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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065928/unveiling-the-osmophores-of-philodendron-adamantinum-araceae-as-a-means-to-understanding-interactions-with-pollinators
#1
Patrícia Gonçalves-Souza, Clemens Schlindwein, Stefan Dötterl, Elder Antônio Sousa Paiva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Araceae species pollinated by nocturnal Cyclocephalini beetles attract their pollinators by inflorescence scents. In Philodendron, despite the intense odour, the osmophores exhibit no definite morphological identity, making them difficult to locate. This may explain why structural studies of the scent-releasing tissue are not available so far. METHODS: Several approaches were employed for locating and understanding the osmophores of Philodendron adamantinum A sensory test allowed other analyses to be restricted to fertile and sterile stamens as odour production sites...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057582/a-nutritional-perspective-on-ucp1-dependent-thermogenesis
#2
REVIEW
M Luisa Bonet, Josep Mercader, Andreu Palou
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is the hallmark protein responsible for cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). UCP1 activity is protective against body fat accumulation. UCP1 has re-gained researchers' attention in the context of obesity following the realization that BAT is present and can be activated in adult humans and of inducible UCP1-expressing cells in white fat depots. UCP1-mediated thermogenesis is activated by specific food compounds, which function by stimulating sympathetic nervous system activity to adipose tissues and/or by acting on the adipose cells directly or indirectly, through humoral factors released upon their intake...
January 2, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053227/a-hypothalamic-circuit-that-controls-body-temperature
#3
Zheng-Dong Zhao, Wen Z Yang, Cuicui Gao, Xin Fu, Wen Zhang, Qian Zhou, Wanpeng Chen, Xinyan Ni, Jun-Kai Lin, Juan Yang, Xiao-Hong Xu, Wei L Shen
The homeostatic control of body temperature is essential for survival in mammals and is known to be regulated in part by temperature-sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the specific neural pathways and corresponding neural populations have not been fully elucidated. To identify these pathways, we used cFos staining to identify neurons that are activated by a thermal challenge and found induced expression in subsets of neurons within the ventral part of the lateral preoptic nucleus (vLPO) and the dorsal part of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMD)...
January 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039439/hypothalamic-s1p-s1pr1-axis-controls-energy-homeostasis-in-middle-aged-rodents-the-reversal-effects-of-physical-exercise
#4
Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva, Carlos Kiyoshi Katashima, Carla G Bueno Silva, Luciene Lenhare, Thayana Oliveira Micheletti, Rafael Ludemann Camargo, Ana Carolina Ghezzi, Juliana Alves Camargo, Alexandre Moura Assis, Natalia Tobar, Joseane Morari, Daniela S Razolli, Leandro Pereira Moura, José Rodrigo Pauli, Dennys Esper Cintra, Lício Augusto Velloso, Mario J A Saad, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle
Recently, we demonstrated that the hypothalamic S1PR1/STAT3 axis plays a critical role in the control of food consumption and energy expenditure in rodents. Here, we found that reduction of hypothalamic S1PR1 expression occurs in an age-dependent manner, and was associated with defective thermogenic signaling and weight gain. To address the physiological relevance of these findings, we investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise on the hypothalamic S1PR1/STAT3 axis. Chronic exercise increased S1PR1 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus, restoring the anorexigenic and thermogenic signals in middle-aged mice...
December 26, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034777/high-expression-of-organic-cation-transporter-3-in-human-bat-like-adipocytes-implications-for-extraneuronal-norepinephrine-uptake
#5
Peter Breining, Steen Bønløkke Pedersen, Arunas Pikelis, Lars Rolighed, Elias Immanuel Ordell Sundelin, Niels Jessen, Bjørn Richelsen
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated by extracellular norepinephrine (NE) released by the sympathetic nervous system. The extracellular concentration of NE is additionally regulated by the disappearance/degradation of NE. Recent studies have introduced the organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) as a possible contributor in the regulation of NE in adipose tissue. In the present study we set out to investigate the presence of OCT3 in human neck adipose tissue (AT), which is the primary localization of BAT in humans...
December 26, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028078/ire1%C3%AE-in-pomc-neurons-is-required-for-thermogenesis-and-glycemia
#6
Ting Yao, Zhuo Deng, Yong Gao, Jia Sun, Xingxing Kong, Yiru Huang, Zhenyan He, Yanchao Xu, Yongsheng Chang, Kai-Jiang Yu, Brianna G Findley, Eric D Berglund, Rui-Tao Wang, Hongbo Guo, Hong Chen, Xu Li, Randal J Kaufman, Jianqun Yan, Tiemin Liu, Kevin W Williams
Whether neuronal inositol-requiring enzyme 1(Ire1) is required for the proper regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis is unclear. We found that pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc)-specific deficiency of Ire1α accelerated diet-induced obesity concomitant with a decrease in energy expenditure. This hypometabolic phenotype included deficits in thermogenic responses to diet and cold exposure as well as 'beiging' of white adipose tissue. We also demonstrate that loss of Ire1α in Pomc neurons impaired whole-body glucose and insulin tolerance as well as hepatic insulin sensitivity...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026903/impaired-adrenergic-agonist-dependent-beige-adipocyte-induction-in-aged-mice
#7
Woongchul Shin, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Ken Machida, Ayumi Tsubota, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Kimura
OBJECTIVE: There are two types of thermogenic adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein (UCP)-1: the brown adipocyte activated by adrenergic stimulation and the beige adipocyte that appears within the white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to chronic adrenergic stimulation. This study examined age-related changes in responses of both types of adipocytes to adrenergic stimulation in mice. METHODS: Aged (age 20 months) and young (4 months) mice were injected daily with either saline or β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 (CL; 0...
December 27, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012150/at1-receptor-antagonist-induces-thermogenic-beige-adipocytes-in-the-inguinal-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#8
Francielle Graus-Nunes, Tamiris Lima Rachid, Felipe de Oliveira Santos, Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva, Vanessa Souza-Mello
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether losartan is able to induce beige adipocytes formation, focusing on the thermogenic gene expression and adipocyte remodeling in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received a control diet (10% energy as lipids) or a high-fat diet (50% energy as lipids) for 10 weeks, followed by a 5-week treatment with losartan: control group, control-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day), high-fat group and high-fat-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day)...
December 23, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009534/ldb1-regulates-energy-homeostasis-during-diet-induced-obesity
#9
Christine Loyd, Yanping Liu, Teayoun Kim, Cassie Holleman, Jamie Galloway, Maigen Bethea, Benjamin N Ediger, Yawen Tang, Thomas A Swain, Doris A Stoffers, Glenn C Rowe, Martin Young, Chad Steele, Kirk M Habegger, Chad S Hunter
The broadly-expressed transcriptional coregulator, Ldb1, is essential for β-cell development and glucose homeostasis. However, it is unclear whether Ldb1 has metabolic roles beyond the β-cell, especially under metabolic stress. Global Ldb1 deletion results in early embryonic lethality; thus, we utilized global heterozygous Ldb1(+/-) and inducible β-cell-specific Ldb1-deficient (Ldb1(Δβ-cell)) mice. We assessed glucose and insulin tolerance, body composition, feeding, and energy expenditure during high-fat diet exposure...
December 23, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008317/chrysophanic-acid-suppresses-adipogenesis-and-induces-thermogenesis-by-activating-amp-activated-protein-kinase-alpha-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#10
Hara Lim, Jinbong Park, Hye-Lin Kim, JongWook Kang, Mi-Young Jeong, Dong-Hyun Youn, Yunu Jung, Yong-Il Kim, Hyun-Ju Kim, Kwang Seok Ahn, Su-Jin Kim, Seong-Kyu Choe, Seung-Heon Hong, Jae-Young Um
Chrysophanic acid (CA) is a member of the anthraquinone family abundant in rhubarb, a widely used herb for obesity treatment in Traditional Korean Medicine. Though several studies have indicated numerous features of CA, no study has yet reported the effect of CA on obesity. In this study, we tried to identify the anti-obesity effects of CA. By using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary cultured brown adipocytes as in vitro models, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and zebrafish as in vivo models, we determined the anti-obesity effects of CA...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992452/enhancement-of-adipocyte-browning-by-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade
#11
Kana Tsukuda, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Harumi Kanno, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Xiao-Li Wang, Hui-Yu Bai, Bao-Shuai Shan, Masayoshi Kukida, Akinori Higaki, Toshifumi Yamauchi, Li-Juan Min, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named 'beige' or 'brite' adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986616/thermogenesis-fatty-acid-synthesis-with-oxidation-and-inflammation-in-the-brown-adipose-tissue-of-ob-ob-mice
#12
Fabiane Ferreira Martins, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in heat production, but its metabolism in ob/ob mice is still a matter of debate. We aimed to verify ob/ob mice BAT using C57Bl/6 male mice (as the wild-type, WT) and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice (on the C57Bl/6 background strain), at three months of age (n=10/group). At euthanasia, animals had their interscapular BAT weighed, and prepared for analysis (Western blot, and RT-qPCR). In comparison with the WT group, the ob/ob group showed reduced thermogenic signaling markers (gene expression of beta 3-adrenergic receptor, beta3-AR; PPARgamma coactivator 1 alpha, PGC1alpha, and uncoupling protein 1, UCP1)...
December 13, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986537/meaningful-respirometric-measurements-of-ucp1-mediated-thermogenesis
#13
Yongguo Li, Tobias Fromme, Martin Klingenspor
Regarding the enormous interest in brown and brite/beige adipose tissue in the context of metabolic disease, reliable quantification of thermogenesis in these adipocytes is a central issue. This requires an assay specific for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mediated thermogenesis in adherent intact cells. In a recent study we identified a major pitfall associated with established procedures generally applied for this purpose. Meaningful respirometry of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis imperatively requires activation of UCP1 and control over free fatty acid levels...
December 14, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984203/ucp1-a-transporter-for-h-and-fatty-acid-anions
#14
REVIEW
Ambre M Bertholet, Yuriy Kirichok
Adaptive thermogenesis regulates core body temperature, controls fat deposition, and contributes strongly to the overall energy balance. This process occurs in brown fat and requires uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), an integral protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Classic biochemical studies revealed the general principle of adaptive thermogenesis: in the presence of long-chain fatty acids (FA), UCP1 increases the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane for H(+), which makes brown fat mitochondria produce heat rather than ATP...
October 27, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979331/genome-wide-insights-into-the-development-and-function-of-thermogenic-adipocytes
#15
REVIEW
Anne Loft, Isabel Forss, Susanne Mandrup
Brown and brown-like adipocytes are specialized adipocytes with a high capacity to convert metabolic energy to heat. This function is not only eminent in supporting organismal thermogenesis, but may also have potential in the fight against obesity. The latter has spurred a massive interest in understanding the development and regulation of these thermogenic adipocytes. Here, we review how genome-wide studies based on next-generation sequencing have provided insight into how the chromatin and transcriptional landscapes are established in thermogenic adipocytes and how thermogenic signals can change the genomic programming of white adipocytes...
December 12, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967236/pka-riib-deficiency-induces-brown-fat-like-adipocytes-in-inguinal-wat-and-promotes-energy-expenditure-in-male-fvb-nj-mice
#16
Su Jing, Wei Wu, Shan Huang, Ruidan Xue, Yi Wang, Yun Wan, Lv Zhang, Lang Qin, Qiongyue Zhang, Xiaoming Zhu, Zhaoyun Zhang, Hongying Ye, Xiaohui Wu, Yiming Li
Obesity has become the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipose tissue formation, hence, a functional increase in energy expenditure may counteract obesity. Mice lacking type II-beta regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA-RIIB) display reduced adiposity and resistance to diet-induced obesity (DIO). PKA-RIIB, encoded by the Prkar2b gene, is most abundant in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) and the brain. In this study, we show that mice lacking PKA-RIIB have increased energy expenditure, limited weight gain, and improved glucose metabolism...
December 14, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941950/thyroid-hormone-status-defines-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-and-browning-of-white-adipose-tissues-in-mice
#17
Juliane Weiner, Mathias Kranz, Nora Klöting, Anne Kunath, Karen Steinhoff, Eddy Rijntjes, Josef Köhrle, Vilia Zeisig, Mohammed Hankir, Claudia Gebhardt, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, John T Heiker, Susan Kralisch, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Osama Sabri, Swen Hesse, Peter Brust, Anke Tönjes, Kerstin Krause
The present study aimed to determine the effect of thyroid hormone dysfunction on brown adipose tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning in mice. Twenty randomized female C57BL/6NTac mice per treatment group housed at room temperature were rendered hypothyroid or hyperthyroid. In-vivo small animal (18)F-FDG PET/MRI was performed to determine the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on BAT mass and BAT activity. Ex-vivo(14)C-acetate loading assay and assessment of thermogenic gene and protein expression permitted analysis of oxidative and thermogenic capacities of WAT and BAT of eu-, hyper and hypothyroid mice...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939081/environmental-signatures-and-effects-of-an-oil-and-gas-wastewater-spill-in-the-williston-basin-north-dakota
#18
I M Cozzarelli, K J Skalak, D B Kent, M A Engle, A Benthem, A C Mumford, K Haase, A Farag, D Harper, S C Nagel, L R Iwanowicz, W H Orem, D M Akob, J B Jaeschke, J Galloway, M Kohler, D L Stoliker, G D Jolly
Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4ML (million liters) of wastewater (300g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030mg/L) and bromide (7...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935822/adipose-tissue-in-control-of-metabolism
#19
REVIEW
Liping Luo, Meilian Liu
Adipose tissue plays a central role in regulating whole-body energy and glucose homeostasis through its subtle functions at both organ and systemic levels. On one hand, adipose tissue stores energy in the form of lipid and controls the lipid mobilization and distribution in the body. On the other hand, adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ and produces numerous bioactive factors such as adipokines that communicate with other organs and modulate a range of metabolic pathways. Moreover, brown and beige adipose tissue burn lipid by dissipating energy in the form of heat to maintain euthermia, and have been considered as a new way to counteract obesity...
December 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926859/rapamycin-reverses-metabolic-deficits-in-lamin-a-c-deficient-mice
#20
Chen-Yu Liao, Sydney S Anderson, Nicole H Chicoine, Jarrott R Mayfield, Emmeline C Academia, Joy A Wilson, Chalermkwan Pongkietisak, Morgan A Thompson, Earl P Lagmay, Delana M Miller, Yueh-Mei Hsu, Mark A McCormick, Monique N O'Leary, Brian K Kennedy
The role of the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, in regulation of adiposity remains controversial. Here, we evaluate mTOR signaling in lipid metabolism in adipose tissues of Lmna(-/-) mice, a mouse model for dilated cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy. Lifespan extension by rapamycin is associated with increased body weight and fat content, two phenotypes we link to suppression of elevated energy expenditure. In both white and brown adipose tissue of Lmna(-/-) mice, we find that rapamycin inhibits mTORC1 but not mTORC2, leading to suppression of elevated lipolysis and restoration of thermogenic protein UCP1 levels, respectively...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
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