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Hiv and tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542441/dot-or-sat-for-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-a-non-randomized-comparison-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting
#1
Erika Mohr, Johnny Daniels, Busisiwe Beko, Petros Isaakidis, Vivian Cox, Sarah Jane Steele, Odelia Muller, Leigh Snyman, Virginia De Azevedo, Amir Shroufi, Laura Trivino Duran, Jennifer Hughes
BACKGROUND: Daily directly-observed therapy (DOT) is recommended for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) patients throughout treatment. We assessed the impact of self-administered treatment (SAT) in a South African township with high rates of RR-TB and HIV. METHODS: Community-supported SAT for patients who completed the intensive phase was piloted in five primary care clinics in Khayelitsha. We compared final treatment outcomes among RR-TB patients initiating treatment before (standard-of-care (SOC)-cohort, January 2010-July 2013) and after the implementation of the pilot (SAT-cohort, January 2012-December 2014)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542255/detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-the-stool-of-hiv-sero-positive-individuals-suspected-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#2
Gizaw E Abaye, Tamrat Abebe, Adane Worku, Debela Tolessa, Gobena Ameni, Adane Mihret
BACKGROUND: The impact of tuberculosis (TB) is exacerbated in Africa because of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis is difficult in HIV-infected patients and negative sputum results are more common which leads to diagnostic delay and increases morbidity and mortality. Extra-pulmonary samples such as stool may be easier to obtain and our approach may therefore significantly improve PTB detection in people living with HIV. OBJECTIVE: To detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the stool of HIV sero-positive individuals suspected of pulmonary TB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542080/manuscript-title-multidisciplinary-point-of-care-testing-in-south-african-primary-healthcare-clinics-accelerates-hiv-art-initiation-but-does-not-alter-retention-in-care
#3
Wendy S Stevens, Natasha M Gous, William B MacLeod, Lawrence C Long, Ebrahim Variava, Neil A Martinson, Ian Sanne, Regina Osih, Lesley E Scott
BACKGROUND: Lack of accessible laboratory infrastructure limits HIV antiretroviral (ART) treatment initiation, monitoring and retention in many resource-limited settings. Point-of-care testing (POCT) is advocated as a mechanism to overcome these limitations. We executed a pragmatic, prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing the impact of POCT versus standard-of-care (SOC) on treatment initiation and retention in care. METHOD: Selected POC technologies were embedded at 3 primary health clinics in South Africa...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539863/pulmonary-aspergillosis-as-opportunistic-mycoses-in-a-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-report-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#4
Ravinder Kaur, Bhanu Mehra, Megh Singh Dhakad, Ritu Goyal, Richa Dewan
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons is rising. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary aspergillosis in a cohort of HIV-positive patients (n = 71) presenting with lower respiratory tract infection at a tertiary care medical center in India. METHODS: Sputum samples were collected, and potassium hydroxide mount, cultural characteristics, and lactophenol cotton blue preparations were employed to aid in the identification of Aspergillus species...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536578/expansion-of-cd25-negative-forkhead-box-p3-positive-t-cells-during-hiv-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#5
Matías T Angerami, Guadalupe V Suarez, María B Vecchione, Natalia Laufer, Diego Ameri, Graciela Ben, Hector Perez, Omar Sued, Horacio Salomón, María F Quiroga
Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV alter the immune system, and coinfected (HIV-TB) individuals usually present deregulations of T-lymphocytic immune response. We previously observed an increased frequency of "unconventional" CD4(+)CD25(-)FoxP3(+) Treg (uTreg) population during HIV-TB disease. Therefore, we aimed to explore the phenotype and function of uTreg and conventional CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Treg subsets (cTreg) in this context. We evaluated the expression of CD39, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), and the effector/memory distribution by flow cytometry in cTreg and uTreg...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533849/clinical-risk-factors-for-in-hospital-mortality-in-older-adults-with-hiv-infection-findings-from-a-south-african-hospital-administrative-dataset
#6
Kumeren Govender, Fatima Suleman, Yoshan Moodley
INTRODUCTION: The proportion of older South African adults (aged ≥50 years old) with HIV infection requiring hospitalization is likely to increase in the near future. Clinical risk factors for in-hospital mortality (IHM) in these patients are not well described. We aimed to identify clinical risk factors associated with IHM and their overall contribution towards IHM in older South African adults with HIV infection. METHODS: Clinical data for 690 older adults with HIV infection was obtained from the hospital administrative database at the Hlabisa Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531276/impact-of-vitamin-a-and-carotenoids-on-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-progression
#7
Omowunmi Aibana, Molly F Franke, Chuan-Chin Huang, Jerome T Galea, Roger Calderon, Zibiao Zhang, Mercedes C Becerra, Emily R Smith, Alayne G Ronnenberg, Carmen Contreras, Rosa Yataco, Leonid Lecca, Megan B Murray
Background: Low and deficient levels of vitamin A are common in low and middle income countries where tuberculosis (TB) burden is high. We assessed the impact of baseline levels of vitamins A and carotenoids on TB disease risk. Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within a longitudinal cohort of household contacts of pulmonary TB cases in Lima, Peru. We defined cases as HIV-negative household contacts with blood samples who developed TB disease at least 15 days after enrollment of index patient...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529205/effectiveness-and-safety-of-bedaquiline-containing-regimens-in-the-treatment-of-mdr-and-xdr-tb-a-multicentre-study
#8
Sergey E Borisov, Keertan Dheda, Martin Enwerem, Rodolfo Romero Leyet, Lia D'Ambrosio, Rosella Centis, Giovanni Sotgiu, Simon Tiberi, Jan-Willem Alffenaar, Andrey Maryandyshev, Evgeny Belilovski, Shashank Ganatra, Alena Skrahina, Onno Akkerman, Alena Aleksa, Rohit Amale, Janina Artsukevich, Judith Bruchfeld, Jose A Caminero, Isabel Carpena Martinez, Luigi Codecasa, Margareth Dalcolmo, Justin Denholm, Paul Douglas, Raquel Duarte, Aliasgar Esmail, Mohammed Fadul, Alexey Filippov, Lina Davies Forsman, Mina Gaga, Julia-Amaranta Garcia-Fuertes, José-María García-García, Gina Gualano, Jerker Jonsson, Heinke Kunst, Jillian S Lau, Barbara Lazaro Mastrapa, Jorge Lazaro Teran Troya, Selene Manga, Katerina Manika, Pablo González Montaner, Jai Mullerpattan, Suzette Oelofse, Martina Ortelli, Domingo Juan Palmero, Fabrizio Palmieri, Antonella Papalia, Apostolos Papavasileiou, Marie-Christine Payen, Emanuele Pontali, Carlos Robalo Cordeiro, Laura Saderi, Tsetan Dorji Sadutshang, Tatsiana Sanukevich, Varvara Solodovnikova, Antonio Spanevello, Sonam Topgyal, Federica Toscanini, Adrian R Tramontana, Zarir Farokh Udwadia, Pietro Viggiani, Veronica White, Alimuddin Zumla, Giovanni Battista Migliori
Large studies on bedaquiline used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in a large, retrospective, observational study conducted in 25 centres and 15 countries in five continents.428 culture-confirmed MDR-TB cases were analysed (61.5% male; 22.1% HIV-positive, 45.6% XDR-TB). MDR-TB cases were admitted to hospital for a median (interquartile range (IQR)) 179 (92-280) days and exposed to bedaquiline for 168 (86-180) days...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527280/-performance-of-led-fluorescence-microscopy-for-the-detection-of-acid-fast-bacilli-from-respiratory-samples-in-peripheral-laboratories-in-argentina
#9
María Imaz, Sonia Allassia, Mónica Aranibar, Alba Gunia, Susana Poggi, Ana Togneri, Lidia Wolff, Group Of Implementation Of Fluorescence
INTRODUCTION: Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy (LED-FM) has been endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for tuberculosis diagnosis, but its accuracy in HIV-infected patients remains controversial, and only some few studies have explored procedural factors that may affect its performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of LED-FM for tuberculosis diagnosis in patients with and without HIV infection using a newer, less expensive LED lamp...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527252/-characterization-of-clinical-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-hiv-positive-individuals-in-colombia-2012
#10
Claudia Castro, Alba Ricardo, Angie Zabaleta, Claudia Llerena, Gloria Puerto
INTRODUCTION: One third of the increase in tuberculosis cases is attributed to the spread of HIV. In 2012, 1,397 HIV-associated tuberculosis cases were reported in Colombia, i.e., 11.8% of the total cases. Molecular epidemiology tools help to understand the transmission of tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To characterize clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from HIV-infected individuals, received at the Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia in the Instituto Nacional de Salud...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527251/-pathological-findings-in-patients-with-hiv-infection-and-lymphadenopathies
#11
Federico Rodríguez-Vega, Miguel Botero, Jorge Alberto Cortés, Ángela Tobón
INTRODUCTION: Lymphadenopathy is a frequent clinical finding in HIV-infected patients. The differential diagnosis includes infection, malignancy or reactive changes. Currently, there are no data on this topic in the region. OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology of lymph node pathology in HIV-infected patients from the Hospital La María in Medellín, Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of HIV-infected patients with lymphadenopathy who underwent excisional lymph node biopsy between June 2009 and October 2011 were retrospectively evaluated...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523851/identification-of-multiple-druggable-secondary-sites-by-fragment-screening-against-dc-sign
#12
Jonas Aretz, Hannes Baukmann, Elena Shanina, Jonas Hanske, Robert Wawrzinek, Viktor A Zapol'skii, Peter H Seeberger, Dieter E Kaufmann, Christoph Rademacher
DC-SIGN is a cell-surface receptor for several pathogenic threats, such as HIV, Ebola virus, or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Multiple attempts to develop inhibitors of the underlying carbohydrate-protein interactions have been undertaken in the past fifteen years. Still, drug-like DC-SIGN ligands are sparse, which is most likely due to its hydrophilic, solvent-exposed carbohydrate-binding site. Herein, we report on a parallel fragment screening against DC-SIGN applying SPR and a reporter displacement assay, which complements previous screenings using (19) F NMR spectroscopy and chemical fragment microarrays...
May 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521786/role-of-routine-abdominal-ultrasonography-in-intensified-tuberculosis-case-finding-algorithms-at-hiv-clinics-in-high-tb-burden-settings
#13
Sonam Spalgais, Upasna Agarwal, Rohit Sarin, Devesh Chauhan, Anita Yadav, Anand Jaiswal
BACKGROUND: High proportion of TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is undiagnosed. Due to this active TB case finding is recommended for HIV clinics in high TB burden countries. Presently sputum examination and chest radiography are frontline tests recommended for HIV infected TB presumptives. Abdominal TB which occurs frequently in PLHIV may be missed even by existing programmatic intensified case finding protocols. This study evaluated the routine use of ultrasonography (USG) for active case finding of abdominal TB in HIV clinics...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521714/development-and-implementation-of-the-dhapp-military-ehealth-information-network-system
#14
Mary Kratz, Anne Thomas, Ricardo Hora, Delphis Vera, Mickey Lutz, Mark D Johnson
As the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the Global Fund, and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief focus on reaching 90-90-90 goals, military health systems are scaling up to meet the data demands of these ambitious objectives. Since 2008, the US Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP) has been working with military partners in 14 countries on implementation and adoption of a Military eHealth Information Network (MeHIN). Each country implementation plan followed a structured process using international eHealth standards...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521672/revision-and-implementation-of-clinical-guideline-for-tuberculosis-and-hiv-in-prisons-great-tehran-prison-iran
#15
Behnam Farhoudi, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Minoo Mohraz, Raheleh Golrokhy, Marzieh Farnia, Mohammad Shahbazi, Ramin Alasvand, Bahman Ebrahimi, Jafar Esfehani, Mehrzad Tashakoriyan
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of the revised "Clinical Guideline for HIV and TB" in the Great Tehran Prison during October 2013 to June 2014. METHODS: The guideline includes all aspects of HIV/TB diagnosis based on active case finding (ACF), treatment and care services. Before the implementation, a focus group discussion was conducted, and attended by experts on jail diseases. The objective was to identify defects and limitations of the guideline. After the discussion, the guideline was revised...
May 17, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520768/mobile-phone-reminders-and-peer-counseling-improve-adherence-and-treatment-outcomes-of-patients-on-art-in-malaysia-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Lekhraj Rampal, Faisal Ibrahim, Anuradha P Radhakrishnan, Hayati Kadir Shahar, Norlijah Othman
BACKGROUND: Adherence to treatment remains the cornerstone of long term viral suppression and successful treatment outcomes among patients receiving Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE(S): Evaluate the effectiveness of mobile phone reminders and peer counseling in improving adherence and treatment outcomes among HIV positive patients on ART in Malaysia. METHODS: A single-blind, parallel group RCT conducted in Hospital Sungai Buloh, Malaysia in which 242 adult Malaysian patients were randomized to intervention or control groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518221/micronutrient-supplementation-in-adults-with-hiv-infection
#17
REVIEW
Marianne E Visser, Solange Durao, David Sinclair, James H Irlam, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women)...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516869/recommendations-for-infectious-disease-screening-in-migrants-to-western-europe-with-inflammatory-arthropathies-before-starting-biologic-agents-results-from-a-multidisciplinary-task-force-of-four-european-societies-sir-ser-simet-semtsi-facing-the-lar
#18
Filippo Bartalesi, Carlo Scirè, Ana Requena-Méndez, Miguel Angel Abad, Dora Buonfrate, Roberto Caporali, Fabrizio Conti, Federico Diaz-Gonzalez, Cruz Fernández-Espartero, Carmen Martinez-Fernandez, Marta Mascarello, Elena Generali, Giovanni Minisola, Aldo Morrone, Jose Muñoz, Patricia Richi, Gariffalia Sakellariou, Joaquin Salas Coronas, Michele Spinicci, Francesco Castelli, Alessandro Bartoloni, Zeno Bisoffi, Francisco Gimenez-Sanchez, Santiago Muñoz-Fernandez, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory arthritis needs infectious disease screening before starting a biologic agent, however, few data are known about migrant patients, who represent a peculiar population which requires a multidisciplinary approach among international health specialists and should also be considered by health authorities. For this reason, the Italian and Spanish Societies of Rheumatology (SIR and SER) and Tropical Medicine (SIMET and SEMTSI) promoted a multidisciplinary task force in order to produce specific recommendations about screening and advices to be considered in migrant patients with inflammatory arthritis candidate to receive biological therapy, according to their geographical origin...
May 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513983/book-review-the-foundations-of-immunology-and-their-pertinence-to-medicine
#19
REVIEW
A Corthay
We are in the era cursed with overspecialization. Charles Darwin's foundational Origin of Species, published in 1859 was accessible to the broadly educated individual. Starting with this statement, Peter Bretscher in his new book aims at explaining foundational concepts of immunology to a broad public. His standpoint is that foundational ideas usually can be simply expressed. This book describes first how foundational concepts of immunology have evolved over the last two and a half centuries. The importance of self-nonself discrimination by the immune system is acknowledged and models for immunological tolerance are compared...
May 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513865/diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-co-infected-individuals-current-status-challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-future
#20
REVIEW
P Méndez-Samperio
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most important causes of death amongst people co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The diagnosis of TB remains challenging in HIV co-infected individuals, due to a high frequency of smear-negative disease and high rates of extrapulmonary TB. Accurate, ease of use, and rapid diagnosis of active TB is critical to the World Health Organization (WHO) End TB Strategy by 2050. Traditional laboratory techniques do not provide rapid and accurate results to effectively manage HIV co-infected patients...
May 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
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