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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223583/the-global-burden-of-tuberculosis-results-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#1
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: An understanding of the trends in tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality is crucial to tracking of the success of tuberculosis control programmes and identification of remaining challenges. We assessed trends in the fatal and non-fatal burden of tuberculosis over the past 25 years for 195 countries and territories. METHODS: We analysed 10 691 site-years of vital registration data, 768 site-years of verbal autopsy data, and 361 site-years of mortality surveillance data using the Cause of Death Ensemble model to estimate tuberculosis mortality rates...
December 6, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223319/tuberculosis-in-immunosuppressed-patients
#2
Isabel Machuca, Elisa Vidal, Julián de la Torre-Cisneros, Antonio Rivero-Román
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most significant infections in immunosuppressed patients due to its high frequency and high morbidity and mortality. TB is the leading cause of death among HIV-infected patients. The diagnosis and early treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is vital to preventing it progression to disease. Similarly, the early diagnosis of TB is key to improving the prognosis of patients and preventing its transmission. The clinical expression of TB in immunosuppressed patients is conditioned by the patient's degree of immunosuppression...
December 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221545/-globalhealth-twitter-conversations-on-malaria-hiv-tb-ncds-and-ntds-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#3
Isaac Chun-Hai Fung, Ashley M Jackson, Jennifer O Ahweyevu, Jordan H Grizzle, Jingjing Yin, Zion Tsz Ho Tse, Hai Liang, Juliet N Sekandi, King-Wa Fu
BACKGROUND: Advocates use the hashtag #GlobalHealth on Twitter to draw users' attention to prominent themes on global health, to harness their support, and to advocate for change. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe #GlobalHealth tweets pertinent to given major health issues. METHODS: Tweets containing the hashtag #GlobalHealth (N = 157,951) from January 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015, were purchased from GNIP Inc. We extracted 5 subcorpora of tweets, each with 1 of 5 co-occurring disease-specific hashtags (#Malaria, #HIV, #TB, #NCDS, and #NTDS) for further analysis...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218501/evaluating-safety-reporting-in-paediatric-antibiotic-trials-2000-2016-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Paola Pansa, Yingfen Hsia, Julia Bielicki, Irja Lutsar, A Sarah Walker, Mike Sharland, Laura Folgori
BACKGROUND: There are very few options to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in children. A major barrier is the duration and complexity of regulatory trials of new antibiotics. Extrapolation of safety data from adult trials could facilitate drug development for children. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review on the safety of antibiotic clinical trials (CTs) in children (0-18 years) to evaluate the overall quality of safety trials conducted in children and to determine if age-specific adverse events (AEs) could be identified for specific antibiotic classes...
December 7, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218036/the-macrophage-a-disputed-fortress-in-the-battle-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
REVIEW
Christophe J Queval, Roland Brosch, Roxane Simeone
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has plagued humans for thousands of years. TB still remains a major public health problem in our era, causing more than 4,400 deaths worldwide every day and killing more people than HIV. After inhaling Mtb-contaminated aerosols, TB primo-infection starts in the terminal lung airways, where Mtb is taken up by alveolar macrophages. Although macrophages are known as professional killers for pathogens, Mtb has adopted remarkable strategies to circumvent host defenses, building suitable conditions to survive and proliferate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211793/assessing-infection-control-practices-to-protect-health-care-workers-and-patients-in-malawi-from-nosocomial-transmission-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Robert J Flick, Adamson Munthali, Katherine Simon, Mina Hosseinipour, Maria H Kim, Lameck Mlauzi, Peter N Kazembe, Saeed Ahmed
Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in health settings threatens health care workers and people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Nosocomial transmission is reduced with implementation of infection control (IC) guidelines. The objective of this study is to describe implementation of TB IC measures in Malawi. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing anonymous health worker questionnaires, semi-structured interviews with facility managers, and direct observations at 17 facilities in central Malawi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209209/nonribosomal-peptides-from-marine-microbes-and-their-antimicrobial-and-anticancer-potential
#7
REVIEW
Shivankar Agrawal, Debabrata Acharya, Alok Adholeya, Colin J Barrow, Sunil K Deshmukh
Marine environments are largely unexplored and can be a source of new molecules for the treatment of many diseases such as malaria, cancer, tuberculosis, HIV etc. The Marine environment is one of the untapped bioresource of getting pharmacologically active nonribosomal peptides (NRPs). Bioprospecting of marine microbes have achieved many remarkable milestones in pharmaceutics. Till date, more than 50% of drugs which are in clinical use belong to the nonribosomal peptide or mixed polyketide-nonribosomal peptide families of natural products isolated from marine bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208074/the-impact-of-implementing-a-xpert-mtb-rif-algorithm-on-drug-sensitive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-retrospective-analysis
#8
K Rees, N Muditambi, M Maswanganyi, J Railton, J A McIntyre, H E Struthers, P B Fourie, R P H Peters
Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is the preferred first-line test for all persons with tuberculosis (TB) symptoms in South Africa in line with a diagnostic algorithm. This study evaluates pre- and post-implementation trends in diagnostic practices for drug-sensitive, pulmonary TB in adults in an operational setting, following the introduction of the Xpert-based algorithm. We retrospectively analysed data from the national TB database for Greater Tzaneen sub-district, Limpopo Province. Trends in a number of cases, diagnosis and outcome and characteristics associated with death are reported...
December 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207973/identifying-models-of-hiv-care-and-treatment-service-delivery-in-tanzania-uganda-and-zambia-using-cluster-analysis-and-delphi-survey
#9
Sharon Tsui, Julie A Denison, Caitlin E Kennedy, Larry W Chang, Olivier Koole, Kwasi Torpey, Eric Van Praag, Jason Farley, Nathan Ford, Leine Stuart, Fred Wabwire-Mangen
BACKGROUND: Organization of HIV care and treatment services, including clinic staffing and services, may shape clinical and financial outcomes, yet there has been little attempt to describe different models of HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Information about the relative benefits and drawbacks of different models could inform the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and associated services in resource-limited settings (RLS), especially in light of expanded client populations with country adoption of WHO's test and treat recommendation...
December 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207803/radiological-manifestations-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-comparative-study-between-immunocompromised-and-immunocompetent-patients
#10
Manoj Mathur, Rajesh K Badhan, Sudesh Kumari, Navkiran Kaur, Saryu Gupta
Introduction: Pulmonary tuberculosis has atypical radiological manifestations in patients with underlying immunocompromised disease like diabetes and human immunodeficient virus infection. Computed tomography has important role in such patients for early diagnosis of disease and management to minimize complication. Aim: To evaluate and compare the computed tomography chest features of pulmonary tuberculosis in between immunocompromised patients and immunocompetent patients...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207239/the-human-microbiota-infectious-disease-and-global-health-challenges-and-opportunities
#11
Abraham J Waldman, Emily P Balskus
Despite significant advances in treating infectious diseases worldwide, morbidity and mortality associated with these pathogens remains extraordinarily high and represents a critical scientific and global health challenge. Current strategies to combat these infectious agents include a combination of vaccines, small molecule drugs, increased hygiene standards, and disease-specific interventions. While these approaches have helped to drastically reduce the incidence and number of deaths associated with infection, continued investment in current strategies and the development of novel therapeutic approaches will be required to address these global health threats...
December 5, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202880/a-retrospective-study-on-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-at-jinka-general-hospital-southern-ethiopia
#12
Biniam Wondale, Girmay Medihn, Takele Teklu, Wondmeneh Mersha, Mesfin Tamirat, Gobena Ameni
OBJECTIVE: Information on tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes would be useful for the improvement of the TB control program. The aim of the present study was to evaluate treatment outcomes of TB and identify associated factors in TB patients at the Jinka General Hospital (JGH), remote Zone of Ethiopia. RESULT: The result showed that 13.1% (154/1172) of the cases were cured, 60.9% treatment completed, 10.2% died and 9.1% were lost to follow-up. Thus, the overall treatment success rate was 74%...
December 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201654/increasing-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-uptake-in-an-hiv-program-in-rural-papua-new-guinea
#13
A Carmone, C A Rodriguez, T D Frank, M Kiromat, P W Bongi, R G Kuno, T Palou, M F Franke
Setting: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Papua New Guinea. Despite a policy for isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among PLHIV, implementation has been slow. Objective: We prospectively evaluated a standardized guided screening process, including TB diagnostic support, to increase IPT initiation in adult PLHIV on antiretro-viral treatment. Design: The guided process included a paper-based IPT screening tool that prompted review of patient history and TB symptoms and sputum analysis by smear microscopy and Xpert® MTB/RIF...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201438/pathomorphological-peculiarities-of-tuberculous-meningoencephalitis-associated-with-hiv-infection
#14
Volodymyr M Kozko, Andriy V Bondarenko, Anatoliy V Gavrylov, Olga S Shevchenko, Vitalii V Gargin
Background and aims: One of the most severe manifestation displays of tuberculosis (TB) generalization is meningitis/meningoencephalitis. The purpose of this work was to improve the diagnostic efficiency of TB central nervous system (CNS) affection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Materials and methods: Meninges and cerebral tissues, taken from died patients, who were HIV-infected and dead from TB of CNS affection, were investigated histologically...
September 2017: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201375/children-with-lymphadenitis-associated-with-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-vaccination-do-not-experience-more-infections-when-compared-with-bcg-vaccinated-children-without-lymphadenitis-a-three-years-paired-cohort-in-mexico
#15
Enrique Chacon-Cruz, Jorge Luis Arellano-Estrada, Erika Lopatynsky-Reyes, Jorge Alvelais-Palacios, Chandra Becka
Objectives: Vaccination against tuberculosis with live-attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is widely used even though its effectiveness is controversial. BCG-lymphadenitis (BCG-LA) is its most common complication. Some studies have proposed that BCG-LA can be associated with primary immunodeficiencies (PIs). This study's aim is to see whether patients who developed BCG-LA (named as 'LA') developed more infections than BCG-vaccinated children without BCG-LA (named as 'NON-LA'). Methods: From January 2009 to April 2014, 31 LA children were seen at the outpatient clinic of the General Hospital of Tijuana, Mexico...
August 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198911/xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-a-prospective-multicentre-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#16
Susan E Dorman, Samuel G Schumacher, David Alland, Pamela Nabeta, Derek T Armstrong, Bonnie King, Sandra L Hall, Soumitesh Chakravorty, Daniela M Cirillo, Nestani Tukvadze, Nino Bablishvili, Wendy Stevens, Lesley Scott, Camilla Rodrigues, Mubin I Kazi, Moses Joloba, Lydia Nakiyingi, Mark P Nicol, Yonas Ghebrekristos, Irene Anyango, Wilfred Murithi, Reynaldo Dietze, Renata Lyrio Peres, Alena Skrahina, Vera Auchynka, Kamal Kishore Chopra, Mahmud Hanif, Xin Liu, Xing Yuan, Catharina C Boehme, Jerrold J Ellner, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an automated molecular test that has improved the detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, but its sensitivity is inadequate in patients with paucibacillary disease or HIV. Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) was developed to overcome this limitation. We compared the diagnostic performance of Xpert Ultra with that of Xpert for detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre, diagnostic accuracy study, we recruited adults with pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms presenting at primary health-care centres and hospitals in eight countries (South Africa, Uganda, Kenya, India, China, Georgia, Belarus, and Brazil)...
November 30, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196066/cough-due-to-tuberculosis-and-other-chronic-infections-chest-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#17
Stephen K Field, Patricio Escalante, Dina A Fisher, Belinda Ireland, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Cough is common in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and other chronic respiratory infections. Identifying features that predict whether pulmonary TB is the cause would help target appropriate individuals for rapid and cost-effective screening, potentially limiting disease progression, and preventing transmission to others. METHODS: A systematic literature search for individual studies to answer 8 Key questions (KQ) was conducted according to established Chest Organization methods using the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1/1/1984 to April 2014...
November 28, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193947/-tuberculosis-caused-by-mycobacterium-bovis-a-re-emerging-infection
#18
Edgar Pérez-Barragán, Bulmaro Manjarrez-Tellez
Currently, tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem, is present in all regions of the world and remains one of the most deadly communicable diseases, particularly associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Cases of TB Mycobacterium bovis more and more frequent, especially in vulnerable populations. TB caused by M. bovis clinical, radiological and histologically indistinguishable from tuberculosis caused by M. tuberculosis; however, there are some differences that make M. tuberculosis particular...
September 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191155/provider-initiated-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-outpatient-departments-of-health-care-facilities-in-ghana-yield-by-screening-strategy-and-target-group
#19
Sally-Ann Ohene, Frank Bonsu, Nii Nortey Hanson-Nortey, Ardon Toonstra, Adelaide Sackey, Knut Lonnroth, Mukund Uplekar, Samuel Danso, George Mensah, Felix Afutu, Paul Klatser, Mirjam Bakker
BACKGROUND: Meticulous identification and investigation of patients presenting with tuberculosis (TB) suggestive symptoms rarely happen in crowded outpatient departments (OPDs). Making health providers in OPDs diligently follow screening procedures may help increase TB case detection. From July 2010 to December 2013, two symptom based TB screening approaches of varying cough duration were used to screen and test for TB among general outpatients, PLHIV, diabetics and contacts in Accra, Ghana...
December 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190337/optimizing-research-to-speed-up-availability-of-pediatric-antiretroviral-drugs-and-formulations
#20
Martina Penazzato, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, Pablo Rojo, Marc Lallemant, Linda L Lewis, Francesca Rocchi, Agnes Saint Raymond, Nathan Ford, Rohan Hazra, Carlo Giaquinto, Yodit Belew, Diana M Gibb, Elaine J Abrams
Globally 1.8 million children are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet only 51% of those eligible actually start treatment. Research and development (R&D) for pediatric antiretrovirals (ARVs) is a lengthy process and lags considerably behind drug development in adults. Providing safe, effective, and well-tolerated drugs for children remains critical to ensuring scale-up globally. We review current approaches to R&D for pediatric ARVs and suggest innovations to enable simplified, faster, and more comprehensive strategies to develop optimal formulations...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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