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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223294/the-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-is-dispensable-for-browning-of-adipose-tissues
#1
Jasper M A de Jong, René T F Wouters, Nathalie Boulet, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard, Natasa Petrovic
Brown and brite/beige adipocytes are attractive therapeutic targets to treat metabolic diseases. To maximally utilize their functional potential, further understanding is required about their identities and their functional differences. Recent studies with β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice reported that brite/beige adipocytes, but not classical brown adipocytes, require the β3-adrenergic receptor for cold-induced transcriptional activation of thermogenic genes. We aimed to further characterize this requirement of the β3-adrenergic receptor as a functional distinction between classical brown and brite/beige adipocytes...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219696/irisin-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus-effects-of-irisin-injections-on-feeding-behavior-and-expression-of-appetite-regulators-uncoupling-proteins-and-lipoprotein-lipase-and-fasting-induced-changes-in-fndc5-expression
#2
Zahndra Diann Butt, Jessica Dalton Hackett, Hélène Volkoff
Irisin is a peptide cleaved from the fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene that is secreted predominantly by muscle cells but also by other tissues including brain and intestine. In mammals, irisin has been shown to have thermogenic actions via the modulation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and to affect feeding and energy homeostasis via actions in brain, adipose tissue, liver, muscle and gastrointestinal tract. To examine the role of irisin on feeding and metabolism in fish, the effects of peripheral (intraperitoneal) injections of irisin on feeding behavior, glucose levels and the mRNA expressions of appetite regulators (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript CART, agouti related protein AgRP, orexin), UCPs and lipoprotein lipase LPL and brain factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor , BDNF and tyrosine hydroxylase TH) were assessed in brain, white muscle and intestine...
February 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212671/an-adaptive-variant-of-trib2-rs1057001-is-associated-with-higher-expression-levels-of-thermogenic-genes-in-human-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissues
#3
Kazuhiro Nakayama, Sadahiko Iwamoto
BACKGROUND: An obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the Tribbles pseudokinase 2 gene (TRIB2) was shown to have underwent adaptive evolution in the last glacial period, suggesting a selective advantage of this SNP in human populations in cold environments. In order to verify this hypothesis, the effect of the TRIB2 SNP on the expression of genes involved in adaptive thermogenesis was tested using messenger RNAs prepared from adipose tissues of Japanese adults. METHODS: Complementary DNA was prepared from subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT) and visceral adipose tissues (VAT) obtained from 48 Japanese adults...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209927/improved-health-span-and-lifespan-in-mtdna-mutator-mice-treated-with-the-mitochondrially-targeted-antioxidant-skq1
#4
Irina G Shabalina, Mikhail Yu Vyssokikh, Natalia Gibanova, Robert I Csikasz, Daniel Edgar, Anne Hallden-Waldemarson, Zinaida Rozhdestvenskaya, Lora E Bakeeva, Valeria B Vays, Antonina V Pustovidko, Maxim V Skulachev, Barbara Cannon, Vladimir P Skulachev, Jan Nedergaard
MtDNA mutator mice exhibit marked features of premature aging. We find that these mice treated from age of ≈100 days with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 showed a delayed appearance of traits of aging such as kyphosis, alopecia, lowering of body temperature, body weight loss, as well as ameliorated heart, kidney and liver pathologies. These effects of SkQ1 are suggested to be related to an alleviation of the effects of an enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in mtDNA mutator mice: the increased mitochondrial ROS released due to mitochondrial mutations probably interact with polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiolipin, releasing malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal that form protein adducts and thus diminishes mitochondrial functions...
February 15, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192176/direct-and-rapid-effects-of-3-5-diiodo-l-thyronine-t2
#5
Maria Moreno, Antonia Giacco, Celia Di Munno, Fernando Goglia
A growing number of researchers are focusing their attention on the possibility that thyroid hormone metabolites, particularly 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2), may actively regulate energy metabolism at the cellular, rather than the nuclear, level. Due to their biochemical features, mitochondria have been the focus of research on the thermogenic effects of thyroid hormones. Indeed, mitochondrial activities have been shown to be regulated both directly and indirectly by T2-specific pathways. Herein, we describe the effects of T2 on energy metabolism...
February 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178562/young-and-lean-elimination-of-senescent-cells-boosts-adaptive-thermogenesis
#6
Pablo J Fernandez-Marcos, Manuel Serrano
Thermogenesis converts the chemical energy of nutrients into heat, and this is associated to improved metabolic performance. In a previous issue of Cell Metabolism, Berry et al. (2017) reported that the progenitors of thermogenic beige adipocytes lose functionality with aging, and this process can be reversed with strategies that eliminate senescent cells.
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166943/cold-adaptive-thermogenesis-following-consumption-of-certain-pungent-spice-principles-a-validation-study
#7
Chaitanya Pandit, K R Anilakumar
Identifying a means to activate or potentiate thermogenic mechanisms through ingestion of dietary compounds have important implications in cold endurance and survival. Although many reports discuss the thermogenic potential of spices, it is surprising that none of the studies verify whether consumption of spices can improve cold endurance. In this study, we have attempted to evaluate if ingestion of certain spices can activate heat-generating mechanisms in the body such that a fall in. core body temperature (CBT) can be delayed or prevented when faced with a cold challenge...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164456/a-systems-perspective-on-brown-adipogenesis-and-metabolic-activation
#8
REVIEW
R N Pradhan, M Zachara, B Deplancke
Brown adipocytes regulate energy expenditure via mitochondrial uncoupling. This makes these fat cells attractive therapeutic targets to tackle the burgeoning issue of obesity, which itself is coupled to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and fatty liver disease. Recent research has revealed a complex network underlying brown fat cell differentiation and thermogenic activation, involving secreted factors, signal transduction, metabolic pathways and gene regulatory components. Given that brown fat is now reported to be present in adult humans, it is desirable to harness the knowledge from each network module to design effective therapeutic strategies...
February 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154348/promoting-effect-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-on-beige-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-rat-white-adipose-tissue
#9
Rieko Tanaka-Yachi, Chie Takahashi-Muto, Kazuya Adachi, Yukina Tanimura, Yoshinori Aoki, Taisuke Koike, Chikako Kiyose
Thermogenic adipocytes that are distinct from classical brown adipocytes (beige adipocytes) were identified in 2012. Beige adipocytes are also called inducible brown adipocytes because their differentiation is induced by a number of physiological stimuli, including adrenaline or myokines. PPARγ is the master regulator of adipogenesis and promotes thermogenic adipocyte differentiation. A PPARγ agonist also promotes thermogenic adipocyte differentiation in mouse white adipose tissues. The vitamin E analog α-tocopherol promotes PPARγ expression and induces mRNA expression of target genes...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145515/role-of-thermal-physiology-and-bioenergetics-on-adaptation-in-tree-shrew-tupaia-belangeri-the-experiment-test
#10
Lin Zhang, Fang Yang, Zheng-Kun Wang, Wan-Long Zhu
Ambient conditions, as temperature and photoperiod, play a key role in animals' physiology and behaviors. To test the hypothesis that the maximum thermal physiological and bioenergetics tolerances are induced by extreme environments in Tupaia belangeri. We integrated the acclimatized and acclimated data in several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical markers of thermogenic capacity and bioenergetics in T. belangeri. Results showed that T. belangeri increased body mass, thermogenesis capacity, protein contents and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity of liver and brown adipose tissue in winter-like environments, which indicated that temperature was the primary signal for T...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130074/loss-of-ucp2-impairs-cold-induced-non-shivering-thermogenesis-by-promoting-a-shift-toward-glucose-utilization-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#11
Alexandre Caron, Sébastien M Labbé, Sophie Carter, Marie-Claude Roy, Roger Lecomte, Daniel Ricquier, Frédéric Picard, Denis Richard
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was discovered in 1997 and classified as an uncoupling protein largely based on its homology of sequence with UCP1. Since its discovery, the uncoupling function of UCP2 has been questioned and there is yet no consensus on the true function of this protein. UCP2 was first proposed to be a reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulator and an insulin secretion modulator. More recently, it was demonstrated as a regulator of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, which prompted us to investigate its role in the metabolic and thermogenic functions of brown adipose tissue...
March 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129657/physiological-characterization-of-a-novel-ppar-pan-agonist-2-4-5-6-methylenedioxybenzo-d-thiazol-2-yl-2-methylphenoxy-2-methylpropanoic-acid-mhy2013
#12
Hye Jin An, Bonggi Lee, Dae Hyun Kim, Eun Kyeong Lee, Ki Wung Chung, Min Hi Park, Hyoung Oh Jeong, Sung Min Kim, Kyoung Mi Moon, Ye Ra Kim, Seong Jin Kim, Hwi Young Yun, Pusoon Chun, Byung Pal Yu, Hyung Ryong Moon, Hae Young Chung
Recently, agonists targeting multiple peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been developed to improve metabolic disorders and minimize the side effects of selective PPAR agonists such as weight gain and dyslipidemia. We newly synthesized six 2-methyl-2-(o-tolyloxy)propanoic acid derivatives based on the structure of a well-known PPAR pan agonist, bezafibrate. Of six compounds, MHY2013 was screened as the strongest activator of three PPAR subtypes based on protein docking simulation and luciferase assays...
25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128208/mtorc2-signalling-regulates-m2-macrophage-differentiation-in-response-to-helminth-infection-and-adaptive-thermogenesis
#13
R W Hallowell, S L Collins, J M Craig, Y Zhang, M Oh, P B Illei, Y Chan-Li, C L Vigeland, W Mitzner, A L Scott, J D Powell, M R Horton
Alternatively activated macrophages (M2) have an important function in innate immune responses to parasitic helminths, and emerging evidence also indicates these cells are regulators of systemic metabolism. Here we show a critical role for mTORC2 signalling in the generation of M2 macrophages. Abrogation of mTORC2 signalling in macrophages by selective conditional deletion of the adaptor molecule Rictor inhibits the generation of M2 macrophages while leaving the generation of classically activated macrophages (M1) intact...
January 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128199/a-fabp-mediates-adaptive-thermogenesis-by-promoting-intracellular-activation-of-thyroid-hormones-in-brown-adipocytes
#14
Lingling Shu, Ruby L C Hoo, Xiaoping Wu, Yong Pan, Ida P C Lee, Lai Yee Cheong, Stefan R Bornstein, Xianglu Rong, Jiao Guo, Aimin Xu
The adipokine adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) has been implicated in obesity-related cardio-metabolic complications. Here we show that A-FABP increases thermogenesis by promoting the conversion of T4 to T3 in brown adipocytes. We find that A-FABP levels are increased in both white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues and the bloodstream in response to thermogenic stimuli. A-FABP knockout mice have reduced thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure after cold stress or after feeding a high-fat diet, which can be reversed by infusion of recombinant A-FABP...
January 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125644/srf-and-mkl1-independently-inhibit-brown-adipogenesis
#15
Matthias Rosenwald, Vissarion Efthymiou, Lennart Opitz, Christian Wolfrum
Active brown adipose tissue is responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals which affects energy homeostasis. The molecular mechanisms underlying this activation as well as the formation and activation of brite adipocytes have gained increasing interest in recent years as they might be utilized to regulate systemic metabolism. We show here that the transcriptional regulators SRF and MKL1 both act as repressors of brown adipogenesis. Loss-of-function of these transcription factors leads to a significant induction of brown adipocyte differentiation, increased levels of UCP1 and other thermogenic genes as well as increased respiratory function, while SRF induction exerts the opposite effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123942/fetal-development-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-is-dependent-on-zfp423
#16
Mengle Shao, Chelsea Hepler, Lavanya Vishvanath, Karen A MacPherson, Napoleon C Busbuso, Rana K Gupta
OBJECTIVE: Zfp423 is a multi zinc-finger transcription factor expressed in preadipocytes and mature adipocytes in vivo. Our recent work has revealed a critical role for Zfp423 in maintaining the fate of white adipocytes in adult mice through suppression of the beige cell thermogenic gene program; loss of Zfp423 in mature adipocytes of adult mice results in a white-to-beige phenotypic switch. However, the exact requirements of Zfp423 in the fetal stages of early adipose development in vivo have not been clarified...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123941/conserved-function-of-the-long-noncoding-rna-blnc1-in-brown-adipocyte-differentiation
#17
Lin Mi, Xu-Yun Zhao, Siming Li, Gongshe Yang, Jiandie D Lin
OBJECTIVE: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of diverse biological processes. Recent work has demonstrated that the inducible lncRNA Blnc1 stimulates thermogenic gene expression during brown and beige adipocyte differentiation. However, whether Blnc1 is functionally conserved in humans has not been explored. In addition, the molecular basis of the Blnc1 ribonucleoprotein complex in thermogenic gene induction remains incompletely understood. The aims of the current study were to: i) investigate functional conservation of Blnc1 in mice and humans and ii) elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which Blnc1 controls the thermogenic gene program in brown adipocytes...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123939/global-ip6k1-deletion-enhances-temperature-modulated-energy-expenditure-which-reduces-carbohydrate-and-fat-induced-weight-gain
#18
Qingzhang Zhu, Sarbani Ghoshal, Richa Tyagi, Anutosh Chakraborty
OBJECTIVE: IP6 kinases (IP6Ks) regulate cell metabolism and survival. Mice with global (IP6K1-KO) or adipocyte-specific (AdKO) deletion of IP6K1 are protected from diet induced obesity (DIO) at ambient (23 °C) temperature. AdKO mice are lean primarily due to increased AMPK mediated thermogenic energy expenditure (EE). Thus, at thermoneutral (30 °C) temperature, high fat diet (HFD)-fed AdKO mice expend energy and gain body weight, similar to control mice. IP6K1 is ubiquitously expressed; thus, it is critical to determine to what extent the lean phenotype of global IP6K1-KO mice depends on environmental temperature...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115396/evidence-that-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-elicits-rapid-coordinated-and-reciprocal-adjustments-of-insulin-secretion-and-insulin-sensitivity-during-cold-exposure
#19
Gregory J Morton, Kenjiro Muta, Karl J Kaiyala, Jennifer M Rojas, Jarrad M Scarlett, Miles E Matsen, Jarrell T Nelson, Nikhil K Acharya, Francesca Piccinini, Darko Stefanovski, Richard N Bergman, Gerald J Taborsky, Steven E Kahn, Michael W Schwartz
Dynamic adjustment of insulin secretion to compensate for changes of insulin sensitivity that result from alteration of nutritional or metabolic status is a fundamental aspect of glucose homeostasis. To investigate the role of the brain in this coupling process, we used cold exposure as an experimental paradigm, since the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) helps to coordinate the major shifts of tissue glucose utilization needed to ensure that increased thermogenic needs are met. We found that in rats housed at 5°C for 28 h, glucose-induced insulin secretion declined by 50% and yet glucose tolerance did not change, owing to a doubling of insulin sensitivity...
January 23, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107769/the-transcriptional-modulator-ifrd1-controls-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-under-short-term-adrenergic-stimulation-in-brown-adipocytes
#20
Gyujin Park, Tetsuhiro Horie, Takashi Kanayama, Kazuya Fukasawa, Takashi Iezaki, Yuki Onishi, Kakeru Ozaki, Yukari Nakamura, Yukio Yoneda, Takeshi Takarada, Eiichi Hinoi
Sympathetic tone activates the function of classical brown adipocytes, which constitutively exist in the brown adipose tissue, and inducible brown adipocytes (so-called beige adipocytes), which sporadically reside within the white adipose tissue. Here we identified the transcriptional modulator interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (Ifrd1) as a negative regulator of thermogenic and mitochondrial gene expression in brown adipocytes. Ifrd1 expression was markedly induced by cold exposure and administration of CL-316243 (a β3 adrenergic agonist) in interscapular brown adipose and inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissues, but not in epididymal visceral white adipose tissue, in vivo...
January 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
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