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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235464/syk-kinase-mediates-brown-fat-differentiation-and-activation
#1
Marko Knoll, Sally Winther, Anirudh Natarajan, Huan Yang, Mengxi Jiang, Prathapan Thiru, Aliakbar Shahsafaei, Tony E Chavarria, Dudley W Lamming, Lei Sun, Jacob B Hansen, Harvey F Lodish
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism influences glucose homeostasis and metabolic health in mice and humans. Sympathetic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in response to cold induces proliferation, differentiation, and UCP1 expression in pre-adipocytes and mature brown adipocytes. Here we show that spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is upregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and activated by β-adrenergic stimulation. Deletion or inhibition of SYK, a kinase known for its essential roles in the immune system, blocks brown and white pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation in vitro, and results in diminished expression of Ucp1 and other genes regulating brown adipocyte function in response to β-adrenergic stimulation...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233981/a-mir-327-fgf10-fgfr2-mediated-autocrine-signaling-mechanism-controls-white-fat-browning
#2
Carina Fischer, Takahiro Seki, Sharon Lim, Masaki Nakamura, Patrik Andersson, Yunlong Yang, Jennifer Honek, Yangang Wang, Yanyan Gao, Fang Chen, Nilesh J Samani, Jun Zhang, Masato Miyake, Seiichi Oyadomari, Akihiro Yasue, Xuri Li, Yun Zhang, Yizhi Liu, Yihai Cao
Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating beige adipocyte formation may lead to the development of new therapies to combat obesity. Here, we report a miRNA-based autocrine regulatory pathway that controls differentiation of preadipocytes into beige adipocytes. We identify miR-327 as one of the most downregulated miRNAs targeting growth factors in the stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) under conditions that promote white adipose tissue (WAT) browning in mice. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments reveal that miR-327 targets FGF10 to prevent beige adipocyte differentiation...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230933/biology-and-pathological-implications-of-brown-adipose-tissue-promises-and-caveats-for-the-control-of-obesity-and-its-associated-complications
#3
Pablo Tapia, Marta Fernández-Galilea, Fermín Robledo, Pablo Mardones, José E Galgani, Víctor A Cortés
The discovery of metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has fuelled the research of diverse aspects of this previously neglected tissue. BAT is solely present in mammals and its clearest physiological role is non-shivering thermogenesis, owing to the capacity of brown adipocytes to dissipate metabolic energy as heat. Recently, a number of other possible functions have been proposed, including direct regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis and the secretion of a number of factors with diverse regulatory actions...
December 11, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224101/estradiol-regulation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis
#4
Ismael González-García, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Miguel López
Physiologically, estrogens carry out a myriad of functions, the most essential being the regulation of the reproductive axis. Currently, it is also dogmatic that estrogens play an important role modulating energy balance and metabolism. In this sense, it is well known that low estrogens levels, occurring due to ovarian insufficiency, in conditions such as menopause or ovariectomy (OVX), are associated with increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure, leading to weight gain and obesity at long term...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217655/regulation-of-lipolytic-response-and-energy-balance-by-melanocortin-2-receptor-accessory-protein-mrap-in-adipocytes
#5
Xiaodong Zhang, Alicia M Saarinen, Latoya E Campbell, Elena A De Filippis, Jun Liu
MRAP is highly expressed in adrenal gland and adipose tissue. In adrenal cells, MRAP is essential for ACTH-induced activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway by melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), leading to glucocorticoid production and secretion. Although ACTH was known to stimulate PKA-dependent lipolysis, the functional involvement of MRAP in adipocyte metabolism remains incompletely defined. Herein, we found that knockdown or overexpression of MRAP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced or increased ACTH-induced lipolysis, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216033/fattening-the-role-of-ca2-cycling-in-adaptive-thermogenesis
#6
Daniel Gamu, A Russell Tupling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212950/pi3k%C3%AE-inactivation-in-leptin-receptor-cells-increases-leptin-sensitivity-but-disrupts-growth-and-reproduction
#7
David Garcia-Galiano, Beatriz C Borges, Jose Donato, Susan J Allen, Nicole Bellefontaine, Mengjie Wang, Jean J Zhao, Kenneth M Kozloff, Jennifer W Hill, Carol F Elias
The role of PI3K in leptin physiology has been difficult to determine due to its actions downstream of several metabolic cues, including insulin. Here, we used a series of mouse models to dissociate the roles of specific PI3K catalytic subunits and of insulin receptor (InsR) downstream of leptin signaling. We show that disruption of p110α and p110β subunits in leptin receptor cells (LRΔα+β) produces a lean phenotype associated with increased energy expenditure, locomotor activity, and thermogenesis. LRΔα+β mice have deficient growth and delayed puberty...
December 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212043/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-ucp1-and-ucp3-by-purine-nucleotides-and-phosphate
#8
Gabriel Macher, Melanie Koehler, Anne Rupprecht, Jürgen Kreiter, Peter Hinterdorfer, Elena E Pohl
Mitochondrial membrane uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is not only expressed in skeletal muscle and heart, but also in brown adipose tissue (BAT) alongside UCP1, which facilitates a proton leak to support non-shivering thermogenesis. In contrast to UCP1, the transport function and molecular mechanism of UCP3 regulation are poorly investigated, although it is generally agreed upon that UCP3, analogous to UCP1, transports protons, is activated by free fatty acids (FFAs) and is inhibited by purine nucleotides (PN)...
December 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210120/endogenous-peripheral-hydrogen-sulfide-is-propyretic-its-permissive-role-in-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-in-rats
#9
Renato N Soriano, Sara P Braga, Jéssica S C Breder, Marcelo E Batalhao, Gabriela R Oliveira-Pelegrin, Luiz Fernando R Ferreira, Maria José A Rocha, Evelin C Carnio, Luiz G S Branco
In recent years hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has been reported as a gaseous modulator acting in several tissues in health and disease. In systemic inflammation animal models, plasma H2 S concentration increases in response to endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation is fever, but reports of the peripheral action of H2 S on this thermoregulatory response are not found. We aimed at investigating whether endogenous systemic H2 S modulates LPS-induced fever...
December 6, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209779/central-regulation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-and-energy-homeostasis-dependent-on-food-availability
#10
REVIEW
Yoshiko Nakamura, Kazuhiro Nakamura
Energy homeostasis of mammals is maintained by balancing energy expenditure within the body and energy intake through feeding. Several lines of evidence indicate that brown adipose tissue (BAT), a sympathetically activated thermogenic organ, turns excess energy into heat to maintain the energy balance in rodents and humans, in addition to its thermoregulatory role for the defense of body core temperature in cold environments. Elucidating the central circuit mechanism controlling BAT thermogenesis dependent on nutritional conditions and food availability in relation to energy homeostasis is essential to understand the etiology of symptoms caused by energy imbalance, such as obesity...
December 5, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209367/functional-characterization-of-preadipocytes-derived-from-human-periaortic-adipose-tissue
#11
Diana Vargas, Jaime Camacho, Juan Duque, Marisol Carreño, Edward Acero, Máximo Pérez, Sergio Ramirez, Juan Umaña, Carlos Obando, Albert Guerrero, Néstor Sandoval, Gina Rodríguez, Fernando Lizcano
Adipose tissue can affect the metabolic control of the cardiovascular system, and its anatomic location can affect the vascular function differently. In this study, biochemical and phenotypical characteristics of adipose tissue from periaortic fat were evaluated. Periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues were obtained from areas surrounding the ascending aorta and sternotomy incision, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from patients undergoing myocardial revascularization or mitral valve replacement surgery...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206867/gnb3-overexpression-causes-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome
#12
Alev Cagla Ozdemir, Grace M Wynn, Aimee Vester, M Neale Weitzmann, Gretchen N Neigh, Shanthi Srinivasan, M Katharine Rudd
The G-protein beta subunit 3 (GNB3) gene has been implicated in obesity risk; however, the molecular mechanism of GNB3-related disease is unknown. GNB3 duplication is responsible for a syndromic form of childhood obesity, and an activating DNA sequence variant (C825T) in GNB3 is also associated with obesity. To test the hypothesis that GNB3 overexpression causes obesity, we created bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice that carry an extra copy of the human GNB3 risk allele. Here we show that GNB3-T/+ mice have increased adiposity, but not greater food intake or a defect in satiety...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203476/ucp1-deficiency-increases-adipose-tissue-monounsaturated-fatty-acid-synthesis-and-trafficking-to-the-liver
#13
Laura M Bond, James M Ntambi
Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) facilitates thermogenesis in brown and beige adipocytes and can promote energy expenditure by decreasing mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Defects in UCP1 and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis subject animals to chronic cold stress and elicit compensatory responses to generate heat. How UCP1 regulates white adipose tissue (WAT) lipid biology and tissue crosstalk is not completely understood. Here, we probe the effect of UCP1 deficiency on fatty acid metabolism in inguinal and epididymal WAT and investigate how these metabolic perturbations influence hepatic lipid homeostasis...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200996/regulation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-by-interoceptive-cns-pathways-the-interaction-between-brain-and-periphery
#14
Otto Muzik, Vaibhav A Diwadkar
To maintain thermal homeostasis, specific thermogenic tissues are under the control of central thermoregulatory networks that regulate the body's response to thermal challenges. One of these mechanisms involves non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is activated in cold environments in order to defend the body against physical damage as a result of hypothermia. The objective of our study was to assess the interaction between CNS thermoregulatory pathways and sympathetic innervation in BAT during a cold exposure paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199788/adaptive-thermogenesis-and-changes-in-body-composition-and-physical-fitness-in-army-cadets
#15
Juliano H Borges, Gary R Hunter, Analiza M Silva, Vagner X Cirolini, Raquel D Langer, Mauro A Páscoa, Gil Guerra, Ezequiel M Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: To analyze the association between a 34-week military training on body composition, physical fitness and compensatory changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) recognized as adaptive thermogenesis (AT). We also explored if regional body composition changes were related to AT. METHODS: Twenty-nine male army cadets, aged 17 to 22 years were tested at baseline (T0) and after 34-weeks military training (T1). Physical training was performed 5 days/week during 90 minutes/day...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198749/mitochondrial-fission-is-associated-with-ucp1-activity-in-human-brite-beige-adipocytes
#16
Didier F Pisani, Valentin Barquissau, Jean-Claude Chambard, Diane Beuzelin, Rayane A Ghandour, Maude Giroud, Aline Mairal, Sophie Pagnotta, Saverio Cinti, Dominique Langin, Ez-Zoubir Amri
OBJECTIVE: Thermogenic adipocytes (i.e. brown or brite/beige adipocytes) are able to burn large amounts of lipids and carbohydrates as a result of highly active mitochondria and enhanced uncoupled respiration, due to UCP1 activity. Although mitochondria are the key organelles for this thermogenic function, limited human data are available. METHODS/RESULTS: We characterized changes in the mitochondrial function of human brite adipocytes, using hMADS cells as a model of white- to brite-adipocyte conversion...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193738/cooperative-role-of-the-glp-1-receptor-and-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-mediated-signaling-on-fat-mass-reduction-through-the-down-regulation-of-pka-akt-ampk-signaling-in-the-adipose-tissue-and-muscle-of-rats
#17
Juan Decara, Patricia Rivera, Sergio Arrabal, Antonio Vargas, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Javier Pavón, Carlos Dieguez, Rubén Nogueiras, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Juan Suárez
AIM: To explore the cooperation of GLP-1 receptor and β3-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling in the control of fat mass/feeding behavior by studying the effects of a combined therapy composed of the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide and the β3-AR agonist CL316243. METHODS: The study included the analysis of key mechanisms regulating lipid/cholesterol metabolism, and thermogenesis in brown (BAT) and epididymal white (eWAT) adipose tissues, abdominal muscle and liver of male rats...
November 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193411/a-systematic-review-of-the-anti-obesity-and-weight-lowering-effect-of-ginger-zingiber-officinale-roscoe-and-its-mechanisms-of-action
#18
REVIEW
Vahideh Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Aida Malek Mahdavi, Zeinab Javadivala, Sepideh Mahluji, Sepideh Zununi Vahed, Alireza Ostadrahimi
Recently, the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity is taken into consideration. Albeit, it seems that the anti-obesity effect of ginger and its mechanism of action has not yet been reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity management. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and Science Direct were searched from 1995 until May 2017 using the definitive keywords. Searching was limited to articles with English language...
November 29, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176631/lack-of-adipocyte-fndc5-irisin-expression-and-secretion-reduces-thermogenesis-and-enhances-adipogenesis
#19
D Pérez-Sotelo, A Roca-Rivada, I Baamonde, J Baltar, A I Castro, E Domínguez, M Collado, F F Casanueva, M Pardo
Irisin is a browning-stimulating molecule secreted from the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 precursor (FNDC5) by muscle tissue upon exercise stimulation. Despite its beneficial role, there is an unmet and clamorous need to discern many essential aspects of this protein and its mechanism of action not only as a myokine but also as an adipokine. Here we contribute to address this topic by revealing the nature and role of FNDC5/irisin in adipose tissue. First, we show that FNDC5/irisin expression and secretion are induced by adipocyte differentiation and confirm its over-secretion by human obese visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175050/vacuolar-protein-sorting-13c-is-a-novel-lipid-droplet-protein-that-inhibits-lipolysis-in-brown-adipocytes
#20
Vanesa D Ramseyer, Victoria A Kimler, James G Granneman
OBJECTIVE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis depends on the mobilization and oxidation of fatty acids from intracellular lipid droplets (LD) within brown adipocytes (BAs); however, the identity and function of LD proteins that control BAT lipolysis remain incomplete. Proteomic analysis of mouse BAT subcellular fractions identified vacuolar protein sorting 13C (VPS13C) as a novel LD protein. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of VPS13C on BA LDs. METHODS: Biochemical fractionation and high resolution confocal and immuno-transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to determine the subcellular distribution of VPS13C in mouse BAT, white adipose tissue, and BA cell culture...
November 12, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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