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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335087/ursolic-acid-and-mechanisms-of-actions-on-adipose-and-muscle-tissue-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Carlos K Katashima, Vagner R Silva, Tatyanne L Gomes, Claude Pichard, Gustavo D Pimentel
This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression...
March 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319852/pterostilbene-a-dimethylated-analog-of-resveratrol-promotes-energy-metabolism-in-obese-rats
#2
Koji Nagao, Tomoyuki Jinnouchi, Shunichi Kai, Teruyoshi Yanagita
Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene) is a dimethylated analog of resveratrol and has been reported to exert various pharmacological effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pterostilbene on the pathogenesis of obesity and energy metabolism in obese rats. Pterostilbene significantly activates silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in vitro. At 4 weeks a 0.5% pterostilbene diet markedly suppressed the abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation in obese rats...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317858/near-infrared-photoluminescent-carbon-nanotubes-for-imaging-of-brown-fat
#3
Masako Yudasaka, Yohei Yomogida, Minfang Zhang, Takeshi Tanaka, Masako Nakahara, Norihiko Kobayashi, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Ken Machida, Kazuhiko Ishihara, Kumiko Saeki, Hiromichi Kataura
Near-infrared photoluminescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are expected to provide effectual bio-imaging tools, although, as yet, only limited applications have been reported. Here, we report that CNTs coated with an amphiphilic and biocompatible polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate; PMB), generate high-quality images of brown fat. Brown fat is a heat-productive adipose tissue, which is attracting increasing attention as a new therapeutic target for obesity-associated metabolic disorders...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316052/the-gut-microbiome-energy-homeostasis-and-implications-for-hypertension
#4
REVIEW
Ruth A Riedl, Samantha N Atkinson, Colin M L Burnett, Justin L Grobe, John R Kirby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The influence of gut bacteria upon host physiology is increasingly recognized, but mechanistic links are lacking. Diseases of energetic imbalance such as obesity and diabetes represent major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Thus, here, we review current mechanistic contributions of the gut microbiota to host energetics. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut bacteria generate a multitude of small molecules which can signal to host tissues within and beyond the gastrointestinal tract to influence host physiology, and gut bacteria can also influence host digestive efficiency by altering the bioavailability of polysaccharides, yet the quantitative energetic effects of these processes remain unclear...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288167/erythropoietin-epo-ameliorates-obesity-and-glucose-homeostasis-by-promoting-thermogenesis-and-endocrine-function-of-classical-brown-adipose-tissue-bat-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#5
Kazuki Kodo, Satoru Sugimoto, Hisakazu Nakajima, Jun Mori, Ikuyo Itoh, Shota Fukuhara, Keiichi Shigehara, Taichiro Nishikawa, Kitaro Kosaka, Hajime Hosoi
Erythropoietin (EPO), clinically used as a hematopoietic drug, has received much attention due to its nonhematopoietic effects. EPO reportedly has beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT: main part of classical BAT) could play a role in EPO's anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in diet-induced obese mice. Four-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD-Con), and half were additionally given an intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human EPO (200 IU/kg) (HFD-EPO) thrice a week for four weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279166/effects-of-cold-sensitivity-in-the-extremities-on-circulating-adiponectin-levels-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-women
#6
Ah Yeon Park, Seongwon Cha
BACKGROUND: In adipose tissues, adipokine levels, including adiponectin and leptin, are involved in insulin sensitivity and are reciprocally induced by cold temperature stress. Thermogenic response in the extremities (hands and feet) against cold stress can be negatively related to fat mass accumulation, particularly in the abdomen. However, the relationship between the sensation of cold in the extremities and circulating levels of adipokines is not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether adipokine levels are associated with cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet (CHHF), independent of body mass, and whether the CHHF is related to metabolic syndrome (MS)...
March 9, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277963/uncoupling-basal-and-summit-metabolic-rates-in-white-throated-sparrows-digestive-demand-drives-maintenance-costs-but-changes-in-muscle-mass-are-not-needed-to-improve-thermogenic-capacity
#7
Gonzalo Barceló, Oliver P Love, François Vézina
Avian basal metabolic rate (BMR) and summit metabolic rate (Msum) vary in parallel during cold acclimation and acclimatization, which implies a functional link between these variables. However, evidence suggests that these parameters may reflect different physiological systems acting independently. We tested this hypothesis in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) acclimated to two temperatures (-8° and 28°C) and two diets (0% and 30% cellulose). We expected to find an uncoupling of Msum and BMR where Msum, a measure of maximal shivering heat production, would reflect muscle and heart mass variation and would respond only to temperature, while BMR would reflect changes in digestive and excretory organs in response to daily food intake, responding to both temperature and diet...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277959/increasing-winter-maximal-metabolic-rate-improves-intrawinter-survival-in-small-birds
#8
Magali Petit, Sabrina Clavijo-Baquet, François Vézina
Small resident bird species living at northern latitudes increase their metabolism in winter, and this is widely assumed to improve their chances of survival. However, the relationship between winter metabolic performance and survival has yet to be demonstrated. Using capture-mark-recapture, we followed a population of free-living black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) over 3 yr and evaluated their survival probability within and among winters. We also measured the size-independent body mass (Ms), hematocrit (Hct), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and maximal thermogenic capacity (Msum) and investigated how these parameters influenced survival within and among winters...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276197/phenyl-%C3%AE-valerolactones-flavan-3-ol-colonic-metabolites-protect-brown-adipocytes-from-oxidative-stress-without-affecting-their-differentiation-or-function
#9
Laura Mele, Stefania Carobbio, Nicoletta Brindani, Claudio Curti, Sergio Rodriguez-Cuenca, Guillaume Bidault, Pedro Mena, Ilaria Zanotti, Michele Vacca, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Daniele Del Rio
SCOPE: Consumption of products rich in flavan-3-ols, such as tea and cocoa, has been associated with decreased obesity, partially dependent on their capacity to enhance energy expenditure. Despite these phenolics having been reported to increase the thermogenic program in brown and white adipose tissue, flavan-3-ols are vastly metabolised in vivo to phenyl-γ-valerolactones. Therefore, we hypothesize that phenyl-γ-valerolactones may directly stimulate the differentiation and the activation of brown adipocytes...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275131/tea-catechin-and-caffeine-activate-brown-adipose-tissue-and-increase-cold-induced-thermogenic-capacity-in-humans
#10
Takeshi Yoneshiro, Mami Matsushita, Masanobu Hibi, Hiroshi Tone, Masao Takeshita, Koichi Yasunaga, Yoshihisa Katsuragi, Toshimitsu Kameya, Hiroki Sugie, Masayuki Saito
Background: The thermogenic effects of green tea catechin have been repeatedly reported, but their mechanisms are poorly understood.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of catechin on brown adipose tissue (BAT), a site specialized for nonshivering thermogenesis, in humans.Design: Fifteen healthy male volunteers underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography to assess BAT activity. To examine the acute catechin effect, whole-body energy expenditure (EE) after a single oral ingestion of a beverage containing 615 mg catechin and 77 mg caffeine (catechin beverage) was measured...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271034/divergent-effects-of-a-designer-natriuretic-peptide-cd-np-in-the-regulation-of-adipose-tissue-and-metabolism
#11
Anja Glöde, Jennifer Naumann, Thorsten Gnad, Valentina Cannone, Ana Kilic, John C Burnett, Alexander Pfeifer
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is defined as an abnormal increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy and correlates with leanness. Natriuretic peptides have been shown to be beneficial for brown adipocyte differentiation and browning of WAT. METHODS: Here, we investigated the effects of an optimized designer natriuretic peptide (CD-NP) on murine adipose tissues in vitro and in vivo...
March 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270520/functional-human-beige-adipocytes-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Anne-Claire Guénantin, Nolwenn Briand, Emilie Capel, Florent Dumont, Romain Morichon, Claire Provost, Francesca Stillitano, Dorota Jeziorowska, Jean-Pierre Siffroi, Roger J Hajjar, Bruno Fève, Jean-Sébastien Hulot, Philippe Collas, Jacqueline Capeau, Corinne Vigouroux
Activation of thermogenic beige adipocytes has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic target in obesity and diabetes. Relevant human models for beige adipocyte differentiation are essential to implement such therapeutic strategies. We report a straightforward and efficient protocol to generate functional human beige adipocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Without overexpression of exogenous adipogenic genes, our method recapitulates an adipogenic developmental pathway through successive mesodermal and adipogenic progenitor stages...
March 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254751/glycinergic-inhibition-of-bat-sympathetic-premotor-neurons-in-rostral-raphe-pallidus
#13
Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Christopher J Madden, Shaun F Morrison
The rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa) contains sympathetic premotor neurons controlling thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We sought to determine if a tonic activation of glycineA receptors (GlyAR) in the rRPa contributes to the inhibitory regulation of BAT SNA and of cardiovascular parameters in anesthetized rats. Nanoinjection of the GlyAR antagonist, strychnine (STR), into the rRPa of intact rats increased BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA, peak: +495%), BAT temperature (TBAT, +1.1 ºC), expired CO2, (+0...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252808/controls-on-methane-occurrences-in-aquifers-overlying-the-eagle-ford-shale-play-south-texas
#14
Jean-Philippe Nicot, Toti Larson, Roxana Darvari, Patrick Mickler, Kristine Uhlman, Ruth Costley
Assessing natural vs. anthropogenic sources of methane in drinking water aquifers is a critical issue in areas of shale oil and gas production. The objective of this study was to determine controls on methane occurrences in aquifers in the Eagle Ford Shale play footprint. A total of 110 water wells were tested for dissolved light alkanes, isotopes of methane, and major ions, mostly in the eastern section of the play. Multiple aquifers were sampled with approximately 47 samples from the Carrizo-Wilcox Aquifer (250-1200 m depth range) and Queen City-Sparta Aquifer (150-900 m depth range) and 63 samples from other shallow aquifers but mostly from the Catahoula Formation (depth <150 m)...
March 2, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248422/methane-occurrences-in-aquifers-overlying-the-barnett-shale-play-with-a-focus-on-parker-county-texas
#15
Jean-Philippe Nicot, Patrick Mickler, Toti Larson, M Clara Castro, Roxana Darvari, Kristine Uhlman, Ruth Costley
Clusters of elevated methane concentrations in aquifers overlying the Barnett Shale play have been the focus of recent national attention as they relate to impacts of hydraulic fracturing. The objective of this study was to assess the spatial extent of high dissolved methane previously observed on the western edge of the play (Parker County) and to evaluate its most likely source. A total of 509 well water samples from 12 counties (14,500 km(2) ) were analyzed for methane, major ions, and carbon isotopes. Most samples were collected from the regional Trinity Aquifer and show only low levels of dissolved methane (85% of 457 unique locations <0...
March 1, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247947/gm13133-is-a-negative-regulator-in-mouse-white-adipocytes-differentiation-and-drives-the-characteristics-of-brown-adipocytes
#16
LiangHui You, YaHui Zhou, XianWei Cui, XingYun Wang, YaZhou Sun, Yao Gao, Xing Wang, Juan Wen, Kaipeng Xie, RanRan Tang, ChenBo Ji, XiRong Guo
Obesity is tightly associated with the disturbance of white adipose tissue storing excess energy. Thermogenic adipocytes (brown and beige) exert a critical role of oxidizing nutrients at the high rates through non-shivering thermogenesis. The recruitment of brown characteristics in white adipocytes, termed browning, has been considered as a promising strategy for treating obesity and associated metabolic complications. Recently, long noncoding RNAs play a crucial role in regulating tissue development and participating in disease pathogenesis, yet their effects on the conversion of white into brown-like adipocytes and thermogenic function were not totally understood...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244053/using-thermogenic-beige-cells-to-identify-biologically-active-small-molecules-and-peptides
#17
Ling Wu, Bin Xu
Incorporating molecular libraries in chemical biology screenings in cultured cells has been successfully used for gene discovery in many cellular processes. It has the unique potential to uncover novel mechanisms of complex cellular biology through the screening of small molecules and protein biologics in relevant cell-based assays. Recent development in the understanding and generation of thermogenic adipocytes provides opportunities for potential anti-obesity therapeutics discovery. In this chapter, we describe screening methods using thermogenic beige cells to identify novel compounds and peptides that activate adipocyte thermogenesis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244044/genetic-mouse-models-the-powerful-tools-to-study-fat-tissues
#18
Xingxing Kong, Kevin W Williams, Tiemin Liu
Obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with a variety of comorbidities that contribute to mortality around the world. Although significant effort has been expended in understanding mechanisms that mitigate the consequences of this epidemic, the field has experienced limited success thus far. The potential ability of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to counteract obesity and metabolic disease in rodents (and potentially in humans) has been a topical realization. Recently, there is also another thermogenic fat cell called beige adipocytes, which are located among white adipocytes and share similar activated responses to cyclic AMP as classical BAT...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244043/gene-expression-and-histological-analysis-of-activated-brown-adipocytes-in-adipose-tissue
#19
Yun-Hee Lee
With the rediscovery of brown adipose tissue in adult humans, identification and characterization of brown adipocytes have been topics of great interest in the field of adipose tissue research. In particular, identification of the molecular mechanisms that activate thermogenic adipocytes suggests promising targets for increasing energy expenditure and ultimately combatting obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. Thus, the methodology for identifying brown adipocytes in vivo is important for the precise determination of the metabolic activity of brown adipose tissue and de novo brown adipogenesis in white adipose tissue...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244040/isolation-of-immune-cells-from-adipose-tissue-for-flow-cytometry
#20
Jonathan R Brestoff
Beige and brown adipocytes are thermogenic cells essential for maintaining metabolic homeostasis within white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), respectively. Emerging studies indicate that various immune cell types such as alternatively activated macrophages (AAMacs), eosinophils, and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) critically regulate beige and/or brown adipocyte development and activation to protect against obesity and maintain core body temperature. These findings suggest that studies of beige and brown adipose tissue may benefit from traditional immunologic approaches such as flow cytometry of immune cells residing within WAT and BAT...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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