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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452942/early-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-combination-of-bedaquiline-and-delamanid-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-armenia-india-and-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Gabriella Ferlazzo, Erika Mohr, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Catherine Hewison, Jennifer Hughes, Sylvie Jonckheere, Naira Khachatryan, Virginia De Avezedo, Lusine Egazaryan, Amir Shroufi, Stobdan Kalon, Helen Cox, Jennifer Furin, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Bedaquiline and delamanid have been approved for treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in the past 5 years. Because of theoretical safety concerns, patients have been unable to access the two drugs in combination. Médecins Sans Frontières has supported the use of combination bedaquiline and delamanid for people with few treatment options since 2016. We describe early safety and efficacy of regimens containing the bedaquiline and delamanid combination in patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis in Yerevan, Armenia; Mumbai, India; and Khayelitsha, South Africa...
February 13, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452936/use-of-telemedicine-in-the-management-of-infectious-diseases
#2
G Gras
Communication technologies have invaded our daily lives. Several studies have assessed these technologies in the management of infectious diseases (mainly HIV). Weekly short text messages and real-time compliance monitoring assessed in HIV patients are both associated with higher compliance in low-income countries. Virtual consultations to monitor stable chronic HIV patients or tuberculosis treatment in high-income countries appear to be acceptable and efficient. Although assessed in small studies, virtual monitoring seems to reinforce the doctor-patient relationship and the relation between primary care settings and hospitals in various infectious diseases (endocarditis, urinary tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection, HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis C)...
February 13, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447374/spectrum-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-care-setting-in-south-india
#3
Betsy Rebecca, Anila Chacko, Valsan Verghese, Winsley Rose
Background: Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is often underdiagnosed with poor estimate of its true burden. Availability of Xpert MTB/RIF assay enhances diagnostic capacity of pediatric TB. Methods: A 3-year retrospective review of hospital records was done for all children diagnosed with confirmed and unconfirmed TB. Comparison was made between intrathoracic, single-site extrathoracic and disseminated TB. Results: In total, 274 children had TB with 130 (47...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446860/development-of-a-clinical-prediction-rule-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-adults-in-lima-peru
#4
Lely Solari, Alonso Soto, Patrick van der Stuyft
OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis (TM) is a challenge in countries with a high burden of the disease and constrained resources and Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs) could be of assistance. We aimed at developing a CPR for diagnosis of TM in a Latin American setting with high tuberculosis incidence and a concentrated HIV epidemic. METHODS: We enrolled adult patients with clinical suspicion of TM attending two hospitals in Lima, Peru. We obtained information on potential anamnestic, clinical and laboratory predictive findings that are easy to collect and promptly available...
February 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445773/leveraging-tuberculosis-case-relative-locations-to-enhance-case-detection-and-linkage-to-care-in-swaziland
#5
Marie Brunetti, Sathyanath Rajasekharan, Piluca Ustero, Katherine Ngo, Welile Sikhondze, Buli Mzileni, Anna Mandalakas, Alexander W Kay
Background: In Swaziland, as in many high HIV/TB burden settings, there is not information available regarding the household location of TB cases for identifying areas of increased TB incidence, limiting the development of targeted interventions. Data from "Butimba", a TB REACH active case finding project, was re-analyzed to provide insight into the location of TB cases surrounding Mbabane, Swaziland. Objective: The project aimed to identify geographical areas with high TB burdens to inform active case finding efforts...
2018: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444831/hiv-associated-m-tuberculosis-blood-stream-infection-is-under-diagnosed-by-a-single-blood-culture
#6
David A Barr, Andrew D Kerkhoff, Charlotte Schutz, Amy M Ward, Gerry R Davies, Robert J Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes
We assessed the additional diagnostic yield for M. tuberculosis blood stream infection (MTB BSI) from doing more than one TB blood culture in HIV-infected inpatients. In a retrospective analysis of two cohorts based in Cape Town, South Africa, 72/99 (73%) patients with MTB BSI were identified by the first of two blood cultures during the same admission, with 27/99 (27%, 95%CI 18 to 36%) negative on first culture but positive on second. In a prospective evaluation of up to 6 blood cultures over 24 hours, 9 out of 14 patients with MTB BSI (65%) grew M...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440162/sequelae-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Archie C A Clements, Emma S McBryde, Ernesto Jaramillo, Knut Lonnroth, Debebe Shaweno, Kerri Viney
INTRODUCTION: The sequelae of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are poorly understood and inconsistently reported. We will aim to assess the existing evidence for the clinical, psychological, social and economic sequelae of MDR-TB and to assess the health-related quality of life in patients with MDR-TB. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies reporting sequelae of MDR-TB. We will search PubMed, SCOPUS, ProQuest, Web of Science and PsychINFO databases up to 5 September 2017...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438413/spatial-overlap-links-seemingly-unconnected-genotype-matched-tb-cases-in-rural-uganda
#8
Gabriel Chamie, Midori Kato-Maeda, Devy M Emperador, Bonnie Wandera, Olive Mugagga, John Crandall, Michael Janes, Carina Marquez, Moses R Kamya, Edwin D Charlebois, Diane V Havlir
INTRODUCTION: Incomplete understanding of TB transmission dynamics in high HIV prevalence settings remains an obstacle for prevention. Understanding where transmission occurs could provide a platform for case finding and interrupting transmission. METHODS: From 2012-2015, we sought to recruit all adults starting TB treatment in a Ugandan community. Participants underwent household (HH) contact investigation, and provided names of social contacts, sites of work, healthcare and socializing, and two sputum samples...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437750/incidence-and-determinants-of-tuberculosis-infection-among-adult-patients-with-hiv-attending-hiv-care-in-north-east-ethiopia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Ausman Ahmed, Desalew Mekonnen, Atsede M Shiferaw, Fanuel Belayneh, Melaku K Yenit
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and its predictors among adults living with HIV/AIDS in government health facilities in north-east Ethiopia. SETTING: A 5-year retrospective cohort study was conducted from May to June 2015 on 451 adult HIV/AIDS-infected individuals who enrolled in the HIV care clinics of government health facilities in north-east Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 451 HIV-infected adults who newly enrolled in the adult HIV care clinic from 1 July 2010 with complete information were followed until May 2015...
February 6, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435709/the-prevalence-and-isolated-subtypes-of-bk-polyomavirus-reactivation-among-patients-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-in-southeastern-china
#10
Caiqin Hu, Ying Huang, Juwei Su, Mengyan Wang, Qihui Zhou, Biao Zhu
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is an opportunistic infectious pathogen that is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis and nephropathy, mainly in transplant recipients and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infected patients. However, molecular characterization studies of BKPyV in China are rare. This study was designed to elucidate the prevalence and to determine the main subtypes of BKPyV among HIV-1-infected patients in southeastern China. In addition, the increased incidences for BKPyV reactivation were analyzed...
February 12, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433509/prognostic-indicators-in-the-world-health-organization-s-algorithm-for-seriously-ill-hiv-infected-inpatients-with-suspected-tuberculosis
#11
Rulan Griesel, Annemie Stewart, Helen van der Plas, Welile Sikhondze, Marc Mendelson, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: Criteria for the 2007 WHO algorithm for diagnosing tuberculosis among HIV-infected seriously ill patients are the presence of one or more danger signs (respiratory rate > 30/min, heart rate > 120/min, temperature > 39 °C, and being unable to walk unaided) and cough ≥ 14 days. Determining predictors of poor outcomes among HIV-infected inpatients presenting with WHO danger signs could result in improved treatment and diagnostic algorithms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients presenting with any duration of cough and WHO danger signs to two regional hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa...
February 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432669/socio-economic-gradients-in-prevalent-tuberculosis-in-zambia-and-the-western-cape-of-south-africa
#12
Tom A Yates, Helen Ayles, Finbarr P Leacy, A B Schaap, Delia Boccia, Nulda Beyers, Peter Godfrey-Faussett, Sian Floyd
OBJECTIVE: To present results of the 2010 ZAMSTAR Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey, one of the first large tuberculosis prevalence surveys in Southern Africa in the HIV era, on socio-economic position. METHODS: The main analyses used data on 34,446 individuals in Zambia and 30,017 individuals in South Africa with evaluable tuberculosis culture results. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for prevalent TB by two measures of socio-economic position: household wealth, derived from data on assets using principal components analysis, and individual educational attainment...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432596/high-turnover-of-tissue-macrophages-contributes-to-tuberculosis-reactivation-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-rhesus-macaques
#13
Marcelo J Kuroda, Chie Sugimoto, Yanhui Cai, Kristen M Merino, Smriti Mehra, Mariluz Araínga, Chad J Roy, Cecily C Midkiff, Xavier Alvarez, Elizabeth S Didier, Deepak Kaushal
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) profoundly affect the immune system and synergistically accelerate disease progression. It is believed that CD4+ T-cell depletion by HIV is the major cause of immunodeficiency and reactivation of latent TB. Previous studies demonstrated that blood monocyte turnover concurrent with tissue macrophage death from virus infection better predicted AIDS onset than CD4+ T-cell depletion in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432590/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-hiv-coinfection-brings-fire-and-fury-to-macrophages
#14
Nargis Khan, Maziar Divangahi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427049/favourable-outcome-in-a-child-with-symptomatic-diagnosis-of-glutaric-aciduria-type-1-despite-vertical-hiv-infection-and-minor-head-trauma
#15
Angeline Thomas, Els F M Dobbels, Priscilla E Springer, Christelle Ackermann, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton
The first case of Glutaric aciduria Type 1(GA1) in an African child was reported in 2001. GA1 has a prevalence of 1:5000 in black South Africans. Although early diagnosis is essential for a favourable outcome, newborn screening is not routine in South Africa where an estimated 320,000 children have HIV infection. Neurodevelopmental delay and encephalopathy are complications of both HIV and GA1. In such a setting it is important to recognise that HIV and GA1 can occur simultaneously. We present an HIV-infected South African male child of Xhosa descent with macrocephaly who commenced combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) at 8 weeks of age in a clinical trial which included a neurodevelopmental sub-study...
February 9, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423188/availability-of-brands-of-six-essential-medicines-in-124-pharmacies-in-maharashtra
#16
Colin Millard, Abhay B Kadam, Rushikesh Mahajan, Allyson M Pollock, Petra Brhlikova
Background: The aim of this study is to assess the availability and rational use of six essential medicines in private retail outlets in Maharashtra state. The study focuses on the range of brands for each medicine, and the availability of these brands in the pharmacies. The medicines were chosen because they are included in the World Health Organization's (WHO) essential medicines list (EML), the Indian national and Maharashtra state medicines list, and are all included in existing Indian public health initiatives and national disease control programmes...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422548/africa-wide-evaluation-of-host-biomarkers-in-quantiferon-supernatants-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#17
Novel N Chegou, Jayne S Sutherland, Anna-Ritah Namuganga, Paul Lam Corstjens, Annemieke Geluk, Gebremedhin Gebremichael, Joseph Mendy, Stephanus Malherbe, Kim Stanley, Gian D van der Spuy, Magdalena Kriel, Andre G Loxton, Belinda Kriel, Felanji Simukonda, Yonas Bekele, Jacob A Sheehama, Josefina Nelongo, Marieta van der Vyver, Atsbeha Gebrexabher, Habteyes Hailu, Maria M Esterhuyse, Ida Rosenkrands, Claus Aagard, Martin Kidd, Desta Kassa, Adane Mihret, Rawleigh Howe, Jacqueline M Cliff, Amelia C Crampin, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Hazel M Dockrell, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Gerhard Walzl
We investigated host-derived biomarkers that were previously identified in QuantiFERON supernatants, in a large pan-African study. We recruited individuals presenting with symptoms of pulmonary TB at seven peripheral healthcare facilities in six African countries, prior to assessment for TB disease. We then evaluated the concentrations of 12 biomarkers in stored QuantiFERON supernatants using the Luminex platform. Based on laboratory, clinical and radiological findings and a pre-established algorithm, participants were classified as TB disease or other respiratory diseases(ORD)...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420652/long-term-clinical-immunological-and-virological-outcomes-of-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-southern-myanmar
#18
Elkin Hernán Bermúdez-Aza, Sharmila Shetty, Janet Ousley, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Theint Thida Soe, Kyipyar Soe, Phyu Ei Mon, Kyaw Tin Tun, Iza Ciglenecki, Susanna Cristofani, Marcelo Fernandez
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term clinical, immunological and virological outcomes among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Myanmar. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of people on ART for >9 years followed by a cross-sectional survey among the patients in this group who remained on ART at the time of the survey. Routinely collected medical data established the baseline clinical and demographic characteristics for adult patients initiating ART between 2004 and 2006...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414830/pulmonary-diseases-in-refugees-and-migrants-in-europe
#19
Ioana D Olaru, Steven Van Den Broucke, Andrew J Rosser, Helmut J F Salzer, Gerrit Woltmann, Emmanuel Bottieau, Christoph Lange
More than 2 million people fleeing conflict, persecution, and poverty applied for asylum between 2015 and 2016 in the European Union. Due to this, medical practitioners in recipient countries may be facing a broader spectrum of conditions and unusual presentations not previously encountered, including a wide range of infections with pulmonary involvement. Tuberculosis is known to be more common in migrants and has been covered broadly in other publications. The scope of this review was to provide an overview of exotic infections with pulmonary involvement that could be encountered in refugees and migrants and to briefly describe their epidemiology, diagnosis, and management...
February 7, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413498/diagnostic-performances-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-in-brazil
#20
Denise Rossato Silva, Giovanni Sotgiu, Lia D'Ambrosio, Giovana Rodrigues Pereira, Márcia Silva Barbosa, Natan José Dutra Dias, Laura Saderi, Rosella Centis, Giovanni Battista Migliori
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As for all tests, the diagnostic performances of Xpert MTB/RIF might be different in settings with different tuberculosis prevalence. Aim of the study is to evaluate the performances of Xpert MTB/RIF to diagnose tuberculosis in Brazil, where 407 culture-confirmed tuberculosis patients were retrospectively enrolled in Rio Grande do Sul, between 2015 and 2016. METHODS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the test were calculated and a logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the role played by explanatory variables in the occurrence of true positive and negative diagnostic results...
January 2018: Respiratory Medicine
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