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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921295/digest-sticklebacks-don-t-just-go-with-the-flow-genetic-differentiation-between-lake-and-stream-populations-due-to-more-than-just-geographic-distance1
#1
Emilie Richards, Aaron Comeault, Jelmer Poelstra
Speciation is thought to occur in large part through the gradual accumulation of genetic differences between partly or completely isolated populations. However, many species differ greatly in their ecology, prompting research into ecology's role in driving genetic differentiation and speciation. Ultimately, understanding diversification requires understanding the factors that allow populations to diverge enough to no longer be considered the same species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
December 6, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915414/brownification-increases-winter-mortality-in-fish
#2
Per Hedström, David Bystedt, Jan Karlsson, Folmer Bokma, Pär Byström
In northern climates, winter is a bottleneck for many organisms. Low light and resource availability constrains individual foraging rates, potentially leading to starvation and increased mortality. Increasing input of humic substances to aquatic ecosystems causes brownification of water and hence a further decrease of light availability, which may lead to further decreased foraging rates and starvation mortality during winter. To test this hypothesis, we measured the effects of experimentally increased humic water input on consumption and survival of young-of-the-year three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) over winter in large outdoor enclosures...
December 3, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913248/no-evidence-of-local-adaptation-of-immune-responses-to-gyrodactylus-in-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#3
Shaun Robertson, Janette E Bradley, Andrew D C MacColl
Parasitism represents one of the most widespread lifestyles in the animal kingdom, with the potential to drive coevolutionary dynamics with their host population. Where hosts and parasites evolve together, we may find local adaptation. As one of the main host defences against infection, there is the potential for the immune response to be adapted to local parasites. In this study, we used the three-spined stickleback and its Gyrodactylus parasites to examine the extent of local adaptation of parasite infection dynamics and the immune response to infection...
November 29, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901297/climate-change-alters-the-reproductive-phenology-and-investment-of-a-lacustrine-fish-the-three-spine-stickleback
#4
Rachel A Hovel, Stephanie M Carlson, Thomas P Quinn
High-latitude lakes are particularly sensitive to the effects of global climate change, demonstrating earlier ice breakup, longer ice-free seasons, and increased water temperatures. Such physical changes have implications for diverse life-history traits in taxa across entire lake food webs. Here, we use a five-decade time series from an Alaskan lake to explore effects of climate change on growth and reproduction of a widely distributed lacustrine fish, the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used multivariate autoregressive state-space (MARSS) models to describe trends in the mean length for multiple size classes and to explore the influence of physical (date of ice breakup, surface water temperature) and biological (density of con- and heterospecifics) factors...
November 30, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901265/evolution-of-reproductive-isolation-in-stickleback-fish
#5
Alycia C R Lackey, Janette W Boughman
To understand how new species form and what causes their collapse, we examined how reproductive isolation evolves during the speciation process, considering species pairs with little to extensive divergence, including a recently collapsed pair. We estimated many reproductive barriers in each of five sets of stickleback fish species pairs using our own data and decades of previous work. We found that the types of barriers important early in the speciation process differ from those important late. Two premating barriers-habitat and sexual isolation-evolve early in divergence and remain two of the strongest barriers throughout speciation...
November 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862535/sexual-isolation-promotes-divergence-between-parapatric-lake-and-stream-stickleback
#6
Daniel Berner, Matthias Ammann, Eleanor Spencer, Attila Rüegg, Daniel Luescher, Dario Moser
Speciation can be initiated by adaptive divergence between populations in ecologically different habitats, but how sexually based reproductive barriers contribute to this process is less well understood. We here test for sexual isolation between ecotypes of threespine stickleback fish residing in adjacent lake and stream habitats in the Lake Constance basin, Central Europe. Mating trials in outdoor mesocosms allowing for natural reproductive behavior reveal that mating occurs preferentially between partners of the same than of the opposed ecotype...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861812/digest-love-is-in-the-air-sticklebacks-choice-of-mate-depends-on-dissolved-oxygen-levels
#7
Nicola Simcock
For mate selection, physical appearance can be an important indicator of general health and the potential genetic gains available to future offspring. Accurate assessment of mate quality can drive trait development and differentiation, and may contribute to reproductive isolation. However, in changing environmental conditions, static traits are not always reliable indicators of mate quality (Wong et al., 2007). Some males invest resources in developing "extended phenotypes": expression of genes manifested outside the organism's body, such as nest size...
November 12, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836907/regulatory-architecture-of-gene-expression-variation-in-the-threespine-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#8
Victoria L Pritchard, Heidi M Viitaniemi, R J Scott McCairns, Juha Merilä, Mikko Nikinmaa, Craig R Primmer, Erica H Leder
Much adaptive evolutionary change is underlain by mutational variation in regions of the genome that regulate gene expression rather than in the coding regions of the genes themselves. An understanding of the role of gene expression variation in facilitating local adaptation will be aided by an understanding of underlying regulatory networks. Here, we characterize the genetic architecture of gene expression variation in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), an important model in the study of adaptive evolution...
November 11, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815158/exogenous-iodide-ameliorates-perchlorate-induced-thyroid-phenotypes-in-threespine-stickleback
#9
Alison M Gardell, Frank A von Hippel, Elise M Adams, Danielle M Dillon, Ann M Petersen, John H Postlethwait, William A Cresko, C Loren Buck
Perchlorate is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has widespread endocrine disrupting effects in vertebrates, including threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The target of perchlorate is thyroid tissue where it induces changes in the organization, activation, and morphology of thyroid follicles and surrounding tissues. To test the hypothesis that some phenotypes of perchlorate toxicity are not mediated by thyroid hormone, we chronically exposed stickleback beginning at fertilization to perchlorate (10, 30, 100ppm) or control water with and without supplementation of either iodide or thyroxine (T4)...
November 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811294/can-the-behaviour-of-threespine-stickleback-parasitized-with-schistocephalus-solidus-be-replicated-by-manipulating-host-physiology
#10
Lucie Grécias, François-Olivier Hébert, Chloé Suzanne Berger, Iain Barber, Nadia Aubin-Horth
Sticklebacks infected by the parasitic flatworm Schistocephalus solidus show dramatic changes in phenotype, including a loss of species-typical behavioural responses to predators. The timing of host behaviour change coincides with the development of infectivity of the parasite to the final host (a piscivorous bird), making it an ideal model for studying the mechanisms of infection-induced behavioural modification. However, whether the loss of host anti-predator behaviour results from direct manipulation by the parasite, or is a by-product (e...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804120/partitioning-the-effects-of-isolation-by-distance-environment-and-physical-barriers-on-genomic-divergence-between-parapatric-threespine-stickleback
#11
Jesse N Weber, Gideon S Bradburd, Yoel E Stuart, William E Stutz, Daniel I Bolnick
Genetic divergence between populations is shaped by a combination of drift, migration, and selection, yielding patterns of isolation-by-distance (IBD) and isolation-by-environment (IBE). Unfortunately, IBD and IBE may be confounded when comparing divergence across habitat boundaries. For instance, parapatric lake and stream threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) may have diverged due to selection against migrants (IBE), or mere spatial separation (IBD). To quantitatively partition the strength of IBE and IBD, we used recently-developed population genetic software (BEDASSLE) to analyze partial genomic data from three lake-stream clines on Vancouver Island...
November 2, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798313/correction-to-transcriptional-regulation-of-brain-gene-expression-in-response-to-a-territorial-intrusion-in-sticklebacks
#12
Yibayiri O Sanogo, Mark Band, Charles Blatti, Saurabh Sinha, Alison M Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788059/a-low-cost-method-of-skin-swabbing-for-the-collection-of-dna-samples-from-small-laboratory-fish
#13
Carl Breacker, Iain Barber, William H J Norton, Jonathan R McDearmid, Ceinwen A Tilley
Fin clipping of live fish under anesthesia is widely used to collect samples for DNA extraction. An alternative, potentially less invasive, approach involves obtaining samples by swabbing the skin of nonanesthetized fish. However, this method has yet to be widely adopted for use in laboratory studies in the biological and biomedical sciences. Here, we compare DNA samples from zebrafish Danio rerio and three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus collected via fin clipping and skin swabbing techniques, and test a range of DNA extraction methods, including commercially available kits and a lower-cost, in-house method...
October 27, 2016: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784956/interactions-between-boldness-foraging-performance-and-behavioural-plasticity-across-social-contexts
#14
Guðbjörg Ásta Ólafsdóttir, Kit Magellan
ABSTRACT: Boldness, the tendency to be explorative, risk prone and proactive, often varies consistently between individuals. An individual's position on the boldness-shyness continuum has many implications. Bold individuals may outperform shyer conspecifics during foraging as they cover more ground, accumulate information more rapidly and make more frequent food discoveries. Individual variation in boldness may also affect behavioural plasticity across environmental contexts, as the time to process new information, the ability to locate and memorise resources and the time and ability to apply prior information in a novel context all differ between individuals...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766651/a-standardized-method-for-quantifying-consistent-individual-differences-in-schooling-behaviour
#15
S Pearish, L Hostert, A M Bell
A method for quantifying consistent individual differences in schooling behaviour is presented. This method, which utilizes a school of models, improves on previous methods by removing the unwanted variation that is introduced by live stimulus fish while still providing the physiological experience of schooling to the focal fish. Three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus observed in the model school assay exhibited consistent individual differences in schooling behaviour.
October 21, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764140/variation-in-lateral-plate-quality-in-threespine-stickleback-from-fresh-brackish-and-marine-water-a-micro-computed-tomography-study
#16
Elisabeth Wiig, Janne E Reseland, Kjartan Østbye, Håvard J Haugen, Leif A Vøllestad
INTRODUCTION: It is important to understand the drivers leading to adaptive phenotypic diversity within and among species. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has become a model system for investigating the genetic and phenotypic responses during repeated colonization of fresh waters from the original marine habitat. During the freshwater colonization process there has been a recurrent and parallel reduction in the number of lateral bone plates, making it a suitable system for studying adaptability and parallel evolution...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763600/three-cheers-for-the-three-spined-stickleback
#17
Kathleen Heng, Abbey Thompson, David Chu, David M Kingsley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762183/spatial-and-temporal-variation-in-macroparasite-communities-of-three-spined-stickleback
#18
Rebecca E Young, Andrew D C Maccoll
Patterns in parasite community structure are often observed in natural systems and an important question in parasite ecology is whether such patterns are repeatable across time and space. Field studies commonly look at spatial or temporal repeatability of patterns, but they are rarely investigated in conjunction. We use a large dataset on the macroparasites of the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., collected from 14 locations on North Uist, Scotland over an 8-year period to investigate: (1) repeatability of patterns in parasite communities among populations and whether variation is consistent across years, (2) whether variation between years can be explained by climatic variation and progression of the season and (3) whether variation in habitat characteristics explain population differences...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748950/environmental-change-mediates-mate-choice-for-an-extended-phenotype-but-not-for-mate-quality
#19
M L Head, R J Fox, I Barber
Sexual cues, including extended phenotypes, are expected to be reliable indicators of male genetic quality and/or provide information on parental quality. However, the reliability of these cues may be dependent on stability of the environment, with heterogeneity affecting how selection acts on such traits. Here we test how environmental change mediates mate choice for multiple sexual traits, including an extended phenotype - the structure of male-built nests - in stickleback fish. First, we manipulated the dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water to create high or low DO environments in which male fish built nests...
October 17, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742722/both-male-biased-and-female-biased-genes-evolve-faster-in-fish-genomes
#20
Liandong Yang, Zhaolei Zhang, Shunping He
Males and females often display extensive phenotypic differences, and many of these sexual dimorphisms are thought to result from differences between males and females in expression of genes present in both sexes. Sex-biased genes have been shown to exhibit accelerated rates of evolution in a wide array of species, however the cause of this remains enigmatic. In this study, we investigate the extent and evolutionary dynamics of sex-biased gene expression in zebrafish. Our results indicate that both male-biased genes and female-biased genes exhibit accelerated evolution at the protein level...
October 13, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
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