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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642586/lateral-habenula-regulation-of-emotional-hyperthermia-mediation-via-the-medullary-raph%C3%A3
#1
Youichirou Ootsuka, Mazher Mohammed, William W Blessing
The lateral habenula (LHb) has an important role in the behavioural response to salient, usually aversive, events. We previously demonstrated that activation of neurons in the LHb increases brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and constricts the cutaneous vascular bed, indicating that the LHb contributes to the central control of sympathetic outflow to thermoregulatory effector organs. We have now investigated whether the LHb mediates BAT thermogenesis elicited by emotional stress, and whether the LHb modulates thermoregulatory sympathetic outflow via the rostral medullary raphé, a key integrative lower brainstem sympathetic control centre...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640447/role-of-serca-pump-in-muscle-thermogenesis-and-metabolism
#2
Muthu Periasamy, Santosh Kumar Maurya, Sanjaya Kumar Sahoo, Sushant Singh, Sanjaya Kumar Sahoo, Felipe C G Reis, Naresh Chandra Bal
In muscle cells, the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) not only acts as a Ca2+ store, but also regulates the contractile characteristics of the muscle. Ca2+ release from the SR is the primary mechanism for activating muscle contraction and reuptake of Ca2+ by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) pump causes muscle relaxation. The SERCA pump isoforms are encoded by three genes, SERCA 1, 2, and 3, which are differentially expressed in muscle and determine SR Ca2+ dynamics by affecting the rate and amount of Ca2+ uptake, thereby affecting SR store and release of Ca2+ in muscle...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637651/pivotal-role-of-o-glcnac-modification-in-cold-induced-thermogenesis-by-brown-adipose-tissue-through-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#3
Natsuko Ohashi, Katsutaro Morino, Shogo Ida, Osamu Sekine, Mengistu Lemecha, Shinji Kume, Shi-Young Park, Cheol Soo Choi, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa
Adipose tissues considerably influence metabolic homeostasis, and both white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) play significant roles in lipid and glucose metabolism. O-GlcNAc modification is characterized by the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to various proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase (Ogt), subsequently modulating various cellular processes. However, little is known about the role of O-GlcNAc modification in adipose tissues. Here, we report the critical role of O-GlcNAc modification in cold-induced thermogenesis...
June 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630601/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-diets-and-body-composition
#4
REVIEW
Alan A Aragon, Brad J Schoenfeld, Robert Wildman, Susan Kleiner, Trisha VanDusseldorp, Lem Taylor, Conrad P Earnest, Paul J Arciero, Colin Wilborn, Douglas S Kalman, Jeffrey R Stout, Darryn S Willoughby, Bill Campbell, Shawn M Arent, Laurent Bannock, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jose Antonio
Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. 3) Diets primarily focused on fat loss are driven by a sustained caloric deficit...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630339/ucp1-deficiency-causes-brown-fat-respiratory-chain-depletion-and-sensitizes-mitochondria-to-calcium-overload-induced-dysfunction
#5
Lawrence Kazak, Edward T Chouchani, Irina G Stavrovskaya, Gina Z Lu, Mark P Jedrychowski, Daniel F Egan, Manju Kumari, Xingxing Kong, Brian K Erickson, John Szpyt, Evan D Rosen, Michael P Murphy, Bruce S Kristal, Steven P Gygi, Bruce M Spiegelman
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria exhibit high oxidative capacity and abundant expression of both electron transport chain components and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP1 dissipates the mitochondrial proton motive force (Δp) generated by the respiratory chain and increases thermogenesis. Here we find that in mice genetically lacking UCP1, cold-induced activation of metabolism triggers innate immune signaling and markers of cell death in BAT. Moreover, global proteomic analysis reveals that this cascade induced by UCP1 deletion is associated with a dramatic reduction in electron transport chain abundance...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630253/cold-induced-thermogenesis-and-inflammation-associated-cold-seeking-behavior-are-represented-by-different-dorsomedial-hypothalamic-sites-a-three-dimensional-functional-topography-study-in-conscious-rats
#6
Samuel P Wanner, M Camila Almeida, Yury P Shimansky, Daniela L Oliveira, Justin R Eales, Cândido C Coimbra, Andrej A Romanovsky
In the past, we showed that large electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) promoted hypothermia in cold-exposed restrained rats, but attenuated hypothermia in rats challenged with a high dose of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a thermogradient apparatus. The goal of this study was to identify the thermoeffector mechanisms and DMH representation of the two phenomena and, hence, understand how the same lesion could produce two opposite effects on body temperature. We found that the permissive effect of large electrolytic DMH lesions on cold-induced hypothermia was due to suppressed thermogenesis...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620034/structural-insights-into-the-alternative-oxidases-are-all-oxidases-made-equal
#7
REVIEW
Benjamin May, Luke Young, Anthony L Moore
The alternative oxidases (AOXs) are ubiquinol-oxidoreductases that are members of the diiron carboxylate superfamily. They are not only ubiquitously distributed within the plant kingdom but also found in increasing numbers within the fungal, protist, animal and prokaryotic kingdoms. Although functions of AOXs are highly diverse in general, they tend to play key roles in thermogenesis, stress tolerance (through the management of radical oxygen species) and the maintenance of mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614293/histone-deacetylase-3-prepares-brown-adipose-tissue-for-acute-thermogenic-challenge
#8
Matthew J Emmett, Hee-Woong Lim, Jennifer Jager, Hannah J Richter, Marine Adlanmerini, Lindsey C Peed, Erika R Briggs, David J Steger, Tao Ma, Carrie A Sims, Joseph A Baur, Liming Pei, Kyoung-Jae Won, Patrick Seale, Zachary Gerhart-Hines, Mitchell A Lazar
Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ that dissipates chemical energy as heat to protect animals against hypothermia and to counteract metabolic disease. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that determine the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue before environmental cold are unknown. Here we show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is required to activate brown adipose tissue enhancers to ensure thermogenic aptitude. Mice with brown adipose tissue-specific genetic ablation of HDAC3 become severely hypothermic and succumb to acute cold exposure...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604703/cold-induced-conversion-of-cholesterol-to-bile-acids-in-mice-shapes-the-gut-microbiome-and-promotes-adaptive-thermogenesis
#9
Anna Worthmann, Clara John, Malte C Rühlemann, Miriam Baguhl, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Nicola Schaltenberg, Markus Heine, Christian Schlein, Ioannis Evangelakos, Chieko Mineo, Markus Fischer, Maura Dandri, Claus Kremoser, Ludger Scheja, Andre Franke, Philip W Shaul, Joerg Heeren
Adaptive thermogenesis is an energy-demanding process that is mediated by cold-activated beige and brown adipocytes, and it entails increased uptake of carbohydrates, as well as lipoprotein-derived triglycerides and cholesterol, into these thermogenic cells. Here we report that cold exposure in mice triggers a metabolic program that orchestrates lipoprotein processing in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and hepatic conversion of cholesterol to bile acids via the alternative synthesis pathway. This process is dependent on hepatic induction of cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 (CYP7B1) and results in increased plasma levels, as well as fecal excretion, of bile acids that is accompanied by distinct changes in gut microbiota and increased heat production...
June 12, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599882/saponins-from-stems-and-leaves-of-panax-ginseng-prevent-obesity-via-regulating-thermogenesis-lipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-c57bl-6-mice
#10
Guilin Chen, Haijun Li, Yan Zhao, Hongyan Zhu, Enbo Cai, Yugang Gao, Shuangli Liu, He Yang, Lianxue Zhang
In this study, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mouse model was used to evaluate the dietary effect of saponins from stems and leaves of Panax ginseng (SLG), and to explore its mechanism of action in producing anti-obesity effects. The results indicate that SLG showed significant anti-obesity effects in diet-induced obese mice, represented by decreased serum levels of free fatty acids (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, glucose, leptin and insulin, as well as a reduction in overall body and liver weight, epididymal adipose tissue weight, and food efficiency, and inhibition of abnormal increases in acyl carnitine levels normally caused by an HFD...
June 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594316/effects-of-irisin-and-exercise-on-metabolic-parameters-and-reproductive-hormone-levels-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-female-mice
#11
Ercan Bastu, Umit Zeybek, Ebru Gurel Gurevin, Bahar Yüksel Ozgor, Faruk Celik, Nazli Okumus, Irem Demiral, Ozlem Dural, Cem Celik, Huri Bulut, Elif Ilkay Armutak, Bulent Baysal, Faruk Buyru, John Yeh
It has been documented that exogenously administered irisin (10(10) fibronectin-type III domain-containing 5 [FNDC5]), which is a new polypeptide hormone, induces the browning of subcutaneous fat and thermogenesis. In this study, effects of physical activity and exogenous administration of irisin were investigated on parameters related with reproduction and metabolism in the high-fat diet-induced obesity model of the female C57BL/6J mice. Sixty mice were gathered at age approximately 5 to 6weeks and were divided into 3 groups...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593021/tissue-and-condition-specific-isoforms-of-mammalian-cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunits-from-function-to-human-disease
#12
REVIEW
Christopher A Sinkler, Hasini Kalpage, Joseph Shay, Icksoo Lee, Moh H Malek, Lawrence I Grossman, Maik Hüttemann
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the electron transport chain and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from cytochrome c to oxygen. COX consists of 14 subunits, three and eleven encoded, respectively, by the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Tissue- and condition-specific isoforms have only been reported for COX but not for the other oxidative phosphorylation complexes, suggesting a fundamental requirement to fine-tune and regulate the essentially irreversible reaction catalyzed by COX. This article briefly discusses the assembly of COX in mammals and then reviews the functions of the six nuclear-encoded COX subunits that are expressed as isoforms in specialized tissues including those of the liver, heart and skeletal muscle, lung, and testes: COX IV-1, COX IV-2, NDUFA4, NDUFA4L2, COX VIaL, COX VIaH, COX VIb-1, COX VIb-2, COX VIIaH, COX VIIaL, COX VIIaR, COX VIIIH/L, and COX VIII-3...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588221/ketogenic-diet-induces-expression-of-the-muscle-circadian-gene-slc25a25-via-neural-pathway-that-might-be-involved-in-muscle-thermogenesis
#13
Reiko Nakao, Shigeki Shimba, Katsutaka Oishi
We recently found that the mRNA expression of Slc25a25, a Ca(2+)-sensitive ATP carrier in the inner mitochondrial membrane, fluctuates in a circadian manner in mouse skeletal muscle. We showed here that the circadian expression of muscle Slc25a25 was damped in Clock mutant, muscle-specific Bmal1-deficient, and global Bmal1-deficient mice. Furthermore, a ketogenic diet (KD) that induces time-of-day-dependent hypothermia (torpor), induced Slc25a25 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Hypothermia induced by KD did not affect thermogenic genes such as Sarcolipin and Pgc1a in muscles and Ucp1 in adipose tissues...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588097/high-intensity-interval-training-and-calorie-restriction-promote-remodeling-of-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-diet-induced-obesity
#14
Rachel A H Davis, Jacob E Halbrooks, Emily Watkins, Gordon Fisher, Gary R Hunter, Tim R Nagy, Eric P Plaisance
Calorie restriction (CR) decreases adiposity, but the magnitude and defense of weight loss is less than predicted due to reductions in total daily energy expenditure (TEE). The purpose of the current investigation was to determine if high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would increase markers of sympathetic activation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and rescue CR-mediated reductions in EE to a greater extent than moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training (MIT). Thirty-two 5-wk old male C57BL/6J mice were placed on ad libitum HFD for 11 weeks followed by randomization to one of four groups (n = 8 per group) for an additional 15 weeks: 1) CON (remain on HFD); 2) CR (25% lower energy intake); 3) CR+HIIT (25% energy deficit created by 12...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586319/rev-erb-and-ror-therapeutic-targets-for-treating-myopathies
#15
REVIEW
Ryan D Welch, Colin A Flaveny
Muscle is primarily known for its mechanical roles in locomotion, maintenance of posture, and regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. There are numerous medical conditions that adversely affect muscle, myopathies that disrupt muscle development, regeneration and protein turnover to detrimental effect. Skeletal muscle is also a vital secretory organ that regulates thermogenesis, inflammatory signaling and directs context specific global metabolic changes in energy substrate preference on a daily basis...
June 6, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580427/incidental-finding-of-low-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-in-endurance-trained-individuals-methodological-considerations-for-positron-emission-tomography
#16
Eric T Trexler, Drew McCallister, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Rosa T Branca
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adults has been shown to have a meaningful impact on energy expenditure and cold-induced thermogenesis. Data from rodent research have suggested that exercise may be a promising method of increasing BAT activity, with potential applications to the treatment and prevention of obesity and diabetes. However, emerging human research using positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has identified lower BAT activity in endurance-trained athletes compared to sedentary controls, despite similar metabolic rate responses to cold exposure...
March 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580291/%C3%AE-3-adrenergically-induced-glucose-uptake-in-brown-adipose-tissue-is-independent-of-ucp1-presence-or-activity-mediation-through-the-mtor-pathway
#17
Jessica M Olsen, Robert I Csikasz, Nodi Dehvari, Li Lu, Anna Sandström, Anette I Öberg, Jan Nedergaard, Sharon Stone-Elander, Tore Bengtsson
OBJECTIVE: Today, the presence and activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans is generally equated with the induced accumulation of [2-(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) in adipose tissues, as investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. In reality, PET-FDG is currently the only method available for in vivo quantification of BAT activity in adult humans. The underlying assumption is that the glucose uptake reflects the thermogenic activity of the tissue...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575174/effects-of-endogenous-oxytocin-receptor-signaling-in-nucleus-tractus-solitarius-on-satiation-mediated-feeding-and-thermogenic-control-in-male-rats
#18
Zhi Yi Ong, Diana M Bongiorno, Mary Ann Hernando, Harvey J Grill
Central oxytocin receptor (OT-R) signaling reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure, but the central sites and mechanisms mediating these effects are unresolved. We showed previously that pharmacological activation of OT-R in hindbrain/nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) amplifies the intake-inhibitory effects of gastrointestinal (GI) satiation signals. Unexplored were the energetic effects of hindbrain OT-R agonism and the physiological relevance of NTS OT receptor (OT-R) signaling on food intake and energy expenditure control...
May 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547916/non-shivering-thermogenesis-as-a-mechanism-to-facilitate-sustainable-weight-loss
#19
REVIEW
B F Palmer, D J Clegg
Currently, there is a significant percentage of the population who are or will be classified as obese, necessitating novel strategies to facilitate sustainable weight loss. Reductions in basal metabolic rate occur in the face of weight loss and pose formidable barriers to individuals attempting to sustain meaningful weight reductions. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which non-shivering thermogenesis may provide insight into metabolic pathways that can become druggable targets to facilitate sustainable weight loss...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539390/mfn2-deletion-in-brown-adipose-tissue-protects-from-insulin-resistance-and-impairs-thermogenesis
#20
Kiana Mahdaviani, Ilan Y Benador, Shi Su, Raffi A Gharakhanian, Linsey Stiles, Kyle M Trudeau, Maria Cardamone, Violeta Enríquez-Zarralanga, Eleni Ritou, Tamar Aprahamian, Marcus F Oliveira, Barbara E Corkey, Valentina Perissi, Marc Liesa, Orian S Shirihai
BAT-controlled thermogenic activity is thought to be required for its capacity to prevent the development of insulin resistance. This hypothesis predicts that mediators of thermogenesis may help prevent diet-induced insulin resistance. We report that the mitochondrial fusion protein Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) in BAT is essential for cold-stimulated thermogenesis, but promotes insulin resistance in obese mice. Mfn2 deletion in mice through Ucp1-cre (BAT-Mfn2-KO) causes BAT lipohypertrophy and cold intolerance. Surprisingly however, deletion of Mfn2 in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) results in improved insulin sensitivity and resistance to obesity, while impaired cold-stimulated thermogenesis is maintained...
May 24, 2017: EMBO Reports
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