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Thermogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812124/clozapine-chlorpromazine-and-risperidone-dose-dependently-reduce-emotional-hyperthermia-a-biological-marker-of-salience
#1
William W Blessing, Esther M Blessing, Mazher Mohammed, Youichirou Ootsuka
RATIONALE: We recently introduced a new rat model of emotional hyperthermia in which a salient stimulus activates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and tail artery constriction. Antipsychotic drugs, both classical and second generation, act to reduce excessive assignment of salience to objects and events in the external environment. The close association between salient occurrences and increases in body temperature suggests that antipsychotic drugs may also reduce emotional hyperthermia...
August 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806222/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-antagonists-prevent-anesthesia-induced-hypothermia-and-decrease-postincisional-opioid-dose-requirements-in-rodents
#2
Andras Garami, Mohab Ibrahim, Kerry Gilbraith, Rajesh Khanna, Eszter Pakai, Alexandra Miko, Erika Pinter, Andrej A Romanovsky, Frank Porreca, Amol M Patwardhan
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypothermia and postoperative pain control are two important clinical challenges in anesthesiology. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 has been implicated both in thermoregulation and pain. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonists were not advanced as analgesics in humans in part due to a side effect of hyperthermia. This study tested the hypothesis that a single, preincision injection of a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonist could prevent anesthesia-induced hypothermia and decrease the opioid requirement for postsurgical hypersensitivity...
August 14, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801960/mri-characterization-of-brown-adipose-tissue-under-thermal-challenges-in-normal-weight-overweight-and-obese-young-men
#3
Jie Deng, Lisa M Neff, Nicholas C Rubert, Bin Zhang, Richard M Shore, Jonathan D Samet, Paige C Nelson, Lewis Landsberg
PURPOSE: To implement quantitative Dixon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for brown adipose tissue (BAT) characterization at inactive and cold-activated states in normal weight, overweight, and obese subjects. The hypotheses are that MRI characteristics of BAT would differentiate between nonobese and obese subjects, and activation of BAT in response to thermal challenges that are detected by MRI would be correlated with BAT activity measured by positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET/CT)...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801784/prior-repeated-stress-attenuates-cold-induced-immunomodulation-associated-with-browning-in-mesenteric-fat-of-rats
#4
P Vargovic, M Laukova, J Ukropec, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
Continuous exposure to cold leads to activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue but also to induction of brown/beige cell phenotype in white adipose tissue. The aim of this work was to investigate whether prior exposure to immobilization (IMO) stress may affect immune response associated with adipocyte "browning" in mesenteric adipose tissue (mWAT). In the first experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to acute (3 h) or prolonged (7 days) cold exposure (4 ± 1 °C). 7-day cold stimulated gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 and other "browning"-associated factors...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801668/exercise-leads-to-unfavourable-cardiac-remodelling-and-enhanced-metabolic-homeostasis-in-obese-mice-with-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-autophagy-deficiency
#5
Zhen Yan, Ana Kronemberger, Jay Blomme, Jarrod A Call, Hannah M Caster, Renata O Pereira, Henan Zhao, Vitor U de Melo, Rhianna C Laker, Mei Zhang, Vitor A Lira
Autophagy is stimulated by exercise in several tissues; yet the role of skeletal and cardiac muscle-specific autophagy on the benefits of exercise training remains incompletely understood. Here, we determined the metabolic impact of exercise training in obese mice with cardiac and skeletal muscle disruption of the Autophagy related 7 gene (Atg7(h&mKO)). Muscle autophagy deficiency did not affect glucose clearance and exercise capacity in lean adult mice. High-fat diet in sedentary mice led to endoplasmic reticulum stress and aberrant mitochondrial protein expression in autophagy-deficient skeletal and cardiac muscles...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801239/salsalate-activates-skeletal-muscle-thermogenesis-and-protects-mice-from-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-dysfunction
#6
Li Nie, Xin-Lu Yuan, Ke-Tao Jiang, Yu-Hui Jiang, Jin Yuan, Lan Luo, Shi-Wei Cui, Cheng Sun
Salsalate plays beneficial roles for ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, by administering salsalate to mice fed with high fat diet and examining how salsalate rectifies metabolic dysfunction in these obese mice, we found that salsalate stimulated body temperature and attenuated body weight gain without affecting food intake. Our results showed that salsalate application decreased lipid accumulation in liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis and improved insulin signaling transduction in eWAT...
August 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796895/antiobesity-effects-of-resveratrol-which-tissues-are-involved
#7
REVIEW
Alfredo Fernández-Quintela, Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, Marcela González, Maria P Portillo
The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in recent decades and is reaching epidemic proportions. The current options for overweight and obesity management are energy restriction and physical activity. However, compliance with these treatments is frequently poor and less successful than expected. Therefore, the scientific community is interested in active biomolecules, which may be useful in body weight management. Among them, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) has generated great interest as an antiobesity agent...
August 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794154/both-brown-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-thermogenesis-processes-are-activated-during-mild-to-severe-cold-adaptation-in-mice
#8
Naresh C Bal, Sushant Singh, Felipe C G Reis, Santosh K Maurya, Sunil Pani, Leslie A Rowland, Muthu Periasamy
Thermogenesis is an important homeostatic mechanism, essential for survival and normal physiological functions in mammals. Both brown adipose tissue (BAT) (i.e. uncoupling protein 1 [UCP1]-based) and skeletal muscle (i.e. sarcolipin [SLN]-based) thermogenesis processes play important roles in temperature homeostasis, but their relative contributions differ from small to large mammals. In this study, we investigated the functional interplay between skeletal muscle and BAT-based thermogenesis under mild versus severe cold adaptation employing UCP1-/- and SLN-/- mice...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782601/metabolomic-profile-in-hyperthyroid-patients-before-and-after-antithyroid-drug-treatment-correlation-with-thyroid-hormone-and-tsh-concentration
#9
Cristina Piras, Nicolò Arisci, Simone Poddighe, Sonia Liggi, Stefano Mariotti, Luigi Atzori
Hyperthyroidism (HT) is characterized by an intense metabolic impact which affects the lipid, carbohydrate and amino acids metabolism, with increased resting energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Metabolomics is a new comprehensive technique that allows to capture an instant metabolic picture of an organism, reflecting peculiar molecular and pathophysiological states. The aim of the present prospective study was to identify a distinct metabolomic profile in HT patients using (1)H NMR spectroscopy before and after antithyroid drug treatment...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781081/specific-interaction-of-the-human-mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-1-with-free-long-chain-fatty-acid
#10
Linlin Zhao, Shuqing Wang, Qianli Zhu, Bin Wu, Zhijun Liu, Bo OuYang, James J Chou
The mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) generates heat by causing proton leak across the mitochondrial inner membrane that requires fatty acid (FA). The mechanism by which UCP1 uses FA to conduct proton remains unsolved, and it is also unclear whether a direct physical interaction between UCP1 and FA exists. Here, we have shown using nuclear magnetic resonance that FA can directly bind UCP1 at a helix-helix interface site composed of residues from the transmembrane helices H1 and H6. According to the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement data and molecular dynamics simulation, the FA acyl chain appears to fit into the groove between H1 and H6 while the FA carboxylate group interacts with the basic residues near the matrix side of UCP1...
July 19, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774950/energy-expenditure-responses-to-exercise-training-in-older-women
#11
Xuewen Wang, Kimberly P Bowyer, Ryan R Porter, Charity B Breneman, Sabra S Custer
Previous studies have shown inconsistent findings regarding how structured exercise affects energy expenditure (EE). This study was designed to determine the changes in EE and physical activity following exercise training in older women. Nonobese (body mass index = 25.8 ± 3.4 kg·m(-2)) women (60-75 years, n = 72) completed a 4-month supervised aerobic exercise training of lower- or higher-dose (33.6 and 58.8 kJ·kg(-1) body weight weekly, respectively) at 50-55% of heart rate reserve. Total daily EE (TDEE) by the doubly labeled water method, resting metabolic rate (RMR) via indirect calorimetry, and physical activity by accelerometer were determined before and at the end of exercise training...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774753/aerobic-scope-in-chicken-embryos
#12
Satoko T Ide, Ryoji Ide, Jacopo P Mortola
We investigated the aerobic scope of chicken embryos, that is, the margin of increase of oxygen consumption ( [Formula: see text] ) above its normal value. [Formula: see text] was measured by an open-flow methodology at embryonic ages E3, E7, E11, E15, E19 and at E20 at the internal (IP) and external pipping (EP) phases, at the normal incubation temperature (Ta=38°C), in hypothermia (Ta=30°C) and in hyperthermia (Ta=41 and 44°C). In the cold, Q10 averaged ~2 at all ages, except in IP and EP when lower values (~1...
July 31, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772276/the-hypothalamic-preoptic-area-and-body-weight-control
#13
Sangho Yu, Marie François, Clara Huesing, Heike Münzberg
<br>The preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus is involved in many physiological and behavioral processes thanks to its inter-connections to many brain areas and ability to respond to diverse humoral factors. One main function of the POA is to manage body temperature homeostasis, e.g. in response to ambient temperature change, which is achieved in part by controlling brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. The POA is also importantly involved in modulating food intake in response to temperature change, thus making it relevant for body weight homeostasis and obesity research...
August 2, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770320/fgf21-improves-glucose-homeostasis-in-an-obese-diabetes-prone-mouse-model-independent-of-body-fat-changes
#14
Thomas Laeger, Christian Baumeier, Ilka Wilhelmi, Josefine Würfel, Anne Kamitz, Annette Schürmann
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered to be a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, as FGF21 levels are elevated in obese and diabetic conditions we aimed to test if exogenous FGF21 is sufficient to prevent diabetes and beta cell loss in New Zealand obese (NZO) mice, a model for polygenetic obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Male NZO mice were treated with a specific dietary regimen that leads to the onset of diabetes within 1 week...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768181/long-term-cold-adaptation-does-not-require-fgf21-or-ucp1
#15
Susanne Keipert, Maria Kutschke, Mario Ost, Thomas Schwarzmayr, Evert M van Schothorst, Daniel Lamp, Laura Brachthäuser, Isabel Hamp, Sithandiwe E Mazibuko, Sonja Hartwig, Stefan Lehr, Elisabeth Graf, Oliver Plettenburg, Frauke Neff, Matthias H Tschöp, Martin Jastroch
Brown adipose tissue (BAT)-dependent thermogenesis and its suggested augmenting hormone, FGF21, are potential therapeutic targets in current obesity and diabetes research. Here, we studied the role of UCP1 and FGF21 for metabolic homeostasis in the cold and dissected underlying molecular mechanisms using UCP1-FGF21 double-knockout mice. We report that neither UCP1 nor FGF21, nor even compensatory increases of FGF21 serum levels in UCP1 knockout mice, are required for defense of body temperature or for maintenance of energy metabolism and body weight...
August 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768167/burning-fat-and-building-bone-by-fsh-blockade
#16
Carlos Henrique Sponton, Shingo Kajimura
The rise of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hallmark of menopause associated with osteoporosis and visceral adiposity. In Nature, Zaidi and colleagues (Liu et al., 2017) report that blocking FSH action reduces body fat by promoting brown/beige fat thermogenesis, potentially providing a new intervention for the treatment of menopause-related metabolic diseases.
August 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758166/a-coconut-oil-rich-meal-does-not-enhance-thermogenesis-compared-to-corn-oil-in-a-randomized-trial-in-obese-adolescents
#17
Janna LaBarrie, Marie-Pierre St-Onge
BACKGROUND: Consumption of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in overweight adults increases thermogenesis and improves weight management. Coconut oil is a rich natural source of MCT, but its thermogenic effect is unknown. Our study evaluated the effects of a test oil enriched in coconut oil, on energy expenditure, satiety, and metabolic markers in a randomized, double blind, cross-over study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifteen children, age 13-18 years, body mass index >85th percentile for age and sex, were enrolled...
2017: Insights Nutr Metab
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752044/ca-2-associated-triphasic-ph-changes-in-mitochondria-during-brown-adipocyte-activation
#18
Yanyan Hou, Tetsuya Kitaguchi, Rókus Kriszt, Yu-Hua Tseng, Michael Raghunath, Madoka Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: Brown adipocytes (BAs) are endowed with a high metabolic capacity for energy expenditure due to their high mitochondria content. While mitochondrial pH is dynamically regulated in response to stimulation and, in return, affects various metabolic processes, how mitochondrial pH is regulated during adrenergic stimulation-induced thermogenesis is unknown. We aimed to reveal the spatial and temporal dynamics of mitochondrial pH in stimulated BAs and the mechanisms behind the dynamic pH changes...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751675/cell-cycle-arrest-in-mature-adipocytes-impairs-bat-development-but-not-wat-browning-and-reduces-adaptive-thermogenesis-in-mice
#19
Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Keigo Fukano, Ayumi Tsubota, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Kyoko Nakamura, Masami Morimatsu, Hiroshi Sakaue, Masayuki Saito, Kazuhiro Kimura
We previously reported brown adipocytes can proliferate even after differentiation. To test the involvement of mature adipocyte proliferation in cell number control in fat tissue, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice over-expressing cell-cycle inhibitory protein p27 specifically in adipocytes, using the aP2 promoter. While there was no apparent difference in white adipose tissue (WAT) between wild-type (WT) and Tg mice, the amount of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was much smaller in Tg mice. Although BAT showed a normal cellular morphology, Tg mice had lower content of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) as a whole, and attenuated cold exposure- or β3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist-induced thermogenesis, with a decrease in the number of mature brown adipocytes expressing proliferation markers...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747407/chronic-hindbrain-administration-of-oxytocin-is-sufficient-to-elicit-weight-loss-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#20
Zachary S Roberts, Tami H Wolden-Hanson, Miles E Matsen, Vitaly Ryu, Cheryl H Vaughan, James L Graham, Peter J Havel, Daniel Wahieb Chukri, Michael W Schwartz, Gregory J Morton, James E Blevins
Oxytocin (OT) administration elicits weight loss in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, nonhuman primates and humans by both reducing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure (EE). Although the neurocircuitry underlying these effects remains uncertain, OT neurons in the paraventricular nucleus are positioned to control both energy intake and sympathetic nervous system outflow to interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) through projections to both the hindbrain nucleus of the solitary tract and spinal cord...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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