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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681860/cardiovascular-and-metabolic-responses-to-the-ingestion-of-caffeinated-herbal-tea-drink-it-hot-or-cold
#1
Claire Maufrais, Delphine Sarafian, Abdul Dulloo, Jean-Pierre Montani
Aim: Tea is usually consumed at two temperatures (as hot tea or as iced tea). However, the importance of drink temperature on the cardiovascular system and on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses to the ingestion of caffeinated herbal tea (Yerba Mate) at cold or hot temperature in healthy young subjects. We hypothesized that ingestion of cold tea induces a higher increase in energy expenditure than hot tea without eliciting any negative effects on the cardiovascular system...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679742/adaptive-thermogenesis-by-dietary-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-emerging-evidence-and-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Rong Fan, Karsten Koehler, Soonkyu Chung
Brown/beige fat plays a crucial role in maintaining energy homeostasis through non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold temperature and excess nutrition (adaptive thermogenesis). Although numerous molecular and genetic regulators have been identified, relatively little information is available regarding thermogenic dietary molecules. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests that high consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or activation of GPR120, a membrane receptor of n-3 PUFA, stimulate adaptive thermogenesis...
April 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677509/beyond-host-defense-emerging-functions-of-the-immune-system-in-regulating-complex-tissue-physiology
#3
REVIEW
Lucille C Rankin, David Artis
The essential roles played by the immune system in the discrimination between self- versus non/altered-self and its integral role in promoting host defense against invading microbes and tumors have been extensively studied for many years. In these contexts, significant advances have been made in defining the molecular and cellular networks that orchestrate cell-cell communication to mediate host defense and pathogen expulsion. Notably, recent studies indicate that in addition to these classical immune functions, cells of the innate and adaptive immune system also sense complex tissue- and environment-derived signals, including those from the nervous system and the diet...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675580/brown-adipose-tissue-in-human-infants
#4
Martin E Lidell
Adapting to the cold extrauterine environment after birth is a great challenge for the newborn. Due to their high surface area-to-volume ratio, infants tend to lose more heat to the environment as compared to adults. In addition, human newborns lack sufficiently developed skeletal muscle mass to maintain body temperature through shivering thermogenesis, an important source of heat in cold-exposed adults. Evolution has provided humans and other placental mammals with brown adipose tissue (BAT), a tissue that converts chemically stored energy, in the form of fatty acids and glucose, into heat through non-shivering thermogenesis...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674659/histone-demethylase-jmjd1a-coordinates-acute-and-chronic-adaptation-to-cold-stress-via-thermogenic-phospho-switch
#5
Yohei Abe, Yosuke Fujiwara, Hiroki Takahashi, Yoshihiro Matsumura, Tomonobu Sawada, Shuying Jiang, Ryo Nakaki, Aoi Uchida, Noriko Nagao, Makoto Naito, Shingo Kajimura, Hiroshi Kimura, Timothy F Osborne, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Tatsuhiko Kodama, Takeshi Inagaki, Juro Sakai
In acute cold stress in mammals, JMJD1A, a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylase, upregulates thermogenic gene expressions through β-adrenergic signaling in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Aside BAT-driven thermogenesis, mammals have another mechanism to cope with long-term cold stress by inducing the browning of the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Here, we show that this occurs through a two-step process that requires both β-adrenergic-dependent phosphorylation of S265 and demethylation of H3K9me2 by JMJD1A...
April 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673115/the-nuclear-retinoid-related-orphan-receptor-ror%C3%AE-controls-circadian-thermogenic-programming-in-white-fat-depots
#6
Chloé Monnier, Martine Auclair, Gala Le Cam, Marie-Pauline Garcia, Bénédicte Antoine
The RORα-deficient staggerer (sg/sg) mouse is lean and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Its thermogenic activity was shown to be increased not only in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but also in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) where UCP1 content was enhanced, however, without Prdm16 coexpression. Our observation of partial multilocular lipid morphology of WAT in sg/sg mice both in the inguinal and perigonadal sites led us to focus on the phenotype of both fat depots. Because RORα is a nuclear factor acting in the clock machinery, we looked at the circadian expression profile of genes involved in thermogenesis and browning in WAT and BAT depots of sg/sg and WT mice, through real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670241/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-producing-interleukin-17a-regulate-adipose-regulatory-t-cell-homeostasis-and-thermogenesis
#7
Ayano C Kohlgruber, Shani T Gal-Oz, Nelson M LaMarche, Moto Shimazaki, Danielle Duquette, Hung N Nguyen, Amir I Mina, Tyler Paras, Ali Tavakkoli, Ulrich von Andrian, Alexander S Banks, Tal Shay, Michael B Brenner, Lydia Lynch
γδ T cells are situated at barrier sites and guard the body from infection and damage. However, little is known about their roles outside of host defense in nonbarrier tissues. Here, we characterize a highly enriched tissue-resident population of γδ T cells in adipose tissue that regulate age-dependent regulatory T cell (Treg ) expansion and control core body temperature in response to environmental fluctuations. Mechanistically, innate PLZF+ γδ T cells produced tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL) 17 A and determined PDGFRα+ and Pdpn+ stromal-cell production of IL-33 in adipose tissue...
May 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668464/effects-of-%C3%AE-prazosin-and-yohimbine-and-%C3%AE-receptors-activity-on-camp-generation-and-ucp1-gene-expression-in-brown-adipocytes
#8
Hirendra M Biswas
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains both α- and β-adrenergic receptors. In the literature, the activity of α-adrenoreceptors is less documented, and their functions still remain puzzling. The present investigation has been undertaken to understand α-adrenoreceptors' activity and their relation between uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA expression and cyclic AMP (cAMP) generation in BAT. METHODS: BAT precursor cells from young mice were grown in culture...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661693/phosphorylation-of-beta-3-adrenergic-receptor-at-serine-247-by-erk-map-kinase-drives-lipolysis-in-obese-adipocytes
#9
Shangyu Hong, Wei Song, Peter-James H Zushin, Bingyang Liu, Mark P Jedrychowski, Amir I Mina, Zhaoming Deng, Dimitrije Cabarkapa, Jessica A Hall, Colin J Palmer, Hassan Aliakbarian, John Szpyt, Steven P Gygi, Ali Tavakkoli, Lydia Lynch, Norbert Perrimon, Alexander S Banks
OBJECTIVE: The inappropriate release of free fatty acids from obese adipose tissue stores has detrimental effects on metabolism, but key molecular mechanisms controlling FFA release from adipocytes remain undefined. Although obesity promotes systemic inflammation, we find activation of the inflammation-associated Mitogen Activated Protein kinase ERK occurs specifically in adipose tissues of obese mice, and provide evidence that adipocyte ERK activation may explain exaggerated adipose tissue lipolysis observed in obesity...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651293/homeobox-a5-promotes-white-adipose-tissue-browning-through-inhibition-of-the-tenascin-c-toll-like-receptor-4-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-inflammatory-signaling-in-mice
#10
Weina Cao, Hongtao Huang, Tianyu Xia, Chenlong Liu, Saeed Muhammad, Chao Sun
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces rapid increase in systemic inflammatory factors. As adipose tissue is a key contributor to the inflammatory response to numerous metabolic stimuli, it is important to understand the mechanism behind the LPS-induced inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT). Homeobox a5 (Hoxa5) is an important transcription factor, which is highly expressed in adipose tissue, and its mRNA expression is increased at cold exposure in mice. So far, the function of Hoxa5 in adipose tissue browning has been poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650350/loss-of-dorsomedial-hypothalamic-glp-1-signaling-reduces-bat-thermogenesis-and-increases-adiposity
#11
Shin J Lee, Graciela Sanchez-Watts, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Angelica Pignalosa, Puck N Norell, Alyssa Cortella, Klaus G Pettersen, Dubravka Vrdoljak, Matthew R Hayes, Scott Kanoski, Wolfgang Langhans, Alan G Watts
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons in the hindbrain densely innervate the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), a nucleus strongly implicated in body weight regulation and the sympathetic control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Therefore, DMH GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are well placed to regulate energy balance by controlling sympathetic outflow and BAT function. METHODS: We investigate this possibility in adult male rats by using direct administration of GLP-1 (0...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649791/the-long-term-impact-of-high-levels-of-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-in-energy-balance-among-obese-adolescents
#12
Ana Claudia Pelissari Kravchychyn, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Flávia Campos Corgosinho, Deborah Cristina Landi Masquio, Sofia Emanuelle de Castro Ferreira Vicente, Yasmin Alaby Martins Ferreira, Patrícia Leão Silva, Aline de Piano Ganen, Lila Missae Oyama, Lian Tock, Marco Túlio de Mello, Sérgio Tufik, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso
BACKGROUND: Deregulation of orexigenic and anorexigenic pathways occurs among adolescents with obesity. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a key catabolic mediator of energy homeostasis and an important anorexigenic neuropeptide in the control of energy balance and thermogenesis. However, it was not well explored if α-MSH can modulate long-term weight loss therapy responses in a dependent manner according to its concentration. Our hypothesis is that a high α-MSH concentration at baseline promotes better modulation of anorexigenic/orexigenic pathways in obese adolescents...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643769/the-role-of-physical-exercise-to-improve-the-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-via-pomc-neurons
#13
REVIEW
Kellen C da Cruz Rodrigues, Rodrigo M Pereira, Thaís D P de Campos, Rodrigo F de Moura, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, José R Pauli, Michel B de Araújo, Leandro P de Moura
Obesity is a public health issue that affects more than 600 million adults worldwide. The disease is characterized by fat accumulation, mainly in the abdominal area. The human body is mainly composed of two types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT); however, the browning process generates a different type of brown fat-like adipocyte in WAT, which similar to BAT has thermogenic capacity by activating UCP-1. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus plays an important role in WAT browning via POMC neurons, which are influenced by synergistic insulin and leptin signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627378/brown-adipose-tissue-derived-angptl4-controls-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-and-regulates-thermogenesis
#14
Abhishek K Singh, Binod Aryal, Balkrishna Chaube, Noemi Rotllan, Luis Varela, Tamas L Horvath, Yajaira Suárez, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
OBJECTIVES: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) controls triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) catabolism. This process is mediated by the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), an enzyme that catalyzed the hydrolysis of triglyceride (TAG) in glycerol and fatty acids (FA), which are burned to generate heat. LPL activity is regulated by angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), a secretory protein produced in adipose tissues (AT), liver, kidney, and muscle. While the role of ANGPTL4 in regulating lipoprotein metabolism is well established, the specific contribution of BAT derived ANGPTL4 in controlling lipid and glucose homeostasis is not well understood...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626644/mitochondrial-haplotypes-are-not-associated-with-mice-selectively-bred-for-high-voluntary-wheel-running
#15
Bernard W M Wone, Won C Yim, Heidi Schutz, Thomas H Meek, Theodore Garland
Mitochondrial haplotypes have been associated with human and rodent phenotypes, including nonshivering thermogenesis capacity, learning capability, and disease risk. Although the mammalian mitochondrial D-loop is highly polymorphic, D-loops in laboratory mice are identical, and variation occurs elsewhere mainly between nucleotides 9820 and 9830. Part of this region codes for the tRNAArg gene and is associated with mitochondrial densities and number of mtDNA copies. We hypothesized that the capacity for high levels of voluntary wheel-running behavior would be associated with mitochondrial haplotype...
April 4, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626477/chronic-cold-exposure-results-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-browning-and-altered-global-metabolism-in-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-pika-ochotona-curzoniae
#16
Jia Li, Quanyu Yang, Zhenzhong Bai, Gregg L Semenza, Ri-Li Ge
The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), one of the indigenous animals of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is adapted to life in a cold and hypoxic environment. We conducted a series of genomic, proteomic and morphological studies to investigate whether changes in energy metabolism contribute to adaptation of the plateau pika to cold stress by analyzing summer and winter cohorts. The winter group showed strong morphological and histological features of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT)...
April 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620433/what-activates-thermogenesis-when-lipid-droplet-lipolysis-is-absent-in-brown-adipocytes
#17
Hyunsu Shin, Hang Shi, Bingzhong Xue, Liqing Yu
Cold exposure activates the sympathetic nervous system. It is generally thought that this sympathetic activation induces heat production by stimulating lipolysis of cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) in brown adipocytes. However, this concept was not examined in vivo due to lack of appropriate animal models. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that LD lipolysis in brown adipocytes is not required for cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis. Our studies uncovered an essential role of white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis in fueling thermogenesis during fasting...
April 5, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617645/mitochondria-bound-to-lipid-droplets-have-unique-bioenergetics-composition-and-dynamics-that-support-lipid-droplet-expansion
#18
Ilan Y Benador, Michaela Veliova, Kiana Mahdaviani, Anton Petcherski, Jakob D Wikstrom, Essam A Assali, Rebeca Acín-Pérez, Michaël Shum, Marcus F Oliveira, Saverio Cinti, Carole Sztalryd, William D Barshop, James A Wohlschlegel, Barbara E Corkey, Marc Liesa, Orian S Shirihai
Mitochondria associate with lipid droplets (LDs) in fat-oxidizing tissues, but the functional role of these peridroplet mitochondria (PDM) is unknown. Microscopic observation of interscapular brown adipose tissue reveals that PDM have unique protein composition and cristae structure and remain adherent to the LD in the tissue homogenate. We developed an approach to isolate PDM based on their adherence to LDs. Comparison of purified PDM to cytoplasmic mitochondria reveals that (1) PDM have increased pyruvate oxidation, electron transport, and ATP synthesis capacities; (2) PDM have reduced β-oxidation capacity and depart from LDs upon activation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and β-oxidation; (3) PDM support LD expansion as Perilipin5-induced recruitment of mitochondria to LDs increases ATP synthase-dependent triacylglyceride synthesis; and (4) PDM maintain a distinct protein composition due to uniquely low fusion-fission dynamics...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617639/adipose-tissue-flexes-its-muscles
#19
Sven Enerbäck
How brown and beige adipocytes activate UCP1-dependent thermogenesis has been studied in great detail. In Cell Metabolism, Tharp et al. (2018) have recently added another interesting dimension to this by demonstrating that actinomyosin-mediated elasticity regulates the thermogenic capacity of UCP1+ adipocytes, opening up new ways by which UCP1-dependent thermogenesis can be stimulated.
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617391/biliopancreatic-diversion-is-associated-with-greater-increases-in-energy-expenditure-than-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#20
Malin Werling, Lars Fändriks, Torsten Olbers, Tom Mala, Jon Kristinsson, Kaj Stenlöf, Ville Wallenius, Neil G Docherty, Carel W le Roux
OBJECTIVE: The greater weight loss achieved following Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPDS) versus Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) has been attributed to the malabsorptive effects of BPDS. Increased weight loss after BPDS could also be underpinned by larger increases in energy expenditure. Hypothetically, the more radical reconfiguration of the small intestine in BPDS could result in an accentuated increase in meal associated thermogenesis (MAT). DESIGN: Female subjects (baseline mean age 40 years, mean BMI-55kg/m2) were assessed four years after randomization to BPDS (n = 6) or RYGB (n = 6)...
2018: PloS One
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