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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346772/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-controls-mature-brown-adipocyte-inducibility-through-glycerol-kinase
#1
David Lasar, Matthias Rosenwald, Elke Kiehlmann, Miroslav Balaz, Bettina Tall, Lennart Opitz, Martin E Lidell, Nicola Zamboni, Petra Krznar, Wenfei Sun, Lukas Varga, Patrik Stefanicka, Jozef Ukropec, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi Virtanen, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Sven Enerbäck, Walter Wahli, Christian Wolfrum
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been suggested as the master regulators of adipose tissue formation. However, their role in regulating brown fat functionality has not been resolved. To address this question, we generated mice with inducible brown fat-specific deletions of PPARα, β/δ, and γ, respectively. We found that both PPARα and β/δδ are dispensable for brown fat function. In contrast, we could show that ablation of PPARγ in vitro and in vivo led to a reduced thermogenic capacity accompanied by a loss of inducibility by β-adrenergic signaling, as well as a shift from oxidative fatty acid metabolism to glucose utilization...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343538/impact-of-dietary-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-brown-and-brite-adipocyte-function
#2
Rayane A Ghandour, Cecilia Colson, Maude Giroud, Stefanie Maurer, Samah Rekima, Gerard P Ailhaud, Martin Klingenspor, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Didier F Pisani
The recent characterization of functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has opened new perspectives for regulation of energy expenditure with respect to obesity and diabetes. Furthermore, dietary recommendations have taken into account the insufficient dietary intake of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the concomitant excessive intake of ω6 PUFA associated with the occurrence of overweight/obesity. We aimed to study whether ω3 PUFAs could play a role in the recruitment and function of energy-dissipating brown/brite adipocytes...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341928/a-novel-brown-adipocyte-enriched-long-non-coding-rna-that-is-required-for-brown-adipocyte-differentiation-and-sufficient-to-drive-thermogenic-gene-program-in-white-adipocytes
#3
Yan Xiong, Feng Yue, Zhihao Jia, Yun Gao, Wen Jin, Keping Hu, Yong Zhang, Dahai Zhu, Gongshe Yang, Shihuan Kuang
The thermogenic activities of brown and beige adipocytes can be exploited to reduce energy surplus and counteract obesity. Recent RNA sequencing studies have uncovered a number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) uniquely expressed in white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT), but whether and how these lncRNAs function in adipogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of a novel brown adipocyte-enriched LncRNA (AK079912), and its nuclear localization, function and regulation. The expression of AK079912 increases during brown preadipocyte differentiation and in response to cold-stimulated browning of white adipocytes...
January 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339725/tgr5-signalling-promotes-mitochondrial-fission-and-beige-remodelling-of-white-adipose-tissue
#4
Laura A Velazquez-Villegas, Alessia Perino, Vera Lemos, Marika Zietak, Mitsunori Nomura, Thijs Willem Hendrik Pols, Kristina Schoonjans
Remodelling of energy storing white fat into energy expending beige fat could be a promising strategy to reduce adiposity. Here, we show that the bile acid-responsive membrane receptor TGR5 mediates beiging of the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) under multiple environmental cues including cold exposure and prolonged high-fat diet feeding. Moreover, administration of TGR5-selective bile acid mimetics to thermoneutral housed mice leads to the appearance of beige adipocyte markers and increases mitochondrial content in the scWAT of Tgr5 +/+ mice but not in their Tgr5 -/- littermates...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320712/serca2b-cycles-its-way-to-ucp1-independent-thermogenesis-in-beige-fat
#5
Emilio P Mottillo, Vanesa D Ramseyer, James G Granneman
A new study in Nature Medicine, by Ikeda et al. (2017), reports that calcium cycling in beige adipocytes elevates energy expenditure and glucose oxidation in the absence of uncoupling protein 1. Thermogenic calcium cycling in beige fat is mediated by SERCA2b and improves cold tolerance and metabolic status.
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320703/three-dimensional-adipose-tissue-imaging-reveals-regional-variation-in-beige-fat-biogenesis-and-prdm16-dependent-sympathetic-neurite-density
#6
Jingyi Chi, Zhuhao Wu, Chan Hee J Choi, Lily Nguyen, Saba Tegegne, Sarah E Ackerman, Audrey Crane, François Marchildon, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Paul Cohen
While the cell-intrinsic pathways governing beige adipocyte development and phenotype have been increasingly delineated, comparatively little is known about how beige adipocytes interact with other cell types in fat. Here, we introduce a whole-tissue clearing method for adipose that permits immunolabeling and three-dimensional profiling of structures including thermogenic adipocytes and sympathetic innervation. We found that tissue architecture and sympathetic innervation differ significantly between subcutaneous and visceral depots...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310935/degradation-of-brown-adipocyte-purine-nucleotides-regulates-uncoupling-protein-1-activity
#7
Tobias Fromme, Karin Kleigrewe, Andreas Dunkel, Angelika Retzler, Yongguo Li, Stefanie Maurer, Natascha Fischer, Rolf Diezko, Timo Kanzleiter, Verena Hirschberg, Thomas Hofmann, Martin Klingenspor
OBJECTIVE: Non-shivering thermogenesis in mammalian brown adipose tissue depends on thermogenic uncoupling protein 1. Its activity is triggered by free fatty acids while purine nucleotides mediate inhibition. During activation, it is thought that free fatty acids overcome purine-mediated inhibition. We measured the cellular concentration and the release of purine nucleotide metabolites to uncover a possible role of purine nucleotide degradation in uncoupling protein 1 activation. METHODS: With mass spectrometry, purine nucleotide metabolites were quantified in cellular homogenates and supernatants of cultured primary brown adipocytes...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289646/differential-contribution-of-pomc-and-agrp-neurons-to-the-regulation-of-regional-autonomic-nerve-activity-by-leptin
#8
Balyssa B Bell, Shannon M Harlan, Donald A Morgan, Deng-Fu Guo, Kamal Rahmouni
OBJECTIVES: The autonomic nervous system is critically involved in mediating the control by leptin of many physiological processes. Here, we examined the role of the leptin receptor (LepR) in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in mediating the effects of leptin on regional sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity. METHODS: We analyzed how deletion of the LepR in POMC neurons (POMCCre/LepRfl/fl mice) or AgRP neurons (AgRPCre/LepRfl/fl mice) affects the ability of leptin to increase sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity...
December 18, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288687/distinctive-effects-of-licarin-a-on-lipolysis-mediated-by-pka-and-on-formation-of-brown-adipocytes-from-c3h10t1-2-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Dahyeon Yoon, Khan Mohammad Imran, Yong-Sik Kim
Obesity increases with the positive energy imbalance and correlates with increased risks for metabolic diseases. Promotion of white adipose tissue beiging has received considerable attention due to possible usefulness for preventing obesity and the comorbidities. Licarin A (LA) is a compound derived from Mexican medicinal plant Aristolochia taliscana. Here, we report that LA stimulates the development of brown-like and beige-like adipocytes from C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells with phenotypic shifts to formation of smaller lipid droplets...
December 27, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281847/geographical-variation-in-cone-volatiles-and-pollinators-in-the-thermogenic-african-cycad-encephalartos-ghellinckii-lem
#10
T N Suinyuy, S D Johnson
Heat and odour production can have profound effects on pollination in cycads. It is therefore expected that these traits would co-vary geographically with pollinator assemblages. Such intraspecific variation, may lead to the evolution of pollination ecotypes which can be an early stage of pollinator-mediated speciation. We measured cone temperatures using miniature temperature data loggers and examined the composition of cone volatile odours using headspace sampling and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in four populations spanning the range of the African cycad Encephalartos ghellinckii...
December 27, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279383/impact-of-an-historic-underground-gas-well-blowout-on-the-current-methane-chemistry-in-a-shallow-groundwater-system
#11
Gilian Schout, Niels Hartog, S Majid Hassanizadeh, Jasper Griffioen
Blowouts present a small but genuine risk when drilling into the deep subsurface and can have an immediate and significant impact on the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, studies that document their long-term impact are scarce. In 1965, a catastrophic underground blowout occurred during the drilling of a gas well in The Netherlands, which led to the uncontrolled release of large amounts of natural gas from the reservoir to the surface. In this study, the remaining impact on methane chemistry in the overlying aquifers was investigated...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261006/feeding-obese-diabetic-mice-a-genistein-diet-induces-thermogenic-and-metabolic-change
#12
Schuyler Rockwood, Tom L Broderick, Layla Al-Nakkash
Obesity is associated with elevated plasma levels of glucocorticoids and reduced levels of thyroid hormones, both known to effect food intake and energy expenditure. Furthermore, tissue specific glucocorticoid metabolism is altered in obesity, increasing insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk. The goal of this study was to examine whether these metabolic disturbances can be prevented with the isoflavone genistein in the ob/ob mouse, a model that resembles the phenotype in human obesity. Male ob/ob mice, aged 5 weeks, were fed either a genistein-rich diet (600 mg/kg) or a genistein-free diet for 4 weeks...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249357/il-10-signaling-remodels-adipose-chromatin-architecture-to-limit-thermogenesis-and-energy-expenditure
#13
Prashant Rajbhandari, Brandon J Thomas, An-Chieh Feng, Cynthia Hong, Jiexin Wang, Laurent Vergnes, Tamer Sallam, Bo Wang, Jaspreet Sandhu, Marcus M Seldin, Aldons J Lusis, Loren G Fong, Melanie Katz, Richard Lee, Stephen G Young, Karen Reue, Stephen T Smale, Peter Tontonoz
Signaling pathways that promote adipose tissue thermogenesis are well characterized, but the limiters of energy expenditure are largely unknown. Here, we show that ablation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 improves insulin sensitivity, protects against diet-induced obesity, and elicits the browning of white adipose tissue. Mechanistic studies define bone marrow cells as the source of the IL-10 signal and adipocytes as the target cell type mediating these effects. IL-10 receptor alpha is highly enriched in mature adipocytes and is induced in response to differentiation, obesity, and aging...
December 8, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238244/influence-of-a-thermogenic-dietary-supplement-on-safety-markers-body-composition-energy-expenditure-muscular-performance-and-hormone-concentrations-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#14
Grant M Tinsley, Stacie Urbina, Jacy Mullins, Jordan Outlaw, Sara Hayward, Matt Stone, Cliffa Foster, Colin Wilborn, Lem Taylor
Dietary supplementation is commonly employed by individuals seeking to improve body composition and exercise performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of a commercially available dietary supplement designed to promote thermogenesis and fat loss. In a randomized double-blind trial, participants were assigned to consume placebo or a multi-ingredient supplement containing caffeine, green tea extract, l-carnitine, evodiamine and other ingredients that purportedly enhance thermogenesis...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230933/biology-and-pathological-implications-of-brown-adipose-tissue-promises-and-caveats-for-the-control-of-obesity-and-its-associated-complications
#15
Pablo Tapia, Marta Fernández-Galilea, Fermín Robledo, Pablo Mardones, José E Galgani, Víctor A Cortés
The discovery of metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has fuelled the research of diverse aspects of this previously neglected tissue. BAT is solely present in mammals and its clearest physiological role is non-shivering thermogenesis, owing to the capacity of brown adipocytes to dissipate metabolic energy as heat. Recently, a number of other possible functions have been proposed, including direct regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis and the secretion of a number of factors with diverse regulatory actions...
December 11, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230714/obesity-phenotypes-depot-differences-in-adipose-tissue-and-their-clinical-implications
#16
REVIEW
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
Obesity, defined as excess fat mass, increases risks for multiple chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and several types of cancer. Beyond adiposity per se, the pattern of fat distribution, android or truncal as compared to gynoid or peripheral, has a profound influence on systemic metabolism and hence risk for obesity complications. Not only factors as genetics, environment, gender, and age account for the apparent compartmentalization of white adipose tissue (WAT) in the body...
December 11, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217172/nobiletin-induces-brown-adipocyte-like-phenotype-and-ameliorates-stress-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#17
Jameel Lone, Hilal Ahmad Parray, Jong Won Yun
Browning of white adipocytes (beiging) is an attractive therapeutic strategy against obesity and its associated metabolic complications. Nobiletin (NOB) is a polymethoxylated flavone present in Citrus fruits and has been reported to have anti-obesity effects. Here, we report that nobiletin exerts dual modulatory effects on adipocytes via induction of browning in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes and amelioration of stress in adipocytes. Nobiletin-induced beiging was investigated by determining expression levels of beige-specific genes and proteins by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, respectively...
December 4, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209828/regulation-of-immunometabolism-in-adipose-tissue
#18
REVIEW
Manju Kumari, Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja
Adipose tissue has emerged as a major player in driving obesity-related inflammatory response. In obesity, chronic infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue mediates local and systemic inflammation and acts as a key contributor to insulin resistance. In the past few years, adipose tissue plasticity and remodeling capacity has been studied extensively to develop therapeutic targets to combat obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Progress in understanding the potential of adipocytes and contribution of macrophages and other immune cells to control immunometabolism in disease state has provided us new potential intervention targets to explore such as the formation of heat-producing beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue and the polarization of macrophages from an inflammatory toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype...
December 5, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209779/central-regulation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-and-energy-homeostasis-dependent-on-food-availability
#19
REVIEW
Yoshiko Nakamura, Kazuhiro Nakamura
Energy homeostasis of mammals is maintained by balancing energy expenditure within the body and energy intake through feeding. Several lines of evidence indicate that brown adipose tissue (BAT), a sympathetically activated thermogenic organ, turns excess energy into heat to maintain the energy balance in rodents and humans, in addition to its thermoregulatory role for the defense of body core temperature in cold environments. Elucidating the central circuit mechanism controlling BAT thermogenesis dependent on nutritional conditions and food availability in relation to energy homeostasis is essential to understand the etiology of symptoms caused by energy imbalance, such as obesity...
December 5, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209367/functional-characterization-of-preadipocytes-derived-from-human-periaortic-adipose-tissue
#20
Diana Vargas, Jaime Camacho, Juan Duque, Marisol Carreño, Edward Acero, Máximo Pérez, Sergio Ramirez, Juan Umaña, Carlos Obando, Albert Guerrero, Néstor Sandoval, Gina Rodríguez, Fernando Lizcano
Adipose tissue can affect the metabolic control of the cardiovascular system, and its anatomic location can affect the vascular function differently. In this study, biochemical and phenotypical characteristics of adipose tissue from periaortic fat were evaluated. Periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues were obtained from areas surrounding the ascending aorta and sternotomy incision, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from patients undergoing myocardial revascularization or mitral valve replacement surgery...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
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