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Thermogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026214/treatment-with-the-tgf-b-superfamily-cytokine-mic-1-gdf15-reduces-the-adiposity-and-corrects-the-metabolic-dysfunction-of-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#1
Vw-W Tsai, H P Zhang, R Manandhar, K K M Lee-Ng, H Lebhar, C P Marquis, Y Husaini, A Sainsbury, D A Brown, S N Breit
OBJECTIVES: To test the potential efficacy of recombinant macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) as an obesity therapeutic. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice, either fed on normal-chow or high-fat-diet for 16 weeks in order to induce diet-induced obesity, were infused with either recombinant MIC-1/GDF15 or vehicle for 34 days by osmotic-mini-pump. During the experimental period metabolic parameters were measured. Blood and tissue were collected for analysis of inflammatory markers...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026172/mitochondrial-glycerol-3-phosphate-facilitates-bumblebee-pre-flight-thermogenesis
#2
Stewart W C Masson, Christopher P Hedges, Jules B L Devaux, Crystal S James, Anthony J R Hickey
Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) fly at low ambient temperatures where other insects cannot, and to do so they must pre-warm their flight muscles. While some have proposed mechanisms, none fully explain how pre-flight thermogenesis occurs. Here, we present a novel hypothesis based on the less studied mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase pathway (mGPDH). Using calorimetry, and high resolution respirometry coupled with fluorimetry, we report substrate oxidation by mGPDH in permeabilised flight muscles operates, in vitro, at a high flux, even in the absence of ADP...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026134/mct1-and-mct4-expression-and-lactate-flux-activity-increase-during-white-and-brown-adipogenesis-and-impact-adipocyte-metabolism
#3
Charlotte Petersen, Mette D Nielsen, Elise S Andersen, Astrid L Basse, Marie S Isidor, Lasse K Markussen, Birgitte M Viuff, Ian H Lambert, Jacob B Hansen, Stine F Pedersen
Adipose tissue takes up glucose and releases lactate, thereby contributing significantly to systemic glucose and lactate homeostasis. This implies the necessity of upregulation of net acid and lactate flux capacity during adipocyte differentiation and function. However, the regulation of lactate- and acid/base transporters in adipocytes is poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adipocyte thermogenesis, browning and differentiation are associated with an upregulation of plasma membrane lactate and acid/base transport capacity that in turn is important for adipocyte metabolism...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023733/tonic-inhibition-of-brown-adipose-tissue-sympathetic-nerve-activity-via-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-rostral-raphe-pallidus
#4
Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Christopher J Madden, Shaun F Morrison
We sought to determine if body temperature and energy expenditure are influenced by a cholinergic input to neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa), the site of sympathetic premotor neurons controlling brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Nanoinjections of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) receptor agonist, oxotremorine, or the cholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine (NEOS), in the rRPa of anaesthetized rats decreased cold-evoked BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA, nadirs: -72%, and -95%), BAT temperature (TBAT, -0...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021616/the-thermogenic-actions-of-natriuretic-peptide-in-brown-adipocytes-the-direct-measurement-of-the-intracellular-temperature-using-a-fluorescent-thermoprobe
#5
Haruka Kimura, Tomohisa Nagoshi, Akira Yoshii, Yusuke Kashiwagi, Yoshiro Tanaka, Keiichi Ito, Takuya Yoshino, Toshikazu D Tanaka, Michihiro Yoshimura
In addition to the various effects of natriuretic peptides (NPs) on cardiovascular systems, increasing attention is being paid to the possibility that NPs induce adipose tissue browning and activate thermogenic program. We herein established a direct intracellular temperature measurement system using a fluorescent thermoprobe and investigated the thermogenic effects of A-type NP (ANP) on brown adipocytes. The thermoprobe was successfully introduced into rat brown adipocytes, and the temperature dependent change in fluorescence intensity ratio was measured using a fluorescence microscope...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020342/lack-of-ovarian-secretions-reverts-the-anabolic-action-of-olanzapine-in-female-rats
#6
Silje Skrede, Ismael González-García, Luís Martins, Rolf Kristian Berge, Ruben Nogueiras, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Gunnar Mellgren, Vidar Martin Steen, Miguel López, Johan Fernø
Background: Olanzapine (OLZ) is an orexigenic antipsychotic drug associated with serious metabolic adverse effects in humans. Development of valid rodent models for antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects is hampered by the fact that such effects occur in females only. Estradiol (E2) is a predominant female hormone that regulates energy balance. We hypothesized that the female-specific hyperphagia and weight gain induced by OLZ in the rat are dependent on the presence of estrogens...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988965/do-estrogens-enhance-activation-of-brown-and-beiging-of-adipose-tissues
#7
Aaron P Frank, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Obesity and its associated co-morbidities are worldwide public health concerns. Obesity is characterized by excessive adipose tissue accumulation; however, it is important to recognize that human and rodent adipose tissues are made up of several distinct adipose tissue sub-types. White adipose tissue (WAT) is considered the prototypical fat cell, due to its capacity and capability to store large amounts of lipid. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) oxidizes substrates to generate heat. BAT contains more mitochondria than WAT and express uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediates BAT thermogenesis...
October 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988822/lipolysis-in-brown-adipocytes-is-not-essential-for-cold-induced-thermogenesis-in-mice
#8
Hyunsu Shin, Yinyan Ma, Tatyana Chanturiya, Qiang Cao, Youlin Wang, Anil K G Kadegowda, Rachel Jackson, Dominic Rumore, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Oksana Gavrilova, Liqing Yu
Lipid droplet (LD) lipolysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is generally considered to be required for cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis. Here, we show that mice lacking BAT Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), a lipolytic activator essential for the stimulated LD lipolysis, have normal thermogenic capacity and are not cold sensitive. Relative to littermate controls, these animals had higher body temperatures when they were provided food during cold exposure. The increase in body temperature in the fed, cold-exposed knockout mice was associated with increased energy expenditure and with increased sympathetic innervation and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT)...
October 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988821/cold-induced-thermogenesis-depends-on-atgl-mediated-lipolysis-in-cardiac-muscle-but-not-brown-adipose-tissue
#9
Renate Schreiber, Clemens Diwoky, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Ursula Feiler, Nuttaporn Wongsiriroj, Mahmoud Abdellatif, Dagmar Kolb, Joris Hoeks, Erin E Kershaw, Simon Sedej, Patrick Schrauwen, Guenter Haemmerle, Rudolf Zechner
Fatty acids (FAs) activate and fuel UCP1-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Release of FAs from intracellular fat stores by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is considered a key step in NST. Accordingly, the severe cold intolerance of global ATGL knockout (AKO) mice has been attributed to defective BAT lipolysis. Here we show that this conclusion is incorrect. We demonstrate that although the BAT-specific loss of ATGL impairs BAT lipolysis and alters BAT morphology, it does not compromise the β3-adrenergic thermogenic response or cold-induced NST...
October 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988768/crosstalk-between-kcnk3-mediated-ion-current-and-adrenergic-signaling-regulates-adipose-thermogenesis-and-obesity
#10
Yi Chen, Xing Zeng, Xuan Huang, Sara Serag, Clifford J Woolf, Bruce M Spiegelman
Adrenergic stimulation promotes lipid mobilization and oxidation in brown and beige adipocytes, where the harnessed energy is dissipated as heat in a process known as adaptive thermogenesis. The signaling cascades and energy-dissipating pathways that facilitate thermogenesis have been extensively described, yet little is known about the counterbalancing negative regulatory mechanisms. Here, we identify a two-pore-domain potassium channel, KCNK3, as a built-in rheostat negatively regulating thermogenesis. Kcnk3 is transcriptionally wired into the thermogenic program by PRDM16, a master regulator of thermogenesis...
September 30, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983409/systems-biology-reveals-uncoupling-beyond-ucp1-in-human-white-fat-derived-beige-adipocytes
#11
Elin Nyman, Stefano Bartesaghi, Rebecka Melin Rydfalk, Sandra Eng, Charlotte Pollard, Peter Gennemark, Xiao-Rong Peng, Gunnar Cedersund
Pharmaceutical induction of metabolically active beige adipocytes in the normally energy storing white adipose tissue has potential to reduce obesity. Mitochondrial uncoupling in beige adipocytes, as in brown adipocytes, has been reported to occur via the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). However, several previous in vitro characterizations of human beige adipocytes have only measured UCP1 mRNA fold increase, and assumed a direct correlation with metabolic activity. Here, we provide an example of pharmaceutical induction of beige adipocytes, where increased mRNA levels of UCP1 are not translated into increased protein levels, and perform a thorough analysis of this example...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982014/the-role-of-suppression-of-hepatic-scd1-expression-in-the-metabolic-effects-of-dietary-methionine-restriction
#12
Laura A Forney, Kirsten P Stone, Desiree Wanders, James M Ntambi, Thomas W Gettys
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) produces concurrent increases in energy intake and expenditure, but the proportionately larger increase in energy expenditure (EE) effectively limits weight gain and adipose tissue accretion over time. Increased hepatic FGF21 is essential to MR-dependent increases in EE, but it is unknown whether the downregulation of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) by MR could also be a contributing factor. Global deletion of SCD1 mimics cold exposure in mice housed at 23°C by compromising the insular properties of the skin...
October 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980233/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-mechanisms-of-avian-seasonal-reproduction
#13
T Katherine Tamai, Takashi Yoshimura
Animals living outside tropical zones experience seasonal changes in the environment and accordingly, adapt their physiology and behavior in reproduction, molting, and migration. Subtropical birds are excellent models for the study of seasonal reproduction because of their rapid and dramatic response to changes in photoperiod. For example, testicular weight typically changes by more than a 100-fold. In birds, the eyes are not necessary for seasonal reproduction, and light is instead perceived by deep brain photoreceptors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979209/evolution-of-ucp1-transcriptional-regulatory-elements-across-the-mammalian-phylogeny
#14
Michael J Gaudry, Kevin L Campbell
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) permits non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) when highly expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria. Exclusive to placental mammals, BAT has commonly been regarded to be advantageous for thermoregulation in hibernators, small-bodied species, and the neonates of larger species. While numerous regulatory control motifs associated with UCP1 transcription have been proposed for murid rodents, it remains unclear whether these are conserved across the eutherian mammal phylogeny and hence essential for UCP1 expression...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979187/serotonergic-control-of-metabolic-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Steven C Wyler, Caleb C Lord, Syann Lee, Joel K Elmquist, Chen Liu
New treatments are urgently needed to address the current epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Recent studies have highlighted multiple pathways whereby serotonin (5-HT) modulates energy homeostasis, leading to a renewed interest in the identification of 5-HT-based therapies for metabolic disease. This review aims to synthesize pharmacological and genetic studies that have found diverse functions of both central and peripheral 5-HT in the control of food intake, thermogenesis, and glucose and lipid metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978546/subcutaneous-inguinal-white-adipose-tissue-is-responsive-to-but-dispensable-for-the-metabolic-health-benefits-of-exercise
#16
Willem T Peppler, Logan K Townsend, Carly M Knuth, Michelle T Foster, David C Wright
Exercise training has robust effects on subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), characterized by a shift to a brown adipose tissue (BAT) like phenotype. Consistent with this, transplantation of exercise-trained iWAT into sedentary rodents activates thermogenesis and improves glucose homeostasis, suggesting that iWAT metabolism may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. However, it is yet to be determined if adaptations in iWAT are necessary for the beneficial systemic effects of exercise...
October 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978428/genetic-depletion-of-adipocyte-creatine-metabolism-inhibits-diet-induced-thermogenesis-and-drives-obesity
#17
Lawrence Kazak, Edward T Chouchani, Gina Z Lu, Mark P Jedrychowski, Curtis J Bare, Amir I Mina, Manju Kumari, Song Zhang, Ivan Vuckovic, Dina Laznik-Bogoslavski, Petras Dzeja, Alexander S Banks, Evan D Rosen, Bruce M Spiegelman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977817/global-warming-and-obesity-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
R An, M Ji, S Zhang
Global warming and the obesity epidemic are two unprecedented challenges mankind faces today. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO and Scopus for articles published until July 2017 that reported findings on the relationship between global warming and the obesity epidemic. Fifty studies were identified. Topic-wise, articles were classified into four relationships - global warming and the obesity epidemic are correlated because of common drivers (n = 21); global warming influences the obesity epidemic (n = 13); the obesity epidemic influences global warming (n = 13); and global warming and the obesity epidemic influence each other (n = 3)...
October 4, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975783/gypenosides-reduced-the-risk-of-overweight-and-insulin-resistance-in-c57bl-6j-mice-through-modulating-adipose-thermogenesis-and-gut-microbiota
#19
Jie Liu, Yanfang Li, Puyu Yang, Jianchun Wan, Qimeng Chang, Thomas T Y Wang, Weiying Lu, Yaqiong Zhang, Qin Wang, Liangli Lucy Yu
This study investigated whether and how gypenosides from jiaogulan tea at 100 and 300 mg/kg/d levels could reduce the development of overweight and insulin resistance in C57 BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet in 12 weeks. The 300 mg/kg/d gypenosides supplement significantly reduced final body weight, plasma total cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index by 19.9, 40 and 36%, respectively, compared with the high-fat diet control group. Gypenosides also increased brown adipocyte tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970944/somatic-growth-aging-and-longevity
#20
REVIEW
Andrzej Bartke
Although larger species of animals typically live longer than smaller species, the relationship of body size to longevity within a species is generally opposite. The longevity advantage of smaller individuals can be considerable and is best documented in laboratory mice and in domestic dogs. Importantly, it appears to apply broadly, including humans. It is not known whether theses associations represent causal links between various developmental and physiological mechanisms affecting growth and/or aging. However, variations in growth hormone (GH) signaling are likely involved because GH is a key stimulator of somatic growth, and apparently also exerts various "pro-aging" effects...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
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