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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444006/scale-up-of-collaborative-tb-hiv-activities-in-guyana
#1
Brian J Baker, Brandy Peterson, Jeetendra Mohanlall, Shanti Singh, Collene Hicks, Ruth Jacobs, Ruth Ramos, Barbara Allen, Eric Pevzner
Objective: To assess scale-up of recommended tuberculosis (TB)/HIV activities in Guyana and to identify specific strategies for further expansion. Methods: Medical records and clinic registers were reviewed at nine TB clinics and 10 HIV clinics. At TB clinics, data were collected on HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for patients with TB/HIV; at HIV clinics, data were collected on intensified case finding (ICF), tuberculin skin test (TST) results, and provision of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT)...
April 20, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443591/clinical-findings-of-pediatric-hiv-infection-at-a-tertiary-center-in-turkey
#2
Murat Sütçü, Manolya Acar, Hacer Aktürk, Selda Hançerli Torun, Hayati Beka, Ali Ağaçfidan, Nuran Salman, Ayper Somer
BACKGROUND: Pediatric HIV infection is different from adult type of disease in many ways including transmission routes, clinical findings and treatment strategies. AIMS: Our aim was to evaluate clinical data of our pediatric HIV patients. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: The charts of 22 pediatric patients diagnosed with HIV infection in our clinic during a 14 year period through 2001-2015 were retrospectively analyzed...
April 6, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440604/a-proposed-novel-framework-for-monitoring-and-evaluation-of-the-cascade-of-hiv-associated-tb-care-at-the-health-facility-level
#3
Colleen F Hanrahan, Annelies Van Rie
INTRODUCTION: The rapid and accurate diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB), timely initiation of curative or preventative treatment and assurance of favourable treatment outcomes is a complex process. The current system of monitoring and reporting TB diagnosis and treatment does not include several key aspects of the care cascade, and may obscure systematic bottlenecks, inefficiencies or sources of sub-optimal care. METHODS: We critically reviewed the current World Health Organizations recommended system of monitoring and reporting, and identified the following key deficiencies that could limit the ability of healthcare workers to identify structural problems in the provision of TB/HIV care...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438553/human-leukocyte-antigen-class-i-a-b-and-c-allele-and-haplotype-variation-in-a-south-african-mixed-ancestry-population
#4
Shayne Loubser, Maria Paximadis, Caroline T Tiemessen
South Africa has a large (∼53 million), ethnically diverse population (black African, Caucasian, Indian/Asian and Mixed ancestry) and a high disease burden (particularly HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The Mixed ancestry population constitutes ∼9% of the total population and was established ∼365 years ago in the Western Cape region through interracial mixing of black Africans, Europeans and Asians. Admixed populations present unique opportunities to identify genetic factors involved in disease susceptibility...
April 21, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438256/clinical-profile-and-outcome-of-patients-with-biopsy-proven-acute-interstitial-nephritis-in-cape-town-a-10-year-review%C3%A2
#5
Emmanuel E Effa, Udeme E Ekrikpo, Megan Borkum, Brian L Rayner, Peter Heering, Ikechi G Okpechi
BACKGROUND: Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury that has not been adequately characterized in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) despite an increasing use of potentially inciting agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis in the region. METHODS: A retrospective audit of records of patients with biopsy-proven AIN diagnosed at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town from the 1st of January, 2006, to the 31st of December, 2015...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438139/digital-cxr-with-computer-aided-diagnosis-versus-symptom-screen-to-define-presumptive-tuberculosis-among-household-contacts-and-impact-on-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#6
Monde Muyoyeta, Nkatya Chanda Kasese, Deborah Milimo, Isaac Mushanga, Mapopa Ndhlovu, Nathan Kapata, Maureen Moyo-Chilufya, Helen Ayles
BACKGROUND: Household (HH) contact tracing is a strategy that targets high risk groups for TB. Symptom based screening is the standard used to identify HH contacts at risk for TB during HH contact tracing for TB. However, this strategy may be limited due to poor performance in predicting TB. The objective of this study was to compare CXR with Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) against symptom screen for defining presumptive TB and how TB detection changes with each method. METHODS: Household contacts of consecutive index bacteriologically confirmed TB cases were visited by study teams and given TB/HIV education to raise awareness of the risk of TB following close contact with a TB patient...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438118/predictors-of-delayed-culture-conversion-among-ugandan-patients
#7
Daniel Atwine, Patrick Orikiriza, Ivan Taremwa, Arnold Ayebare, Suzan Logoose, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Amina Jindani, Maryline Bonnet
BACKGROUND: Estimates of month-2 culture conversion, a proxy indicator of tuberculosis (TB) treatment efficacy in phase-2 trials can vary by culture-type and geographically with lower rates reported among African sites. The sub-study aimed at comparing TB detection rates of different culture media, within and across rifampicin-based regimens (R10, 15 and 20 mg/Kg) over a 6-month treatment follow-up period, and to establish predictors of month-2 culture non-conversion among HIV-negative TB patients enrolled at RIFATOX trial site in Uganda...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435232/self-reported-adherence-and-associated-factors-to-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-for-latent-tuberculosis-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-at-health-centers-in-gondar-town-north-west-ethiopia
#8
Asnakew Achaw Ayele, Seyfe Asrade Atnafie, Demis Driba Balcha, Asegedech Tsegaw Weredekal, Birhanu Alemayehu Woldegiorgis, Mulgeta Melaku Wotte, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillasie
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess self-reported adherence and associated factors to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for latent tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at health centers in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An institution-based prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from March 10 to June 11, 2016. A total of 154 eligible participants were included in the study, using the simple random sampling method, from the available four health centers and one teaching referral hospital that provided antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV/AIDS patients...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434936/defining-a-research-agenda-to-address-the-converging-epidemics-of-tuberculosis-and-diabetes-part-1-epidemiology-and-clinical-management
#9
REVIEW
Julia A Critchley, Blanca I Restrepo, Katharina Ronacher, Anil Kapur, Andrew A Bremer, Larry S Schlesinger, Randall Basaraba, Hardy Kornfeld, Reinout van Crevel
There is growing interest in the interaction between type 2 diabetes (DM) and tuberculosis (TB), but many research questions remain unanswered. Epidemiologists, basic scientists and clinical experts recently convened and identified priorities. This is the first of two reviews on this topic, summarising priority areas of research with regard to epidemiology, clinical management and public health. First, from an epidemiological point of view, more study is needed to determine the importance of transient hyperglycemia in TB patients, and on the importance of DM for the global epidemic of multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB...
April 19, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434406/efavirenz-based-simplification-after-successful-early-lopinavir-boosted-ritonavir-based-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-in-burkina-faso-and-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-the-monod-anrs-12206-non-inferiority-randomised-trial
#10
Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Karen Malateste, Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Malik Coulibaly, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Thomas Toni, Rasmata Ouédraogo, Stéphane Blanche, Caroline Yonaba, François Eboua, Philippe Lepage, Divine Avit, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Philippe Van de Perre, Sylvie N'Gbeche, Angèle Kalmogho, Roger Salamon, Nicolas Meda, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization guidelines recommend all children <3 years start antiretroviral therapy (ART) on protease inhibitor-based regimens. But lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) syrup has many challenges in low-income countries, including limited availability, requires refrigeration, interactions with anti-tuberculous drugs, twice-daily dosing, poor palatability in young children, and higher cost than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. Successfully initiating LPV/r-based ART in HIV-infected children aged <2 years raises operational challenges that could be simplified by switching to a protease inhibitor-sparing therapy based on efavirenz (EFV), although, to date, EFV is not recommended in children <3 years...
April 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431845/infection-prevention-and-control-and-the-refugee-population-experiences-from-the-university-of-louisville-global-health-center
#11
Ruth M Carrico, Linda Goss, Timothy L Wiemken, Rahel S Bosson, Paula Peyrani, William A Mattingly, Allison Pauly, Rebecca A Ford, Stanley Kotey, Julio A Ramirez
BACKGROUND: During 2016, approximately 140,000 individuals entered the United States as part of the federal government refugee resettlement program and established themselves in communities in virtually every state. No national database regarding refugee health currently exists; therefore, little is known about existing infectious diseases, conditions, and cultural practices that impact successful acculturation. The objective of this report is to identify what is currently known about refugees and circumstances important to infection prevention and control with respect to their roles as new community members, employees, and consumers of health care...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426273/preclinical-development-of-bcg-hiva-2auxo-int-harboring-an-integrative-expression-vector-for-a-hiv-tb-pediatric-vaccine-enhancement-of-stability-and-specific-hiv-1-t-cell-immunity
#12
Aakash Mahant, Narcís Saubi, Yoshiki Eto, Núria Guitart, Josep M ª Gatell, Tomáš Hanke, Joan Joseph
One of the critical issues that should be addressed in the development of a BCG-based HIV vaccine is genetic plasmid stability. Therefore, to address this issue we have considered using integrative vectors and the auxotrophic mutant of BCG complemented with a plasmid carrying a wild-type complementing gene. In this study, we have constructed an integrative E. coli-mycobacterial shuttle plasmid, p2auxo.HIVA(int), expressing the HIV-1 clade A immunogen HIVA. This shuttle vector employs an antibiotic resistance-free mechanism for plasmid selection and maintenance...
April 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419368/leukotriene-a4-hydrolase-genotype-and-hiv-infection-influence-intracerebral-inflammation-and-survival-from-tuberculous-meningitis
#13
Nguyen T T Thuong, Dorothee Heemskerk, Trinh T B Tram, Le T P Thao, Lalita Ramakrishnan, Vu T N Ha, Nguyen D Bang, Tran T H Chau, Nguyen H Lan, Maxine Caws, Sarah J Dunstan, Nguyen V V Chau, Marcel Wolbers, Nguyen T H Mai, Guy E Thwaites
Background.: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating form of tuberculosis, yet very little is known about the pathophysiology. We hypothesized that the genotype of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (encoded by LTA4H), which determines inflammatory eicosanoid expression, influences intracerebral inflammation, and predicts survival from TBM. Methods.: We characterized the pretreatment clinical and intracerebral inflammatory phenotype and 9-month survival of 764 adults with TBM...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419200/switching-to-efavirenz-versus-remaining-on-ritonavir-boosted-lopinavir-in-hiv-infected-children-exposed-to-nevirapine-long-term-outcomes-of-a-randomized-trial
#14
Pamela M Murnane, Renate Strehlau, Stephanie Shiau, Faeezah Patel, Ndileke Mbete, Gillian Hunt, Elaine J Abrams, Ashraf Coovadia, Louise Kuhn
Background: We previously demonstrated the non-inferiority of switching to efavirenz (EFV) versus remaining on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) for virologic control in HIV-infected children exposed to nevirapine (NVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Here we assess outcomes up to four years post-randomization. Methods: From 2010-2013, 298 NVP-exposed HIV-infected children ≥3 years of age were randomized to switch to EFV or remain on LPV/r in Johannesburg, South Africa (Clinicaltrials...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419149/mobile-health-treatment-support-intervention-for-hiv-and-tuberculosis-in-mozambique-perspectives-of-patients-and-healthcare-workers
#15
José António Nhavoto, Åke Grönlund, Gunnar O Klein
BACKGROUND: Studies have been conducted in developing countries using SMS to communicate with patients to reduce the number of missed appointments and improve retention in treatment, however; very few have been scaled up. One possible reason for this could be that patients or staff are dissatisfied with the method in some way. This paper reports a study of patients' and healthcare workers' (HCW) views on an mHealth intervention aiming to support retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculosis (TB) treatment in Mozambique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414762/transcriptional-networks-are-associated-with-resistance-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#16
Chetan Seshadri, Nafiseh Sedaghat, Monica Campo, Glenna Peterson, Richard D Wells, Gregory S Olson, David R Sherman, Catherine M Stein, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Ali Shojaie, W Henry Boom, Thomas R Hawn
RATIONALE: Understanding mechanisms of resistance to M. tuberculosis (M.tb) infection in humans could identify novel therapeutic strategies as it has for other infectious diseases, such as HIV. OBJECTIVES: To compare the early transcriptional response of M.tb-infected monocytes between Ugandan household contacts of tuberculosis patients who demonstrate clinical resistance to M.tb infection (cases) and matched controls with latent tuberculosis infection. METHODS: Cases (n = 10) and controls (n = 18) were selected from a long-term household contact study in which cases did not convert their tuberculin skin test (TST) or develop tuberculosis over two years of follow up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410692/treatment-outcome-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-under-revised-national-tuberculosis-control-programme
#17
J J Cherian, I Lobo, A Sukhlecha, U Chawan, N A Kshirsagar, B L Nair, L Sawardekar
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) constitutes 15-20% of tuberculosis cases in India. Earlier studies have evaluated treatment outcomes of EPTB with little information on outcomes of individual site of EPTB. AIMS: The objective was to study the outcome of Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) treatment of EPTB in different organ systems under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme. METHODS: Multi-centric retrospectives record review was carried out in three states in India...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407810/does-task-shifting-yield-cost-savings-and-improve-efficiency-for-health-systems-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-from-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#18
Gabriel Seidman, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: Task shifting has become an increasingly popular way to increase access to health services, especially in low-resource settings. Research has demonstrated that task shifting, including the use of community health workers (CHWs) to deliver care, can improve population health. This systematic review investigates whether task shifting in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) results in efficiency improvements by achieving cost savings. METHODS: Using the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, we searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and the Health Economic Evaluation Database on March 22, 2016...
April 13, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406247/hba1c-level-cannot-predict-the-treatment-outcome-of-smear-positive-non-multi-drug-resistant-hiv-negative-pulmonary-tuberculosis-inpatients
#19
Ken Tashiro, Nobuyuki Horita, Kenjiro Nagai, Misako Ikeda, Masaharu Shinkai, Masaki Yamamoto, Takashi Sato, Yu Hara, Hideyuki Nagakura, Yuji Shibata, Hiroki Watanabe, Kentaro Nakashima, Ryota Ushio, Akimichi Nagashima, Atsuya Narita, Nobuaki Kobayashi, Makoto Kudo, Takeshi Kaneko
We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether the HbA1c level on admission could predict the in-hospital treatment outcome of smear-positive non-multi-drug-resistant HIV-negative culture-proven pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients. Our standard regimens under the direct observation were HRZE or HRE for the first two months followed by combination therapy with isoniazid and rifampicin. Our cohort consisted of consecutive 239 patients consisted of 147 men and 92 women with a median age of 73 years...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405623/bcg-vaccination-induces-hiv-target-cell-activation-in-hiv-exposed-infants-in-a-randomized-trial
#20
Melanie A Gasper, Anneke C Hesseling, Isaac Mohar, Landon Myer, Tali Azenkot, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Willem Hanekom, Mark F Cotton, I Nicholas Crispe, Donald L Sodora, Heather B Jaspan
BACKGROUND. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered at birth to protect infants against tuberculosis throughout Africa, where most perinatal HIV-1 transmission occurs. We examined whether BCG vaccination alters the levels of activated HIV target T cells in HIV-exposed South African infants. METHODS. HIV-exposed infants were randomized to receive routine (at birth) or delayed (at 8 weeks) BCG vaccination. Activated and CCR5-expressing peripheral blood CD4(+) T cell, monocyte, and NK cell frequencies were evaluated by flow cytometry and immune gene expression via PCR using Biomark (Fluidigm)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
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