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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344017/intranasal-delivery-of-n-terminal-modified-leptin-pluronic-conjugate-for-treatment-of-obesity
#1
Dongfen Yuan, Xiang Yi, Yuling Zhao, Chi-Duen Poon, Kristin M Bullock, Kim M Hansen, Therese S Salameh, Susan A Farr, William A Banks, Alexander V Kabanov
Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that is delivered via a specific transport system across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to the brain where it acts on the hypothalamus receptors to control appetite and thermogenesis. Peripheral resistance to leptin due to its impaired brain delivery prevents therapeutic use of leptin in overweight and moderately obese patients. To address this problem, we modified the N-terminal amine of leptin with Pluronic P85 (LepNP85) and administered this conjugate intranasally using the nose-to-brain (INB) route to bypass the BBB...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335087/ursolic-acid-and-mechanisms-of-actions-on-adipose-and-muscle-tissue-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Carlos K Katashima, Vagner R Silva, Tatyanne L Gomes, Claude Pichard, Gustavo D Pimentel
This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression...
March 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333377/circadian-rhythms-in-adipose-tissue-physiology
#3
Jana-Thabea Kiehn, Anthony H Tsang, Isabel Heyde, Brinja Leinweber, Isa Kolbe, Alexei Leliavski, Henrik Oster
The different types of adipose tissues fulfill a wide range of biological functions-from energy storage to hormone secretion and thermogenesis-many of which show pronounced variations over the course of the day. Such 24-h rhythms in physiology and behavior are coordinated by endogenous circadian clocks found in all tissues and cells, including adipocytes. At the molecular level, these clocks are based on interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops comprised of a set of clock genes/proteins. Tissue-specific clock-controlled transcriptional programs translate time-of-day information into physiologically relevant signals...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330964/thermoregulatory-inversion-a-novel-thermoregulatory-paradigm
#4
Domenico Tupone, Georgina Cano, Shaun F Morrison
To maintain core body temperature in mammals, the normal CNS thermoregulatory reflex networks produce an increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in response to skin cooling, and an inhibition of the sympathetic outflow to BAT during skin rewarming. In contrast, these normal thermoregulatory reflexes appear to be inverted in hibernation/torpor: thermogenesis is inhibited during exposure to a cold environment, allowing dramatic reductions in core temperature and metabolism, and thermogenesis is activated during skin rewarming, contributing to a return of normal body temperature...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324157/water-fat-mri-in-a-hibernator-reveals-seasonal-growth-of-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-without-cold-exposure
#5
Amanda MacCannell, Kevin Sinclair, Lannette Friesen-Waldner, Charles A McKenzie, James F Staples
Obligate hibernators, such as ground squirrels, display circannual patterns which persist even under constant laboratory conditions, suggesting that they are regulated by endogenous rhythms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for thermogenesis during periodic arousals from hibernation when core body temperature rises spontaneously from 5 to 37 °C. In most small eutherians BAT growth requires several weeks of cold exposure. We hypothesized that in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), a hibernator, BAT growth is regulated, in part, by an endogenous rhythm and we predicted that this growth would precede the hibernation season without cold exposure...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302705/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-phenotype-and-metabolic-potential-in-mice-and-men
#6
Kanta Chechi, Wouter David van Marken Lichtenbelt, Denis Richard
With the recent re-discovery of brown fat in adult humans, our outlook on adipose tissue biology has undergone a paradigm shift. While we attempt to identify, recruit and activate classic brown fat stores in humans, identification of beige/brite adipocytes has also raised the possibility of browning our white fat stores. Whether such transformation of human white fat depots can be achieved in order to enhance the whole-body oxidative potential remains to be seen. Evidence to-date, however, largely points towards a major oxidative role only for classic brown fat depots in rodents and in humans (e...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302571/alpha-9-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-mediate-hypothermic-responses-elicited-by-provocative-motion-in-mice
#7
Longlong Tu, Lauren Poppi, John Rudd, Ethan T Cresswell, Doug W Smith, Alan Brichta, Eugene Nalivaiko
Hypothermic responses accompany motion sickness in humans and can be elicited by provocative motion in rats. We aimed to determine the potential role in these responses of the efferent cholinergic vestibular innervation. To this end, we used knockout (KO) mice lacking α9 cholinoreceptor subunit predominantly expressed in the vestibular hair cells and CBA strain as a wild-type (WT) control. In WT mice, circular horizontal motion (1Hz, 4cm radius, 20min) caused rapid and dramatic falls in core body temperature and surface head temperature associated with a transient rise in the tail temperature; these responses were substantially attenuated in KO mice; changes were (WT vs...
March 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291835/adipocyte-arrestin-domain-containing-3-protein-arrdc3-regulates-uncoupling-protein-1-ucp1-expression-in-white-adipose-independently-of-canonical-changes-in-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-signaling
#8
Shannon H Carroll, Ellen Zhang, Bing F Wang, Katherine B LeClair, Arifeen Rahman, David E Cohen, Jorge Plutzky, Parth Patwari, Richard T Lee
Adaptive thermogenesis and cold-induced activation of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) in brown adipose tissue in rodents is well-described and attributed to sympathetic activation of β-adrenergic signaling. The arrestin domain containing protein Arrdc3 is a regulator of obesity in mice and also appears linked to obesity in humans. We generated a mouse with conditional deletion of Arrdc3, and here we present evidence that genetic ablation of Arrdc3 specifically in adipocytes results in increased Ucp1 expression in subcutaneous and parametrial adipose tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288167/erythropoietin-epo-ameliorates-obesity-and-glucose-homeostasis-by-promoting-thermogenesis-and-endocrine-function-of-classical-brown-adipose-tissue-bat-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#9
Kazuki Kodo, Satoru Sugimoto, Hisakazu Nakajima, Jun Mori, Ikuyo Itoh, Shota Fukuhara, Keiichi Shigehara, Taichiro Nishikawa, Kitaro Kosaka, Hajime Hosoi
Erythropoietin (EPO), clinically used as a hematopoietic drug, has received much attention due to its nonhematopoietic effects. EPO reportedly has beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT: main part of classical BAT) could play a role in EPO's anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in diet-induced obese mice. Four-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD-Con), and half were additionally given an intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human EPO (200 IU/kg) (HFD-EPO) thrice a week for four weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285958/hypoxia-during-embryonic-development-increases-energy-metabolism-in-normoxic-juvenile-chicks
#10
Lara do Amaral-Silva, Carolina da S Scarpellini, Paula Andrea Toro-Velasquez, Marcia H M R Fernandes, Luciane H Gargaglioni, Kênia C Bícego
Environmental changes during perinatal development can affect the postnatal life. In this sense, chicken embryos that experience low levels of O2 over a specific phase of incubation can have their tissue growth reduced and the ventilatory response to hypoxia blunted, at least until hatching. Additionally, exposure to low level of O2 after birth reduces the thermogenesis as well. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia over the third week of incubation affects the thermoregulation of juvenile chicks at an age when thermogenesis is already expected to be well-developed...
March 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275131/tea-catechin-and-caffeine-activate-brown-adipose-tissue-and-increase-cold-induced-thermogenic-capacity-in-humans
#11
Takeshi Yoneshiro, Mami Matsushita, Masanobu Hibi, Hiroshi Tone, Masao Takeshita, Koichi Yasunaga, Yoshihisa Katsuragi, Toshimitsu Kameya, Hiroki Sugie, Masayuki Saito
Background: The thermogenic effects of green tea catechin have been repeatedly reported, but their mechanisms are poorly understood.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of catechin on brown adipose tissue (BAT), a site specialized for nonshivering thermogenesis, in humans.Design: Fifteen healthy male volunteers underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography to assess BAT activity. To examine the acute catechin effect, whole-body energy expenditure (EE) after a single oral ingestion of a beverage containing 615 mg catechin and 77 mg caffeine (catechin beverage) was measured...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270523/id1-promotes-obesity-by-suppressing-brown-adipose-thermogenesis-and-white-adipose-browning
#12
Mallikarjun Patil, Bal Krishan Sharma, Sawsan Elattar, Judith Chang, Shweta Kapil, Jinling Yuan, Ande Satyanarayana
Obesity results from increased energy intake or defects in energy expenditure. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for energy expenditure, a process called adaptive thermogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) controls BAT-mediated thermogenesis by regulating the expression of Ucp1 Inhibitor of differentiation 1 (Id1) is a helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of Id1 in BAT thermogenesis and programming of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT)...
March 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261997/the-strategies-of-behavior-energetic-and-thermogenesis-of-striped-hamsters-in-response-to-food-deprivation
#13
Jing Wen, Song Tan, Qinggang Qiao, Lulu Shi, Yixin Huang, Zhijun Zhao
The life history of many animals includes periods of food shortage. Two behavioral strategies are involved in small mammals in response to food shortage: an increase in activity behavior, representing the increased foraging or migratory behavior, and a decrease in activity level, serving as a mechanism for conserving energy. However, it is uncertain whether animals adopt both strategies in response to food shortage, and whether hormone and neuroendocrine mechamisms are involved in both strategies. In the present study, the changes of behavior and metabolic rate were examined in food-deprived striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis)...
March 6, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259688/hair-growth-cycle-is-arrested-in-scd1-deficiency-by-impaired-wnt3a-palmitoleoylation-and-retrieved-by-artificial-lipid-barrier
#14
Wilhelm Stoffel, Inga Schmidt-Soltau, Britta Jenke, Erika Binczek, Ina Hammels
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is the dominant member of the SCD-isozyme family, regarded as a major regulator of lipid and energy metabolism in liver and adipose tissue. SCD1-deficiency impairs the desaturation of de novo-synthesized palmitoyl- and stearoyl-CoA to palmitoleoyl- and oleoyl- CoA. Scd1-/- mice develop metabolic waste syndrome and skin lesions: epidermal barrier disruption, alopecia and degeneration of sebaceous glands. The unifying molecular link between the two divergent traits remains incompletely understood...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255980/thyroid-dysfunction-in-obese-and-overweight-children
#15
Ewelina Witkowska-Sędek, Anna Kucharska, Małgorzata Rumińska, Beata Pyrżak
Obesity and thyroid function are closely related. Thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of metabolism, thermogenesis, food intake, and fat oxidation. In obese children the most frequent hormonal abnormalities are slight hyperthyrotropinaemia and moderate increases in total T3 and/or fT3 concentrations. Those abnormalities are usually considered a cause of obesity, but according to recent studies, they should actually be considered an adaptation process aimed at increasing resting energy expenditure and total energy expenditure...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254751/glycinergic-inhibition-of-bat-sympathetic-premotor-neurons-in-rostral-raphe-pallidus
#16
Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Christopher J Madden, Shaun F Morrison
The rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa) contains sympathetic premotor neurons controlling thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We sought to determine if a tonic activation of glycineA receptors (GlyAR) in the rRPa contributes to the inhibitory regulation of BAT SNA and of cardiovascular parameters in anesthetized rats. Nanoinjection of the GlyAR antagonist, strychnine (STR), into the rRPa of intact rats increased BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA, peak: +495%), BAT temperature (TBAT, +1.1 ºC), expired CO2, (+0...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253990/mitochondrial-perturbation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-diabetes
#17
F Akhter, D Chen, S F Yan, S S Yan
Mitochondria are well-known cellular organelles that play a vital role in cellular bioenergetics, heme biosynthesis, thermogenesis, calcium homeostasis, lipid catabolism, and other metabolic activities. Given the extensive role of mitochondria in cell function, mitochondrial dysfunction plays a part in many diseases, including diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In most cases, there is overwhelming evidence that impaired mitochondrial function is a causative factor in these diseases. Studying mitochondrial function in diseased cells vs healthy cells may reveal the modified mechanisms and molecular components involved in specific disease states...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251760/the-nutrient-sensing-repertoires-of-mouse-enterochromaffin-cells-differ-between-duodenum-and-colon
#18
A M Martin, A L Lumsden, R L Young, C F Jessup, N J Spencer, D J Keating
BACKGROUND: Enterochromaffin (EC) cells within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide almost all body serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]). Peripheral 5-HT, released from EC cells lining the gut wall, serves diverse physiological roles. These include modulating GI motility, bone formation, hepatic gluconeogenesis, thermogenesis, insulin resistance, and regulation of fat mass. Enterochromaffin cells are nutrient sensors, but which nutrients they are responsive to and how this changes in different parts of the GI tract are poorly understood...
March 2, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249286/impact-of-fibroblast-growth-factors-19-and-21-in-bariatric-metabolism
#19
Ashley Patton, Farooq H Khan, Rohit Kohli
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is a popular and effective therapeutic intervention for obesity, which is an abnormal health condition that is prevalent worldwide. Metabolic improvements that precede weight loss after bariatric surgery may be mediated, in part, through the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15/19 and FGF21 signaling pathways. Both FGF15/19 and FGF21 are hormone-like members of the FGF family and exert their metabolic effects in an endocrine manner. Enhanced bile acid recycling after bariatric surgery leads to increased circulating levels of FGF15/19 in the distal small intestine...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247947/gm13133-is-a-negative-regulator-in-mouse-white-adipocytes-differentiation-and-drives-the-characteristics-of-brown-adipocytes
#20
LiangHui You, YaHui Zhou, XianWei Cui, XingYun Wang, YaZhou Sun, Yao Gao, Xing Wang, Juan Wen, Kaipeng Xie, RanRan Tang, ChenBo Ji, XiRong Guo
Obesity is tightly associated with the disturbance of white adipose tissue storing excess energy. Thermogenic adipocytes (brown and beige) exert a critical role of oxidizing nutrients at the high rates through non-shivering thermogenesis. The recruitment of brown characteristics in white adipocytes, termed browning, has been considered as a promising strategy for treating obesity and associated metabolic complications. Recently, long noncoding RNAs play a crucial role in regulating tissue development and participating in disease pathogenesis, yet their effects on the conversion of white into brown-like adipocytes and thermogenic function were not totally understood...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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