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Xiaoying Xu, Xiaoyan Liu, Shuran Ma, Ya Xu, Ying Xu, Xiazhen Guo, Dekui Li
Seasonal changes impact the melatonin production and immuno-activities in vertebrates. This is believed due to the photoperiodic alterations of the different seasons which impact the functions of pineal gland. The short photoperiod promotes pineal melatonin production. As a result, during the winter, animals have significantly higher levels of melatonin than in summer. However, the seasonal changes also include temperature changes. This factor has never been systemically investigated in animals. In the current study, we observed that increased temperature had limited influence on melatonin production...
March 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mitchell Kuss, Jiyoung Kim, Dianjun Qi, Shaohua Wu, Yuguo Lei, Soonkyu Chung, Bin Duan
Obesity and its related health complications cause billions of dollars in healthcare costs annually in the United States, and there are yet to be safe and long-lasting anti-obesity approaches. Using brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a promising approach, as it uses fats for energy expenditure. However, the effect of the microenvironment on human thermogenic brown adipogenesis and how to generate clinically relevant sized and functioning BAT are still unknown. In our current study, we evaluated the effects of endothelial growth medium exposure on brown adipogenesis of human brown adipose progenitors (BAP)...
March 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Ian M Boothroyd, Sam Almond, Fred Worrall, Rosemary K Davies, Richard J Davies
Natural gas pipelines are an important source of fugitive methane emissions in lifecycle greenhouse gas assessments but limited monitoring has taken place of UK pipelines to quantify fugitive emissions. This study investigated methane emissions from the UK high-pressure pipeline system (National Transmission System - NTS) for natural gas pipelines. Mobile surveys of CH4 emissions were conducted across four areas in the UK, with routes bisecting high-pressure pipelines (with a maximum operating pressure of 85bar) and separate control routes away from the pipelines...
February 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Diana Vargas, Carolina López, Edward Acero, Edgar Benitez, Angélica Wintaco, Jaime Camacho, Marisol Carreño, Juan Umaña, Daniela Jimenez, Said Díaz, Fernando Lizcano
The anatomical location of adipose tissue might have direct implications for its functionality and risk of cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue surrounding blood vessels may be thermogenically more active in specific areas of the body, releasing substances that regulate vascular metabolism. In humans, the phenotypic characteristics of adipose tissue surrounding the aorta and the cardiovascular disease risk that it might entail remain largely unknown. Here, we compared thermogenesis-related molecular features of human periaortic adipose tissue samples with those of subcutaneous adipose tissue, obtained by sternotomy from 42 patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery...
2018: PloS One
Pablo A Cortes, Francisco Bozinovic, Pierre U Blier
Mammalian torpor is a phenotype characterized by a controlled decline of metabolic rate, generally followed by a reduction in body temperature. During arousal from torpor, both metabolic rate and body temperature rapidly returns to resting levels. Metabolic rate reduction experienced by torpid animals is triggered by active suppression of mitochondrial respiration, which is rapidly reversed during rewarming process. In this study, we analyzed the changes in the maximal activity of key enzymes related to electron transport system (complexes I, III and IV) in six tissues of torpid, arousing and euthermic Chilean mouse-opossums (Thylamys elegans)...
March 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Kornelia Johann, Marlen Colleen Reis, Lisbeth Harder, Beate Herrmann, Sogol Gachkar, Jens Mittag, Rebecca Oelkrug
Stimulation of thermogenic pathways appears to be a promising approach to find new ways of tackling metabolic diseases like obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. Thermogenic, weight reducing and insulin sensitizing effects of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE 5) inhibitors have recently been postulated, suggesting that modulators of endogenous cGMP signaling have the therapeutic potential to treat metabolic disorders. However, most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals that were not glucose intolerant. We, thus, aimed to test the metabolic effects of the PDE 5 inhibitor sildenafil by treating diet-induced obese (DIO) mice orally for 8 days...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Lucia Balazova, Christian Wolfrum, Miroslav Balaz
Recruitment of thermogenic adipocytes within white fat depots represents a promising strategy to increase energy expenditure. Negative energy balance has been reported to promote adipose tissue browning in rodents. In a recent issue of Cell Reports, Barquissau et al. show that caloric restriction-associated weight loss does not induce browning of subcutaneous abdominal white fat in obese humans.
March 13, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Qingbo Chen, Lei Huang, Dongning Pan, Lihua J Zhu, Yong-Xu Wang
Transcriptional co-activator Prdm16 controls brown fat development and white fat browning, but how this thermogenic function is modulated post-translationally is poorly understood. Here, we report that Cbx4, a Polycomb group protein, is a SUMO E3 ligase for Prdm16 and that Cbx4-mediated sumoylation of Prdm16 is required for thermogenic gene expression. Cbx4 expression is enriched in brown fat and is induced in adipose tissue by acute cold exposure. Sumoylation of Prdm16 at lysine 917 by Cbx4 blocks its ubiquitination-mediated degradation, thereby augmenting its stability and thermogenic function...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Maryam Ahmadian, Sihao Liu, Shannon M Reilly, Nasun Hah, Weiwei Fan, Eiji Yoshihara, Pooja Jha, C Daniel De Magalhaes Filho, Sandra Jacinto, Andrew V Gomez, Yang Dai, Ruth T Yu, Christopher Liddle, Annette R Atkins, Johan Auwerx, Alan R Saltiel, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) adaptively transfers energy from glucose and fat into heat by inducing a gene network that uncouples mitochondrial electron transport. However, the innate transcription factors that enable the rapid adaptive response of BAT are unclear. Here, we identify estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) as a critical factor for maintaining BAT identity. ERRγ is selectively expressed in BAT versus WAT, in which, in the absence of PGC1α, it drives a signature transcriptional network of thermogenic and oxidative genes in the basal (i...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Tiande Zou, Bo Wang, Qiyuan Yang, Jeanene M de Avila, Mei-Jun Zhu, Jinming You, Daiwen Chen, Min Du
Development of brown and beige/brite adipocytes increases thermogenesis and helps to reduce obesity and metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggests that dietary raspberry can ameliorate metabolic syndromes in diet-induced obese mice. Here, we further evaluated the effects of raspberry on energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis and determined whether these effects were mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Mice deficient in the catalytic subunit of AMPKα1 and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 5% raspberry (RAS) for 10 weeks...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Jens Lund, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen, Lotte Lauritzen
Numerous studies have shown that feeding rodents n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates adiposity. Moreover, meta-analyses of human dietary intervention studies indicate that fish oil (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation might reduce waist circumference. A recent line of research suggests that browning of white adipose depots and activation of uncoupled respiration in brown fat contributes to these effects. This mini-review summarizes the observations in rodents, highlights several mechanisms that might explain these observations and discusses the translational potential...
March 9, 2018: Adipocyte
Sicong He, Yitai An, Xuesong Li, Xiuqing Wei, Qiqi Sun, Zhenguo Wu, Jianan Y Qu
Activation of the thermogenic brown and beige fat is an effective means to increasing whole-body energy expenditure. In this work, a unique label-free method was developed to quantitatively assess the metabolism and thermogenesis of mouse adipose tissues in vivo. Specifically, an optical redox ratio based on the endogenous fluorescence of mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes (NADH and FAD) was used to measure the metabolic state of adipocytes. Our findings demonstrate that the optical redox ratio provides a label-free and real-time biomarker to determine the thermogenic response of brown, beige and white adipose tissues to a variety of physiological stimulations...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Lingyan Wu, Lina Zhang, Bohan Li, Haowen Jiang, Yanan Duan, Zhifu Xie, Lin Shuai, Jia Li, Jingya Li
Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mallory A Ballinger, Matthew T Andrews
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a unique thermogenic tissue in mammals that rapidly produces heat via nonshivering thermogenesis. Small mammalian hibernators have evolved the greatest capacity for BAT because they use it to rewarm from hypothermic torpor numerous times throughout the hibernation season. Although hibernator BAT physiology has been investigated for decades, recent efforts have been directed toward understanding the molecular underpinnings of BAT regulation and function using a variety of methods, from mitochondrial functional assays to 'omics' approaches...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ruchi Masand, Esther Paulo, Dongmei Wu, Yangmeng Wang, Danielle L Swaney, David Jimenez-Morales, Nevan J Krogan, Biao Wang
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is critical for thermoregulation and contributes to total energy expenditure. However, whether BAT has non-thermogenic functions is largely unknown. Here, we describe that BAT-specific liver kinase b1 knockout (Lkb1BKO ) mice exhibited impaired BAT mitochondrial respiration and thermogenesis but reduced adiposity and liver triglyceride accumulation under high-fat-diet feeding at room temperature. Importantly, these metabolic benefits were also present in Lkb1BKO mice at thermoneutrality, where BAT thermogenesis was not required...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Kevin M Tharp, Michael S Kang, Greg A Timblin, Jon Dempersmier, Garret E Dempsey, Peter-James H Zushin, Jaime Benavides, Catherine Choi, Catherine X Li, Amit K Jha, Shingo Kajimura, Kevin E Healy, Hei Sook Sul, Kaoru Saijo, Sanjay Kumar, Andreas Stahl
The activation of brown/beige adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism and the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression are essential for BAT-based strategies to improve metabolic homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that BAT utilizes actomyosin machinery to generate tensional responses following adrenergic stimulation, similar to muscle tissues. The activation of actomyosin mechanics is critical for the acute induction of oxidative metabolism and uncoupled respiration in UCP1+ adipocytes. Moreover, we show that actomyosin-mediated elasticity regulates the thermogenic capacity of adipocytes via the mechanosensitive transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ, which are indispensable for normal BAT function...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Glen Katsnelson, George Bikopoulos, Ayesha Iqbal, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated the molecular and metabolic responses of the liver to cold-induced thermogenesis. To accomplish that, male Wistar rats were exposed to cold (4°C) for 7 days. Livers were then extracted and used for the determination of glucose and fatty acid oxidation, glycogen content, the expression and content of proteins involved in insulin signaling, as well as in the regulation of gluconeogenesis and de novo lipid synthesis. Despite being hyperphagic, cold-acclimated rats displayed normoglycemia with reduced insulinemia, which suggests improved whole-body insulin sensitivity...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Rizaldy C Zapata, Arashdeep Singh, Nadia M Ajdari, Prasanth K Chelikani
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of graded dietary restriction of tryptophan on food intake, energy expenditure, body composition, gut hormones, and select fecal bacterial populations in obesity-prone rats. METHODS: Obesity-prone rats were randomized to isocaloric diets with varying degrees of tryptophan restriction: control (100% requirements), 70% tryptophan (70TRP), 40% tryptophan (40TRP), or 10% tryptophan (10TRP) for 21 days. The sympathetic system was challenged with a subcutaneous injection of propranolol on days 15 to 17...
March 4, 2018: Obesity
Ksenija D Velickovic, Mirela M Ukropina, Radmila M Glisic, Maja M Cakic-Milosevic
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term sucrose overfeeding on functional capacity and ultrastructural characteristics of the rat brown adipose tissue (BAT). For the study, sixteen male Wistar rats, chow-fed and kept under standard laboratory conditions were divided into 2 equal groups. The rats from a control group drank tap water, while those from a sucrose overfed group were allowed to drink 10% sucrose solution for 21 days. Structural changes of BAT were analysed at the level of light and electron microscopy on routinely prepared tissue sections or using immunohistochemical staining, in combination with stereological methods...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yufeng Zhang, Kathleen Eyster, David L Swanson
A prominent example of seasonal phenotypic flexibility is the winter increase in thermogenic capacity (=summit metabolism, [Formula: see text]) in small birds, which is often accompanied by increases in pectoralis muscle mass and lipid catabolic capacity. Temperature or photoperiod may be drivers of the winter phenotype, but their relative impacts on muscle remodeling or lipid transport pathways are little known. We examined photoperiod and temperature effects on pectoralis muscle expression of myostatin, a muscle growth inhibitor, and its tolloid-like protein activators (TLL-1 and TLL-2), and sarcolemmal and intracellular lipid transporters in dark-eyed juncos Junco hyemalis ...
February 2018: Current Zoology
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