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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640452/role-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-health-and-disease-a-matter-of-fat
#1
Bénédicte Gaborit, Coralie Sengenes, Patricia Ancel, Alexis Jacquier, Anne Dutour
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a small but very biologically active ectopic fat depot that surrounds the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, thermogenic capacity, unique transcriptome, secretory profile, and simply measurability, epicardial fat has drawn increasing attention among researchers attempting to elucidate its putative role in health and cardiovascular diseases. The cellular crosstalk between epicardial adipocytes and cells of the vascular wall or myocytes is high and suggests a local role for this tissue...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620356/quantifying-biochemical-alterations-in-brown-and-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissues-of-mice-using-fourier-transform-infrared-widefield-imaging
#2
Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Owen T Carmichael, Ping He, Diana C Albarado, Christopher D Morrison, Carol J Hirschmugl
Stimulating increased thermogenic activity in adipose tissue is an important biological target for obesity treatment, and label-free imaging techniques with the potential to quantify stimulation-associated biochemical changes to the adipose tissue are highly sought after. In this study, we used spatially resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging to quantify biochemical changes caused by cold exposure in the brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (BAT and s-WAT) of 6 week-old C57BL6 mice exposed to 30°C (N = 5), 24°C (N = 5), and 10°C (N = 5) conditions for 10 days...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615704/the-early-metabolomic-response-of-adipose-tissue-during-acute-cold-exposure-in-mice
#3
Xiyuan Lu, Ashley Solmonson, Alessia Lodi, Sara M Nowinski, Enrique Sentandreu, Christopher L Riley, Edward M Mills, Stefano Tiziani
To maintain core body temperature in cold conditions, mammals activate a complex multi-organ metabolic response for heat production. White adipose tissue (WAT) primarily functions as an energy reservoir, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated during cold exposure to generate heat from nutrients. Both BAT and WAT undergo specific metabolic changes during acute cold exposure. Here, we use an untargeted metabolomics approach to characterize the initial metabolic response to cold exposure in multiple adipose tissue depots in mice...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614293/histone-deacetylase-3-prepares-brown-adipose-tissue-for-acute-thermogenic-challenge
#4
Matthew J Emmett, Hee-Woong Lim, Jennifer Jager, Hannah J Richter, Marine Adlanmerini, Lindsey C Peed, Erika R Briggs, David J Steger, Tao Ma, Carrie A Sims, Joseph A Baur, Liming Pei, Kyoung-Jae Won, Patrick Seale, Zachary Gerhart-Hines, Mitchell A Lazar
Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ that dissipates chemical energy as heat to protect animals against hypothermia and to counteract metabolic disease. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that determine the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue before environmental cold are unknown. Here we show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is required to activate brown adipose tissue enhancers to ensure thermogenic aptitude. Mice with brown adipose tissue-specific genetic ablation of HDAC3 become severely hypothermic and succumb to acute cold exposure...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612196/cell-source-differentiation-functional-stimulation-and-potential-application-of-human-thermogenic-adipocytes-in-vitro
#5
REVIEW
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao, Le Hoang Son, Duc-Hau Le
Recent investigations have showed that the functional thermogenic adipocytes are present in both infants and adult humans. Accumulating evidence suggests that the coexistence of classical and inducible brown (brite) adipocytes in humans at adulthood and these adipocytes function to generate heat from energy resulting in reducing body fat and improving glucose metabolism. Human thermogenic adipocytes can be differentiated in vitro from stem cells, cell lines, or adipose stromal vascular fraction. Pre-activated human brite adipocytes in vitro can maintain their thermogenic function in normal or obese immunodeficient mice; therefore, they improve glucose homeostasis and reduce fat mass in obese animals...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609290/functional-imaging-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-human
#6
REVIEW
Hamza El Hadi, Roberto Vettor, Marco Rossato
Obesity has become a major public health challenge and an increasing trend is seen in its prevalence worldwide. It is a complex disorder involving an excessive amount of body fat as a result of an energy imbalance leading to caloric overload. Since the discovery of functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans, with energy dissipating properties, this thermogenic tissue has thus emerged as an attractive therapeutic target to combat obesity and related cardiometabolic disorders. The advancements in imaging modalities to evaluate organ-specific metabolism in humans is substantially contributing to understand the physiological role of BAT...
June 13, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604703/cold-induced-conversion-of-cholesterol-to-bile-acids-in-mice-shapes-the-gut-microbiome-and-promotes-adaptive-thermogenesis
#7
Anna Worthmann, Clara John, Malte C Rühlemann, Miriam Baguhl, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Nicola Schaltenberg, Markus Heine, Christian Schlein, Ioannis Evangelakos, Chieko Mineo, Markus Fischer, Maura Dandri, Claus Kremoser, Ludger Scheja, Andre Franke, Philip W Shaul, Joerg Heeren
Adaptive thermogenesis is an energy-demanding process that is mediated by cold-activated beige and brown adipocytes, and it entails increased uptake of carbohydrates, as well as lipoprotein-derived triglycerides and cholesterol, into these thermogenic cells. Here we report that cold exposure in mice triggers a metabolic program that orchestrates lipoprotein processing in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and hepatic conversion of cholesterol to bile acids via the alternative synthesis pathway. This process is dependent on hepatic induction of cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 (CYP7B1) and results in increased plasma levels, as well as fecal excretion, of bile acids that is accompanied by distinct changes in gut microbiota and increased heat production...
June 12, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593918/beyond-obesity-thermogenic-adipocytes-and-cardiometabolic-health
#8
Peter Aldiss, Neele Dellschaft, Harold Sacks, Helen Budge, Michael E Symonds
The global prevalence of obesity and related cardiometabolic disease continues to increase through the 21st century. Whilst multi-factorial, obesity is ultimately caused by chronic caloric excess. However, despite numerous interventions focussing on reducing caloric intake these either fail or only elicit short-term changes in body mass. There is now a focus on increasing energy expenditure instead which has stemmed from the recent 're-discovery' of cold-activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and inducible 'beige' adipocytes...
May 26, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588221/ketogenic-diet-induces-expression-of-the-muscle-circadian-gene-slc25a25-via-neural-pathway-that-might-be-involved-in-muscle-thermogenesis
#9
Reiko Nakao, Shigeki Shimba, Katsutaka Oishi
We recently found that the mRNA expression of Slc25a25, a Ca(2+)-sensitive ATP carrier in the inner mitochondrial membrane, fluctuates in a circadian manner in mouse skeletal muscle. We showed here that the circadian expression of muscle Slc25a25 was damped in Clock mutant, muscle-specific Bmal1-deficient, and global Bmal1-deficient mice. Furthermore, a ketogenic diet (KD) that induces time-of-day-dependent hypothermia (torpor), induced Slc25a25 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Hypothermia induced by KD did not affect thermogenic genes such as Sarcolipin and Pgc1a in muscles and Ucp1 in adipose tissues...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588097/high-intensity-interval-training-and-calorie-restriction-promote-remodeling-of-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-diet-induced-obesity
#10
Rachel A H Davis, Jacob E Halbrooks, Emily Watkins, Gordon Fisher, Gary R Hunter, Tim R Nagy, Eric P Plaisance
Calorie restriction (CR) decreases adiposity, but the magnitude and defense of weight loss is less than predicted due to reductions in total daily energy expenditure (TEE). The purpose of the current investigation was to determine if high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would increase markers of sympathetic activation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and rescue CR-mediated reductions in EE to a greater extent than moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training (MIT). Thirty-two 5-wk old male C57BL/6J mice were placed on ad libitum HFD for 11 weeks followed by randomization to one of four groups (n = 8 per group) for an additional 15 weeks: 1) CON (remain on HFD); 2) CR (25% lower energy intake); 3) CR+HIIT (25% energy deficit created by 12...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585199/adipose-tissue-function-and-expandability-as-determinants-of-lipotoxicity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Stefania Carobbio, Vanessa Pellegrinelli, Antonio Vidal-Puig
The adipose tissue organ is organised as distinct anatomical depots located all along the body axis and it is constituted of three different types of adipocytes : white, beige and brown which are integrated with vascular, immune, neural and extracellular stroma cells. These distinct adipocytes serve different specialised functions. The main function of white adipocytes is to ensure healthy storage of excess nutrients/energy and its rapid mobilisation to supply the demand of energy imposed by physiological cues in other organs, whereas brown and beige adipocytes are designed for heat production through uncoupling lipid oxidation from energy production...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580291/%C3%AE-3-adrenergically-induced-glucose-uptake-in-brown-adipose-tissue-is-independent-of-ucp1-presence-or-activity-mediation-through-the-mtor-pathway
#12
Jessica M Olsen, Robert I Csikasz, Nodi Dehvari, Li Lu, Anna Sandström, Anette I Öberg, Jan Nedergaard, Sharon Stone-Elander, Tore Bengtsson
OBJECTIVE: Today, the presence and activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans is generally equated with the induced accumulation of [2-(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) in adipose tissues, as investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. In reality, PET-FDG is currently the only method available for in vivo quantification of BAT activity in adult humans. The underlying assumption is that the glucose uptake reflects the thermogenic activity of the tissue...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580279/brown-adipose-tissue-bat-specific-vaspin-expression-is-increased-after-obesogenic-diets-and-cold-exposure-and-linked-to-acute-changes-in-dna-methylation
#13
Juliane Weiner, Kerstin Rohde, Kerstin Krause, Konstanze Zieger, Nora Klöting, Susan Kralisch, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Yvonne Böttcher, John T Heiker
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have demonstrated anti-diabetic and anti-obesogenic properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) and so evoked its potential use for treatment of obesity-related diseases. The aim of the study was to unravel physiological regulators of vaspin expression and secretion with a particular focus on its role in brown adipose tissue (BAT) biology. METHODS: We analyzed the effects of obesogenic diets and cold exposure on vaspin expression in liver and white and brown adipose tissue (AT) and plasma levels...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576832/eet-intervention-on-wnt1-nov-and-ho-1-signaling-prevents-obesity-induced-cardiomyopathy-in-obese-mice
#14
Jian Cao, Shailendra P Singh, John McClung, Gregory Joseph, Luca Vanella, Ignazio Barbagallo, Houli Jiang, John R Falck, Michael Arad, Joseph I Shapiro, Nader G Abraham
We have previously reported that epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) has multiple beneficial effects on vascular function, in addition to its anti-apoptotic action, it increases insulin sensitivity and inhibits inflammation. To uncover the signaling mechanisms by which EET reduces cardiomyopathy, we hypothesized that EET infusion might ameliorate obesity-induced cardiomyopathy by improving HO-1, Wnt1, thermogenic gene levels and mitochondrial integrity in cardiac tissues and improved pericardial fat phenotype. EET reduced levels of fasting blood glucose, and pro-inflammatory adipokines including NOV signaling while increasing echocardiographic fractional shortening and O2 consumption...
June 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576408/browning-effects-of-epicatechin-on-adipocytes-and-white-adipose-tissue
#15
Claudia Elena Varela, Alonso Rodriguez, Mirza Romero-Valdovinos, Patricia Mendoza-Lorenzo, Christina Mansour, Guillermo Ceballos, Francisco Villarreal, Israel Ramirez-Sanchez
In this study, we demonstrate that (-)-epicatechin (Epi), a cacao flavanol, induces the browning of fat by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis, enhancing indicators of mitochondrial structure and function, increasing fatty acid metabolism and upregulating the expression of brown adipose tissue-specific proteins in a high-fat diet mouse model of obesity and in cultured human adipocytes. Epi treatment significantly improved mitochondrial function, as measured by citrate synthase activity, and also reduced protein acetylation of total and specific regulators in both adipose tissue and human adipocytes...
May 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575174/effects-of-endogenous-oxytocin-receptor-signaling-in-nucleus-tractus-solitarius-on-satiation-mediated-feeding-and-thermogenic-control-in-male-rats
#16
Zhi Yi Ong, Diana M Bongiorno, Mary Ann Hernando, Harvey J Grill
Central oxytocin receptor (OT-R) signaling reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure, but the central sites and mechanisms mediating these effects are unresolved. We showed previously that pharmacological activation of OT-R in hindbrain/nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) amplifies the intake-inhibitory effects of gastrointestinal (GI) satiation signals. Unexplored were the energetic effects of hindbrain OT-R agonism and the physiological relevance of NTS OT receptor (OT-R) signaling on food intake and energy expenditure control...
May 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571802/a-homologous-stem-cell-therapy-for-obesity-and-its-related-metabolic-disorders
#17
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao
Obesity and overweight have become a leading health problem in the world. But we have not yet had any optimal therapy to prevent this health issue. Accumulating evidence suggests that there is existence of functional brown/brite adipocytes in both infants and adult humans, and the activated brown/brite can burn energy by generating heat. These adipocytes can be differentiated from stem cells and transplantation of pre-activated human thermogenic adipocytes in vitro benefits to glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and reduces body fat in normal or obese immunodeficient mice...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570265/identification-and-characterization-of-a-supraclavicular-brown-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#18
Qianxing Mo, Jordan Salley, Tony Roshan, Lisa A Baer, Francis J May, Eric J Jaehnig, Adam C Lehnig, Xin Guo, Qiang Tong, Alli M Nuotio-Antar, Farnaz Shamsi, Yu-Hua Tseng, Kristin I Stanford, Miao-Hsueh Chen
A fundamental challenge to our understanding of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the lack of an animal model that faithfully represents human BAT. Such a model is essential for direct assessment of the function and therapeutic potential of BAT depots in humans. In human adults, most of the thermoactive BAT depots are located in the supraclavicular region of the neck, while mouse studies focus on depots located in the interscapular region of the torso. We recently discovered BAT depots that are located in a region analogous to that of human supraclavicular BAT (scBAT)...
June 2, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562061/methane-and-benzene-in-drinking-water-wells-overlying-the-eagle-ford-fayetteville-and-haynesville-shale-hydrocarbon-production-areas
#19
Peter B McMahon, Jeannie R B Barlow, Mark A Engle, Kenneth Belitz, Patricia B Ging, Andrew G Hunt, Bryant C Jurgens, Yousif K Kharaka, Roland W Tollett, Timothy M Kresse
Water wells (n = 116) overlying the Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shale hydrocarbon production areas were sampled for chemical, isotopic, and groundwater-age tracers to investigate the occurrence and sources of selected hydrocarbons in groundwater. Methane isotopes and hydrocarbon gas compositions indicate most of the methane in the wells was biogenic and produced by the CO2 reduction pathway, not from thermogenic shale gas. Two samples contained methane from the fermentation pathway that could be associated with hydrocarbon degradation based on their co-occurrence with hydrocarbons such as ethylbenzene and butane...
May 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539390/mfn2-deletion-in-brown-adipose-tissue-protects-from-insulin-resistance-and-impairs-thermogenesis
#20
Kiana Mahdaviani, Ilan Y Benador, Shi Su, Raffi A Gharakhanian, Linsey Stiles, Kyle M Trudeau, Maria Cardamone, Violeta Enríquez-Zarralanga, Eleni Ritou, Tamar Aprahamian, Marcus F Oliveira, Barbara E Corkey, Valentina Perissi, Marc Liesa, Orian S Shirihai
BAT-controlled thermogenic activity is thought to be required for its capacity to prevent the development of insulin resistance. This hypothesis predicts that mediators of thermogenesis may help prevent diet-induced insulin resistance. We report that the mitochondrial fusion protein Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) in BAT is essential for cold-stimulated thermogenesis, but promotes insulin resistance in obese mice. Mfn2 deletion in mice through Ucp1-cre (BAT-Mfn2-KO) causes BAT lipohypertrophy and cold intolerance. Surprisingly however, deletion of Mfn2 in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) results in improved insulin sensitivity and resistance to obesity, while impaired cold-stimulated thermogenesis is maintained...
May 24, 2017: EMBO Reports
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