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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043419/computed-tomography-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#1
REVIEW
Savvas Andronikou, Pierre Goussard, Erich Sorantin
Diagnostic imaging plays a significant role in both the diagnosis and treatment of complications of pneumonia in children and chest radiography is the imaging modality of choice. Computed tomography (CT) on the other hand, is not currently a first-line imaging tool for children with suspected uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia and is largely reserved for when complications of pneumonia are suspected or there is difficulty in differentiating pneumonia from other pathology. This review outlines the situations where CT needs to be considered in children with pneumonia, describes the imaging features of the parenchymal and pleural complications of pneumonia, discusses how CT may have a wider role in developing countries where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis are prevalent, makes note of the role of CT scanning for identifying missed foreign body aspiration and, lastly, addresses radiation concerns...
October 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043204/autopsy-findings-of-miliary-tuberculosis-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#2
Khushdeep Shergill, Divya Shelly, Manoj G, Ritu Ranjan Kumar
Miliary tuberculosis is a lethal form of disseminated tuberculosis (TB), deriving its name from the millet-seed-sized granulomas in multiple organs. As TB still remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India, its disseminated forms need to be diagnosed early to ensure more aggressive treatment at the earliest possible time. However, a considerable number of cases are missed ante-mortem. We discuss the case of a 32-year-old immunocompromised, non-HIV patient with an ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary TB...
July 2017: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039217/the-role-of-metabolomics-in-tuberculosis-treatment-research
#3
Laneke Luies, Ilse du Preez, Du Toit Loots
Despite the fact that tuberculosis (TB) is a curable disease, it still results in approximately 1.8 million deaths annually. Various inadequacies in the current TB treatment strategies are major contributors to this high disease prevalence, including the long duration of therapy, the severe side effects associated with TB drugs, treatment failure due to drug resistance, post-treatment disease relapse, and HIV co-infection. In this review, we describe how metabolomics has contributed toward better explaining/elucidating the mechanisms of drug action/metabolism, drug toxicity and microbial drug resistance, and how metabolite biomarkers may serve as prognostic indicators for predicting treatment outcome as well as for the development of new TB drugs...
October 17, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037298/determinants-of-multidrug-resistance-among-previously-treated-tuberculosis-patients-in-zimbabwe-2014
#4
G Muchena, G Shambira, N Masuka, T Juru, N Gombe, L Takundwa, D Bangure, M Tshimanga
SETTING: Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among previously treated TB patients. DESIGN: A 1:3 case-control study with bivariate analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: Risk factors for MDR-TB were history of nursing an MDR-TB patient (adjusted OR [aOR] 4.46, 95%CI 2.02-9.88), history of hospitalisation for 3 days (aOR 2.91, 95%CI 1.62-5.23) and history of foreign travel and stay outside Zimbabwe (aOR 2...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037295/does-antiretroviral-treatment-increase-the-infectiousness-of-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#5
P Y Khan, A C Crampin, T Mzembe, O Koole, K L Fielding, K Kranzer, J R Glynn
BACKGROUND: Understanding of the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission dynamics remains limited. We undertook a cross-sectional study among household contacts of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases to assess the effect of established ART on the infectiousness of TB. METHOD: Prevalence of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity was compared between contacts of index cases aged 2-10 years who were HIV-negative, HIV-positive but not on ART, on ART for <1 year and on ART for 1 year...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037294/diagnostic-yield-of-active-case-finding-for-tuberculosis-and-hiv-at-the-household-level-in-slums-in-haiti
#6
V R Rivera, M-A Jean-Juste, S C Gluck, H T Reeder, J Sainristil, P Julma, M Peck, P Joseph, O Ocheretina, C Perodin, R Secours, M Duran-Mendicuti, L Hashiguchi, P Y Cremieux, S P Koenig, J W Pape
SETTING: Haiti has the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the Americas, with an estimated prevalence of 254 per 100 000 population. The Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes, GHESKIO) conducted active case finding (ACF) for TB at the household level in nine slums in Port-au-Prince. OBJECTIVE: We report on the prevalence of undiagnosed TB detected through GHESKIO's ACF campaign...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037292/accuracy-of-giant-african-pouched-rats-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-comparison-with-culture-and-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif
#7
C Mulder, G F Mgode, H Ellis, E Valverde, N Beyene, C Cox, S E Reid, A H Van't Hoog, T L Edwards
SETTING: Enhanced tuberculosis (TB) case finding using detection rats in Tanzania. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of detection rats compared with culture and Xpert® MTB/RIF, and to compare enhanced case-finding algorithms using rats in smear-negative presumptive TB patients. DESIGN: A fully paired diagnostic accuracy study in which sputum of new adult presumptive TB patients in Tanzania was tested using smear microscopy, 11 detection rats, culture and Xpert...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037287/provision-of-art-to-individuals-infected-with-hiv-impact-on-the-epidemiology-and-control-of-tuberculosis
#8
Martien W Borgdorff, Kevin M De Cock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036618/unsuccessful-treatment-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-factors-and-a-consequent-predictive-model
#9
Ana Costa-Veiga, Teodoro Briz, Carla Nunes
Background: Cure is particularly valuable in pulmonary cases (PTB), as unsuccessful treatment fuels incidence and resistance to antibiotics. This study aims to identify individual factors of PTB unsuccessful treatment in Portugal and to develop a consequent predictive model. Methods: Using the Portuguese TB surveillance database (SVIG-TB), PTB cases older than 15 years notified from 2000 to 2012 in Continental Portugal were analyzed. Unsuccessful treatment included the WHO categories (failure, default, death and transferred out)...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033941/functional-analysis-of-phagocyte-activity-in-whole-blood-from-hiv-tuberculosis-infected-individuals-using-a-novel-flow-cytometry-based-assay
#10
Ankur Gupta-Wright, Dumizulu Tembo, Kondwani C Jambo, Elizabeth Chimbayo, Leonard Mvaya, Shannon Caldwell, David G Russell, Henry C Mwandumba
The accurate assessment of immune competence through ex vivo analysis is paramount to our understanding of those immune mechanisms that lead to protection or susceptibility against a broad range of human pathogens. We have developed a flow cytometry-based, whole blood phagocyte functional assay that utilizes the inflammatory inducer zymosan, coupled to OxyBURST-SE, a fluorescent reporter of phagosomal oxidase activity. The assay measures both phagocytic uptake and the superoxide burst in the phagocyte populations in whole blood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031289/histological-examination-in-obtaining-a-diagnosis-in-patients-with-lymphadenopathy-in-lima-peru
#11
Daniela E Kirwan, Cesar Ugarte-Gil, Robert H Gilman, Syed M Hasan Rizvi, Gustavo Cerrillo, Jaime Cok, Eduardo Ticona, José Luis Cabrera, Eduardo D Matos, Carlton A Evans, David A J Moore, Jon S Friedland, The Lymph Node Tuberculosis Lntb Working Group
The differential diagnosis for lymphadenopathy is wide and clinical presentations overlap, making obtaining an accurate diagnosis challenging. We sought to characterize the clinical and radiological characteristics, histological findings, and diagnoses for a cohort of patients with lymphadenopathy of unknown etiology. 121 Peruvian adults with lymphadenopathy underwent lymph node biopsy for microbiological and histopathological evaluation. Mean patient age was 41 years (Interquartile Range 26-52), 56% were males, and 39% were HIV positive...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029171/effect-of-hiv-on-the-frequency-and-number-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-cd4-t-cells-in-blood-and-the-airways-in-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#12
Rubina Bunjun, Catherine Riou, Andreia P Soares, Narjis Thawer, Tracey L Müller, Agano Kiravu, Zekarias Ginbot, Tolu Oni, Rene Goliath, Barbara Kalsdorf, Florian von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Willem Hanekom, Gerhard Walzl, Robert J Wilkinson, Wendy A Burgers
HIV-1 infection substantially increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). There is extensive depletion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis)-specific CD4+ T cells in blood in early HIV infection, but little is known about responses in the lungs at this stage. Given that mucosal organs are a principal target for HIV-mediated CD4 destruction, we investigated M.tuberculosis-specific responses in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), in persons with latent TB infection and untreated HIV-1 co-infection with preserved CD4 counts...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029055/prognostic-models-for-9-month-mortality-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#13
Le Thi Phuong Thao, A Dorothee Heemskerk, Ronald B Geskus, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Maxine Caws, Nguyen Huu Lan, Do Dang Anh Thu, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Jeremy Day, Jeremy J Farrar, M Estee Torok, Nguyen Duc Bang, Guy E Thwaites, Marcel Wolbers
Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. We developed and validated prognostic models for 9-month mortality in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected adults with TBM. Methods: We included 1699 subjects from four randomized clinical trials and one prospective observational study conducted at two major referral hospitals in Southern Vietnam from 2001-2015. Modelling was based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028973/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-newborn-mva85a-vaccination-and-selective-delayed-bacille-calmette-guerin-bcg-for-infants-of-hiv-infected-mothers-a-phase-2-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Elisa Nemes, Anneke C Hesseling, Michele Tameris, Katya Mauff, Katrina Downing, Humphrey Mulenga, Penelope Rose, Marieke van der Zalm, Sharon Mbaba, Danelle Van As, Willem A Hanekom, Gerhard Walzl, Thomas J Scriba, Helen McShane, Mark Hatherill
Background: Vaccination of HIV-infected infants with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is contraindicated. HIV-exposed newborns need a new tuberculosis (TB) vaccination strategy that protects against TB early in life; and avoids the potential risk of BCG disease until after HIV infection has been excluded. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial compared newborn MVA85A prime vaccination (1 x10 8 PFU) vs. Candin® control, followed by selective deferred BCG vaccination at 8 weeks of age for HIV-uninfected infants, and 12 months follow-up for safety and immunogenicity...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028970/poor-obstetric-and-infant-outcomes-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-with-tuberculosis-in-south-africa-the-tshepiso-study
#15
Nicole Salazar-Austin, Jennifer Hoffmann, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Ziyaad Waja, Sanjay Lala, Christopher Hoffmann, Kelly E Dooley, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson
Background: Prior to the wide availability of antiretroviral therapy, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV disease among pregnant women resulted in poor maternal and neonatal outcomes including high rates of mother-to-child transmission of both HIV and TB. We aimed to describe the impact of TB among HIV-infected mothers on obstetric and infant outcomes in a population with access to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed HIV-infected pregnant women with and without TB disease from January 2011 through January 2014 in Soweto, South Africa...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028662/stool-xpert-mtb-rif-and-urine-lipoarabinomannan-lam-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-hospitalized-hiv-infected-children
#16
Sylvia M LaCourse, Patricia B Pavlinac, Lisa M Cranmer, Irene N Njuguna, Cyrus Mugo, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Judd L Walson, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Julius Oyugi, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Sample collection and paucibacillary nature of TB in children makes diagnosis challenging. Rapid diagnostic tools using easily obtained specimens are urgently needed. METHODS: Hospitalized, HIV-infected children ≤12 years enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880) comparing urgent to poststabilization ART initiation in Kenya underwent TB evaluation. At enrollment, sputum or gastric aspirates (GA) were collected for TB culture and Xpert, stool for Xpert, and urine for lateral flow lipoarabinomannan (LAM )...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028223/are-scientific-research-outputs-aligned-with-national-policy-makers-priorities-a-case-study-of-tuberculosis-in-cambodia
#17
Lydia Boudarene, Richard James, Richard Coker, Mishal S Khan
With funding for tuberculosis (TB) research decreasing, and the high global disease burden persisting, there are calls for increased investment in TB research. However, justification of such investments is questionable, when translation of research outputs into policy and health care improvements remains a challenge for TB and other diseases. Using TB in Cambodia as a case study, we investigate how evidence needs of national policy makers are addressed by topics covered in research publications. We first conducted a systematic review to compile all studies on TB in Cambodia published since 2000...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026395/tuberculosis-among-hiv-infected-population-incidence-and-risk-factors-in-rural-tanzania
#18
K Said, S Verver, A Kalingonji, F Lwilla, A Mkopi, S Charalambous, K Reither
BACKGROUND: The incidence of tuberculosis among HIV-infected populations with high CD4 count in high burden countries has not been well studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess the TB incidence in HIV-infected adults and its associated risk factors. METHOD: A cohort study with retrospective review of medical records and prospective follow-up of HIV-infected adult participants attending CTC who were 18-55 years old, had CD4 count more than 250 cells/mm(3) in the period of 2008-2010 and were not on ART at enrolment...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025631/effect-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-on-risk-of-death-in-west-african-hiv-infected-adults-with-high-cd4-cell-counts-long-term-follow-up-of-the-temprano-anrs-12136-trial
#19
Anani Badje, Raoul Moh, Delphine Gabillard, Calixte Guéhi, Mathieu Kabran, Jean-Baptiste Ntakpé, Jérôme Le Carrou, Gérard M Kouame, Eric Ouattara, Eugène Messou, Amani Anzian, Albert Minga, Joachim Gnokoro, Patrice Gouesse, Arlette Emieme, Thomas-d'Aquin Toni, Cyprien Rabe, Baba Sidibé, Gustave Nzunetu, Lambert Dohoun, Abo Yao, Synali Kamagate, Solange Amon, Amadou-Barenson Kouame, Aboli Koua, Emmanuel Kouamé, Marcelle Daligou, Denise Hawerlander, Simplice Ackoundzé, Serge Koule, Jonas Séri, Alex Ani, Fassery Dembélé, Fatoumata Koné, Mykayila Oyebi, Nathalie Mbakop, Oyewole Makaila, Carolle Babatunde, Nathaniel Babatunde, Gisèle Bleoué, Mireille Tchoutedjem, Alain-Claude Kouadio, Ghislaine Sena, Sahinou-Yediga Yededji, Sophie Karcher, Christine Rouzioux, Abo Kouame, Rodrigue Assi, Alima Bakayoko, Serge K Domoua, Nina Deschamps, Kakou Aka, Thérèse N'Dri-Yoman, Roger Salamon, Valérie Journot, Hughes Ahibo, Timothée Ouassa, Hervé Menan, André Inwoley, Christine Danel, Serge P Eholié, Xavier Anglaret
BACKGROUND: Temprano ANRS 12136 was a factorial 2 × 2 trial that assessed the benefits of early antiretroviral therapy (ART; ie, in patients who had not reached the CD4 cell count threshold used to recommend starting ART, as per the WHO guidelines that were the standard during the study period) and 6-month isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in HIV-infected adults in Côte d'Ivoire. Early ART and IPT were shown to independently reduce the risk of severe morbidity at 30 months. Here, we present the efficacy of IPT in reducing mortality from the long-term follow-up of Temprano...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025618/preventing-tuberculosis-in-people-with-hiv-no-more-excuses
#20
Richard E Chaisson, Jonathan E Golub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
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