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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455954/the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-is-dispensable-for-cold-induced-adipose-tissue-browning-in-mice
#1
Merel Defour, Wieneke Dijk, Philip Ruppert, Emmani B M Nascimento, Patrick Schrauwen, Sander Kersten
OBJECTIVE: Chronic cold exposure causes white adipose tissue (WAT) to adopt features of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a process known as browning. Previous studies have hinted at a possible role for the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) in cold-induced browning. Here we aimed to investigate the importance of PPARα in driving transcriptional changes during cold-induced browning in mice. METHODS: Male wildtype and PPARα-/- mice were housed at thermoneutrality (28 °C) or cold (5 °C) for 10 days...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455575/exercise-counteracts-the-homeostatic-decrease-in-thermogenesis-caused-by-caloric-restriction-in-sheep
#2
John-Paul Fuller-Jackson, Iain J Clarke, Alexandra Rao, Belinda A Henry
Caloric restriction causes a homeostatic reduction in thermogenesis. We aimed to determine whether exercise could counteract this. We studied four groups of normal-weight ewes ( n = 5), including control sedentary fed ad libitum, exercise fed ad libitum (30 min/d, 5 d/wk), diet-restricted (70% of ad libitum food intake), and combined diet and exercise. Temperature probes implanted in sternal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue and skeletal muscle measured thermogenesis. After the 4-wk intervention, hypothalami were collected for in situ hybridization, and fat and muscle biopsies were collected for real-time PCR and Western blotting...
February 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449715/leptin-and-brain-adipose-crosstalks
#3
REVIEW
Alexandre Caron, Syann Lee, Joel K Elmquist, Laurent Gautron
Interactions between the brain and distinct adipose depots have a key role in maintaining energy balance, thereby promoting survival in response to metabolic challenges such as cold exposure and starvation. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the specific central neuronal circuits that regulate adipose depots. Here, we review anatomical, genetic and pharmacological studies on the neural regulation of adipose function, including lipolysis, non-shivering thermogenesis, browning and leptin secretion. In particular, we emphasize the role of leptin-sensitive neurons and the sympathetic nervous system in modulating the activity of brown, white and beige adipose tissues...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449313/impaired-thermogenesis-and-sharp-increases-in-plasma-triglyceride-levels-in-gpihbp1-deficient-mice-during-cold-exposure
#4
Mikael Larsson, Christopher M Allan, Patrick J Heizer, Yiping Tu, Norma P Sandoval, Rachel S Jung, Rosemary L Walzem, Anne P Beigneux, Stephen G Young, Loren G Fong
GPIHBP1, an endothelial cell protein, binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the subendothelial spaces and transports it to the capillary lumen. In Gpihbp1-/- mice, LPL remains stranded in the subendothelial spaces, causing hypertriglyceridemia, but how Gpihbp1-/- mice respond to metabolic stress (e.g., cold exposure) has never been studied. In wild-type mice, cold exposure increases LPL-mediated processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in brown adipose tissue (BAT), providing fuel for thermogenesis and leading to lower plasma triglyceride levels...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434941/paclitaxel-induced-hypothermia-and-hypoperfusion-increase-breast-cancer-metastasis-and-angiogenesis-in-mice
#5
Nozomi Ami, Hideki Sato, Yoshihiro Hayakawa
Housing temperature has been shown to influence thermoregulation and behavior of preclinical cancer models; and anti-cancer drugs typically reduce peripheral blood flow and body temperature. In the present study, the effects of paclitaxel (PTX)-induced reduction of body temperature and peripheral blood flow on metastatic 4T1 breast cancer was investigated in a mouse model and the modification of these effects by thermoneutral temperature was also assessed. A single dose of PTX decreased the body temperature and peripheral blood flow in mice housed at a standard temperature (23°C)...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434028/effects-of-thyroid-hormones-on-thermogenesis-and-energy-partitioning
#6
Karl Alexander Iwen, Rebecca Ölkrug, Georg Brabant
Thyroid hormones (TH) are of central importance for thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. Here we will discuss these aspects by focussing on the physiological aspects of TH-dependent regulation in response to cold exposure and fasting which will be compared to alterations in primary hyper- and hypothyroidism. In particular, we will summarise current knowledge on regional thyroid hormone status in the central nervous system (CNS) and in peripheral cells. In contrast to hyper- and hypothyroidism, where parallel changes are observed, local alterations in the CNS differ to peripheral compartments when induced by cold exposure or fasting...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433631/ampk-signaling-to-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-is-required-for-fasting-and-cold-induced-appetite-but-not-thermogenesis
#7
Sandra Galic, Kim Loh, Lisa Murray-Segal, Gregory R Steinberg, Zane B Andrews, Bruce E Kemp
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a known regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis, but the downstream AMPK substrates mediating these effects are not entirely clear. AMPK inhibits fatty acid synthesis and promotes fatty acid oxidation by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 at Ser 79 and ACC2 at Ser 212 . Using mice with Ser 79 Ala/Ser 212 Ala knock-in mutations (ACC DKI) we find that inhibition of ACC phosphorylation leads to reduced appetite in response to fasting or cold exposure. At sub-thermoneutral temperatures, ACC DKI mice maintain normal energy expenditure and thermogenesis, but fail to increase appetite and lose weight...
February 13, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430626/body-size-and-body-composition-effects-on-heat-loss-from-the-hands-during-severe-cold-exposure
#8
Stephanie Payne, Alison Macintosh, Jay Stock
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the influence of body size and composition on maintaining hand temperature during severe cold exposure. The hand's high surface area-to-volume ratio predisposes the hand to heat loss, increasing the risk of cold injury and even hypothermia, which are major selective pressures in cold environments. While vasoregulation may reduce heat loss from the hand, the effect of body form, tissue thermogenesis, and body insulation on heat loss is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thermal imaging was used to determine heat loss during a 3-min ice-water hand immersion test carried out on 114 volunteers (female = 63, male = 51)...
February 11, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425108/neck-adipose-tissue-tying-ties-in-metabolic-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Vlatka Pandzic Jaksic, Danijela Grizelj, Ana Livun, Drago Boscic, Marko Ajduk, Rajko Kusec, Ozren Jaksic
Upper body adipose tissue accumulation has been associated with clustering of metabolic disorders and increased cardiovascular risk. Neck circumference (NC) indicated that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in that region is an independent pathogenic depot that might account for the additional risk missed by visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Neck adipose tissue (NAT) is not only one more ectopic depot but has several particular features that might modulate its metabolic role. Besides a controversial impact on obstructive apnea syndrome, neck fat encompasses carotid arteries as an important perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) depot...
February 9, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414316/ppar%C3%AE-agonist-rosiglitazone-switches-fuel-preference-to-lipids-in-promoting-thermogenesis-under-cold-exposure-in-c57bl-6-mice
#10
Rong Gao, Wei Chen, Huang Yan, Xinni Xie, Dongqi Liu, Chenxi Wu, Zhaohui Zhu, Haijing Li, Fangting Dong, Lili Wang
Brown and beige adipose tissues play key roles in adaptive thermogenesis, which is essential for homoiotherms to maintain core temperature under cold exposure. PPARγ is a transcriptional regulator critical for brown adipose tissue (BAT) recruitment and white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Here we evaluated the impact of PPARγ activation on thermogenic activity in C57BL/6 mice under thermo-neutral and 4 °C cold environment, and revealed the regulating mechanism and metabolic basis. Rosiglitazone slowed body temperature loss in cold environment in C57BL/6 mice, suppressed cold-induced decreases in blood glucose, reversed cold-promoted 18F-FDG uptake, and increased lipid consumption in BAT...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407431/local-regulation-of-thyroid-hormone-signaling
#11
Alexander G Little
Thyroid hormone (TH) plays important signaling roles in mammalian growth, development, and thermogenesis. Traditionally its actions were thought to be regulated predominately through modulation of free plasma concentrations, intracellular breakdown by deiodinase enzymes and nuclear processing by thyroid receptors. In the past decade, however, there has been some departure from this classical model, whereby regulatory changes at different levels of organization simultaneously modulate its bioavailability and bioactivity...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397424/intracellular-thermometry-with-fluorescent-sensors-for-thermal-biology
#12
REVIEW
Kohki Okabe, Reiko Sakaguchi, Beini Shi, Shigeki Kiyonaka
Temperature influences the activities of living organisms at various levels. Cells not only detect environmental temperature changes through their unique temperature-sensitive molecular machineries but also muster an appropriate response to the temperature change to maintain their inherent functions. Despite the fundamental involvement of temperature in physiological phenomena, the mechanism by which cells produce and use heat is largely unknown. Recently, fluorescent thermosensors that function as thermometers in live cells have attracted much attention in biology...
February 4, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396369/cardiac-natriuretic-peptides-promote-adipose-browning-through-mtor-complex-1
#13
Dianxin Liu, Ryan P Ceddia, Sheila Collins
OBJECTIVE: Activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the ability to increase uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels and mitochondrial biogenesis in white fat (termed 'browning'), has great therapeutic potential to treat obesity and its comorbidities because of the net increase in energy expenditure. β-adrenergic-cAMP-PKA signaling has long been known to regulate these processes. Recently PKA-dependent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was shown to be necessary for adipose 'browning' as well as proper development of the interscapular BAT...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383825/ablation-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-subcutaneous-fat-exacerbates-age-associated-obesity-and-metabolic-decline
#14
Lingyan Xu, Xinran Ma, Narendra Kumar Verma, Dongmei Wang, Oksana Gavrilova, Richard L Proia, Toren Finkel, Elisabetta Mueller
It is well established that aging is associated with metabolic dysfunction such as increased adiposity and impaired energy dissipation; however, the transcriptional mechanisms regulating energy balance during late life stages have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we show that ablation of the nuclear receptor PPARγ specifically in inguinal fat tissue in aging mice is associated with increased fat tissue expansion and insulin resistance. These metabolic effects are accompanied by decreased thermogenesis, reduced levels of brown fat genes, and browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue...
January 31, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378832/membrane-trafficking-protein-cdp138-regulates-fat-browning-and-insulin-sensitivity-through-controlling-catecholamine-release
#15
Qiong L Zhou, Ye Song, Chun-Hong Huang, Jun-Yuan Huang, Zhenwei Gong, Zhangping Liao, Andria G Sharma, Lily Greene, Justin Z Deng, Michael C Rigor, Xiangyang Xie, Songtao Qi, Julio E Ayala, Zhen Y Jiang
CDP138 is a calcium- and lipid-binding protein that is involved in membrane trafficking. Here we report mice without CDP138 develop obesity under normal chow diet (NCD) or high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. CDP138-/- mice have lower energy expenditure, oxygen consumption and body temperature in comparison with wild-type (WT) mice. CDP138 is exclusively expressed in adrenal medulla and is co-localized with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of sympathetic nervous terminals, in the inguinal fat. In comparison with WT controls, CDP138-/- mice had altered catecholamine levels in the circulation, adrenal grand, and inguinal fat...
January 29, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374543/lysosomal-acid-lipase-regulates-fatty-acid-channeling-in-brown-adipose-tissue-to-maintain-thermogenesis
#16
Madalina Duta-Mare, Vinay Sachdev, Christina Leopold, Dagmar Kolb, Nemanja Vujic, Melanie Korbelius, Dina C Hofer, Wenmin Xia, Katharina Huber, Martina Auer, Benjamin Gottschalk, Christoph Magnes, Wolfgang F Graier, Andreas Prokesch, Branislav Radovic, Juliane G Bogner-Strauss, Dagmar Kratky
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is the only known enzyme, which hydrolyzes cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols in lysosomes of multiple cells and tissues. Here, we explored the role of LAL in brown adipose tissue (BAT). LAL-deficient (Lal-/-) mice exhibit markedly reduced UCP1 expression in BAT, modified BAT morphology with accumulation of lysosomes, and mitochondrial dysfunction, consequently leading to regular hypothermic events in mice kept at room temperature. Cold exposure resulted in reduced lipid uptake into BAT, thereby aggravating dyslipidemia and causing life threatening hypothermia in Lal-/- mice...
January 24, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370733/food-derived-regulatory-factors-against-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Teruo Kawada
Obesity is a key factor in metabolic syndrome. The study of metabolic syndrome focuses on the anti-weight gain properties of physiological mechanisms and food components. Abnormal energy metabolism is a major risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Chronic inflammation is a feature of obesity; cytokines from hypertrophied adipocytes cause inflammation in both adipose tissue and blood vessels, resulting in symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Tumor necrosis factor-α causes insulin resistance in adipocytes and regression of brown adipocytes, resulting in abnormal energy metabolism...
January 26, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365884/insulin-signaling-determines-anabolic-energy-uptake-processes-into-brown-fat-during-catabolic-conditions-of-adaptive-thermogenesis
#18
Markus Heine, Alexander Fischer, Renate Schreiber, Rudolf Zechner, Ludger Scheja, Jörg Heeren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364369/regulation-of-adiposity-by-mtorc1
#19
Juliana Magdalon, William Tadeu Festuccia
Obesity is characterized by an excessive increase in the adipose tissue mass, and is associated with higher incidence of several chronic metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Therefore, its increasing prevalence is a public health concern, and it is important to better understand its etiology to develop new therapeutic strategies. Evidence accumulated over the years indicates that obesity is associated with a marked activation in adipose tissue of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a signaling pathway that controls lipid metabolism, and adipocyte formation and maintenance...
October 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359735/an-oltam-system-for-analysis-of-brown-beige-fat-thermogenic-activity
#20
D-I Kim, J Liao, M P Emont, M-J Park, H Jun, S K Ramakrishnan, J D Lin, Y M Shah, M B Omary, J Wu
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Thermogenic fat is present in humans and emerging evidence indicates that increasing the content and activity of these adipocytes may lead to weight loss and improved metabolic health. Multiple reporter systems have been developed to assay thermogenic fat activity based on the transcriptional and translational activation of Ucp1, the key molecule that mediates nonshivering thermogenesis. Our study aims to develop a much-needed tool to monitor thermogenic fat activity through a mechanism independent of Ucp1 regulation, therefore effectively assaying not only canonical β-adrenergic activation but also various non-UCP1-mediated thermogenic pathways that have been increasingly appreciated...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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