Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) has been previously characterized as an adipokine regulating thermogenic activation of brown adipose tissue and retinoic acid (RA)-induced thermogenesis in mice. The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism for Lcn2 in the recruitment and retinoic acid-induced activation of brown-like or "beige" adipocytes. We found Lcn2 deficiency reduces key markers of thermogenesis including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and inguinal adipocytes derived from Lcn2-/- mice...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Mueez U Din, Teemu Saari, Juho Raiko, Nobu Kudomi, Stefanie F Maurer, Minna Lahesmaa, Tobias Fromme, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Martin Klingenspor, Olof Solin, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi A Virtanen
Human studies suggest that a meal elevates glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, in postprandial state the thermogenic activity and the metabolism of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in BAT remain unclear. Using indirect calorimetry combined with positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT), we showed that whole-body and BAT thermogenesis (oxygen consumption) increases after the ingestion of a mixed carbohydrate-rich meal, to the same extent as in cold stress. Postprandial NEFA uptake into BAT is minimal, possibly due to elevated plasma insulin inhibiting lipolysis...
June 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Gary J Schwartz
The gut sensory vagus transmits a wide range of meal-related mechanical, chemical and gut peptide signals from gastrointestinal and hepatic tissues to the central nervous system at the level of the caudal brainstem. Results from studies using neurophysiological, behavioral physiological and metabolic approaches that challenge the integrity of this gut-brain axis support an important role for these gut signals in the negative feedback control of energy availability by limiting food intake during a meal. These experimental approaches have now been applied to identify important and unanticipated contributions of the vagal sensory gut-brain axis to the control of two additional effectors of overall energy balance: the feedback control of endogenous energy availability through hepatic glucose production and metabolism, and the control of energy expenditure through brown adipose tissue thermogenesis...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
Katsuhiko Yajima, Kaito Iwayama, Hitomi Ogata, Insung Park, Kumpei Tokuyama
The fatty acid composition of the diet has been linked to the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with monounsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids decrease fat oxidation and diet-induced thermogenesis. A potential limitation of previous studies was the short duration (≦5h) of calorimetry used. The present study compared the effects of a meal rich in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on 24-h of fat oxidation. Ten males participated in two sessions of indirect calorimetry in a whole-room metabolic chamber...
2018: PloS One
Jin Li, Le Zheng, Akihiko Uchiyama, Lianghua Bin, Theodora M Mauro, Peter M Elias, Tadeusz Pawelczyk, Monika Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Magdalena Trzeciak, Donald Y M Leung, Maria I Morasso, Peng Yu
A large volume of biological data is being generated for studying mechanisms of various biological processes. These precious data enable large-scale computational analyses to gain biological insights. However, it remains a challenge to mine the data efficiently for knowledge discovery. The heterogeneity of these data makes it difficult to consistently integrate them, slowing down the process of biological discovery. We introduce a data processing paradigm to identify key factors in biological processes via systematic collection of gene expression datasets, primary analysis of data, and evaluation of consistent signals...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mazher Mohammed, Christopher J Madden, Kim J Burchiel, Shaun F Morrison
Modest cold exposures are likely to activate autonomic thermogenic mechanisms due to activation of cutaneous thermal afferents, whereas central thermosensitive neurons set the background tone on which this afferent input is effective. In addition, more prolonged or severe cold exposures that overwhelm cold defense mechanisms would directly activate thermosensitive neurons within the central nervous system. Here, we examined the involvement of the canonical brown adipose tissue (BAT) sympathoexcitatory efferent pathway in the response to direct local cooling of the preoptic area (POA) in urethane-chloralose anesthetized rats...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Ken Ho
Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is energy dissipated as heat after a meal, contributing 5-15% to total daily EE. There has been a long interest in the intriguing possibility that a defect in DIT predisposes to obesity. However the evidence is conflicting, DIT is usually quantified by indirect calorimetry which does not measure heat. Using gas exchange, indirect calorimetry measures total post-prandial EE which comprises heat energy produced from brown adipose tissue (BAT) and energy required for processing and storing nutrients...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Yixiao Guo, Yao Li, Yidian Yang, Shiyi Tang, Yufan Zhang, Liqin Xiong
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been identified as a promising target for the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and relevant metabolism disorders because of the adaptive thermogenesis ability of this tissue. Visualizing BAT may provide an essential tool for pathology study, drug screening, and efficacy evaluation. Owing to limitations of current nuclear and magnetic resonance imaging approaches for BAT detection, fluorescence imaging has advantages in large-scale preclinical research on small animals. Here, fast BAT imaging in mice is conducted based on polymer dots as fluorescent probes...
June 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chantal Wrutniak-Cabello, François Casas, Gérard Cabello
The possibility that several pathways are involved in the multiplicity of thyroid hormone physiological influences led to searches for the occurrence of T3 extra nuclear receptors. The existence of a direct T3 mitochondrial pathway is now well established. The demonstration that TRα1 mRNA encodes not only a nuclear thyroid hormone receptor but also two proteins imported into mitochondria with molecular masses of 43 and 28 kDa has provided new clues to understand the pleiotropic influence of iodinated hormones...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Karine Gauthier
The ability of thyroid hormone T3 to stimulate energy expenditure and regulate different aspects of whole body metabolism has been recognized for over a 100 years. Indeed in 1895 Adolf Magnus Levy was already describing the influence of the thyroid on setting the basal metabolic rate. Now it has been well characterized that the level of circulating T3 is correlated with energy expenditure both in humans and in rodent models (Mullur et al., Physiol Rev 94:355-382, 2014; Silva, Thyroid 5:481-492, 1995). Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are respectively associated with low and high energy expenditure leading to high and low body mass index...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Aishah AlAmrani, Mouaadh AbdelKarim, Mohammed AlZoghaibi
AIMS: The PR domain containing 16 ( PRDM16 ) gene and the Phosphodiesterase 4D ( PDE4 ) gene are both an essential regulators in the thermogenesis process in the brown adipose tissues (BAT). The influence of polymorphisms in those genes on obesity and blood lipids profile is unknown particularly in the Saudi population, so the current study is aiming to explore that. METHODS: A case control format was used that involved 89 obese individual and 84 non-obese (control)...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Suna Jung, Miae Han, Sovannarith Korm, Se-In Lee, Solhee Noh, Sophors Phorl, Rema Naskar, Kye-Sung Lee, Geon-Hee Kim, Yun-Jaie Choi, Joo Yong Lee
Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). UCP1 increases the conductance of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) for protons to make BAT mitochondria generate heat rather than ATP. HDAC6 is a cytosolic deacetylase for non-histone substrates to regulate various cellular processes, including mitochondrial quality control and dynamics. Here, we showed that the body temperature of HDAC6 knockout mice is slightly decreased in normal hosing condition...
June 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Erin L Brown, Bethany C Hazen, Elodie Eury, Jean-Sébastien Wattez, Marin L Gantner, Verena Albert, Sarah Chau, Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, Bruno Conti, Anastasia Kralli
Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) induces acute and long-term responses. The acute adrenergic response activates thermogenesis by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation and enabling increased substrate oxidation. Long-term, adrenergic signaling remodels BAT, inducing adaptive transcriptional changes that expand thermogenic capacity. Here, we show that the estrogen-related receptors alpha and gamma (ERRα, ERRγ) are collectively critical effectors of adrenergically stimulated transcriptional reprogramming of BAT...
April 27, 2018: iScience
Yong Xu, Miguel López
BACKGROUND: Estrogenic actions in the brain prevent obesity. Better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may facilitate development of new obesity therapies. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the critical brain regions that mediate effects of estrogens on food intake and/or energy expenditure, the molecular signals that are involved, and the functional interactions between brain estrogens and other signals modulating metabolism. Body weight regulation by estrogens in male brains will also be discussed...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Xue-Ying Zhang, Gansukh Sukhchuluun, Ting-Bei Bo, Qing-Sheng Chi, Jun-Jie Yang, Bin Chen, Lei Zhang, De-Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Huddling is highly evolved as a cooperative behavioral strategy for social mammals to maximize their fitness in harsh environments. Huddling behavior can change psychological and physiological responses. The coevolution of mammals with their microbial communities confers fitness benefits to both partners. The gut microbiome is a key regulator of host immune and metabolic functions. We hypothesized that huddling behavior altered energetics and thermoregulation by shaping caecal microbiota in small herbivores...
June 8, 2018: Microbiome
Federica Cioffi, Alessandra Gentile, Elena Silvestri, Fernando Goglia, Assunta Lombardi
Thyroid hormones significantly influence energy expenditure by affecting the activity of metabolic active tissues, among which, mammalian brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a significant role. For a long time, the modulation of BAT activity by 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) has been ascribed to its direct actions on this tissue; however, recent evidence indicates that T3, by stimulating specific brain centers, activates the metabolism of BAT via the sympathetic nervous system. These distinct mechanisms of action are not mutually exclusive...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Kazuhiro Nakamura, Yoshiko Nakamura
The recent discovery of the medullary circuit driving "hunger responses" - reduced thermogenesis and promoted feeding - has greatly expanded our knowledge on the central neural networks for energy homeostasis. However, how hypothalamic hunger and satiety signals generated under fasted and fed conditions, respectively, control the medullary autonomic and somatic motor mechanisms remains unknown. Here, in reviewing this field, we propose two hypothalamomedullary neural pathways for hunger and satiety signaling...
June 4, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Verena Haas, Andreas Stengel, Anja Mähler, Gabriele Gerlach, Celine Lehmann, Michael Boschmann, Martina de Zwaan, Stephan Herpertz
Background: Over-proportionally high energy requirements in some patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been reported, but their exact origin remains unclear. Objective: To objectively measure metabolic alterations in an AN patient with high energy requirements as judged by clinical observation. Materials and Methods: We present the case of a young woman with AN (index patient, IP; 19 years, admission BMI 13.9 kg/m2 ). After 3 months of treatment at BMI 17.4 kg/m2 , we assessed her resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), seated non-exercise physical activity (NEPA in Volt by infrared sensors), and exercise activity thermogenesis (EAT) in a metabolic chamber; body composition (bioimpedance analysis), energy intake (15d-food protocol), physical activity (accelerometry) and endocrine parameters...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Gansukh Sukhchuluun, Xue-Ying Zhang, Qing-Sheng Chi, De-Hua Wang
Huddling as social thermoregulatory behavior is commonly used by small mammals to reduce heat loss and energy expenditure in the cold. Our study aimed to determine the effect of huddling behavior on energy conservation, thermogenesis, core body temperature (Tb ) regulation and body composition in Brandt's voles ( Lasiopodomys brandtii ). Adult captive-bred female Brandt's voles ( n = 124) (~50 g) in 31 cages with 4 individuals each were exposed to cool (23 ± 1°C) and cold (4 ± 1°C) ambient temperatures (Ta ) and were allowed to huddle or were physically separated...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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