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Jaakko Lumme, Marek S Zietara
In the parthenogenetic monogeneans of the genus Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832, the genetic diversity within or between hosts is determined by the relative roles of lateral transmission and clonal propagation. Clonality and limited transmission lead to high-amplitude metapopulation dynamics and strong genetic drift. In Baltic populations of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, the local mitochondrial diversity of Gyrodactylus arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933 is very high, and spatial differentiation weak...
April 19, 2018: Folia Parasitologica
Dongsheng Zhang, Peng Hu, Taigang Liu, Jian Wang, Shouwen Jiang, Qianghua Xu, Liangbiao Chen
BACKGROUND: Temperature adaptation of biological molecules is fundamental in evolutionary studies but remains unsolved. Fishes living in cold water are adapted to low temperatures through adaptive modification of their biological molecules, which enables their functioning in extreme cold. To study nucleotide and amino acid preference in cold-water fishes, we investigated the substitution asymmetry of codons and amino acids in protein-coding DNA sequences between cold-water fishes and tropical fishes...
May 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
S M Rastorguev, A V Nedoluzhko, N M Gruzdeva, E S Boulygina, S V Tsygankova, D Y Oshchepkov, A M Mazur, E B Prokhortchouk, K G Skryabin
Three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a well-known model organism that is routinely used to explore microevolution processes and speciation, and the number of studies related to this fish has been growing recently. The main reason for the increased interest is the processes of freshwater adaptation taking place in natural populations of this species. Freshwater three-spined stickleback populations form when marine water three-spined sticklebacks fish start spending their entire lifecycle in freshwater lakes and streams...
January 2018: Acta Naturae
Alexander T Xue, Robert P Ruggiero, Michael J Hickerson, Stéphane Boissinot
Variation in LINE composition is one of the major determinants for the substantial size and structural differences among vertebrate genomes. In particular, the larger genomes of mammals are characterized by hundreds of thousands of copies from a single LINE clade, L1, whereas non-mammalian vertebrates possess a much greater diversity of LINEs, yet with orders of magnitude less in copy number. It has been proposed that such variation in copy number among vertebrates is due to differential effect of LINE insertions on host fitness...
April 23, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Reo Zukoshi, Ilaria Savelli, Iñigo Novales Flamarique
Many vertebrates have cone photoreceptors that are most sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light termed UV cones. The ecological functions that these cones contribute to are seldom known though they are suspected of improving foraging and communication in a variety of fishes. In this study, we used several spectral backgrounds to assess the contribution of UV and violet cones, or long wavelength (L) cones, in the foraging performance of juvenile Cumaná guppy, Poecilia reticulata, or marine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus...
April 17, 2018: Vision Research
Younes Mohamed Ismail Hani, Cyril Turies, Olivier Palluel, Laurence Delahaut, Véronique Gaillet, Anne Bado-Nilles, Jean-Marc Porcher, Alain Geffard, Odile Dedourge-Geffard
The development of predictive, sensitive and reliable biomarkers is of crucial importance for aquatic biomonitoring to assess the effects of chemical substances on aquatic organisms, especially when it comes to combined effects with other stressors (e.g. temperature). The first purpose of the present study was to evaluate the single and combined effects of 90 days of exposure to an environmental cadmium concentration (0.5 μg L-1 ) and two water temperatures (16 and 21 °C) on different parameters. These parameters are involved in (i) the antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase activity -SOD- and total glutathione levels -GSH-), (ii) the energy metabolism, i...
April 12, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
K A Gaffney, M M Webster
We investigated the consistency of association network structure for groups of sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. Each group was observed twice and we varied the duration between observations and the size of the experimental arena that they were observed in. At the dyad level, we found positive correlations between dyad interaction frequencies across observations. At the group level we found variation in four network metrics between observations, but only in treatments where the duration between observations was short...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Alexander Stewart, Pascal I Hablützel, Hayley V Watson, Martha Brown, Ida M Friberg, Joanne Cable, Joseph A Jackson
Seasonal patterns in immunity are frequently observed in vertebrates but are poorly understood. Here, we focused on a natural piscine model, the three-spined stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ), and asked how seasonal immune allocation is driven by physical variables (time, light, and heat). Using functionally-relevant gene expression metrics as a reporter of seasonal immune allocation, we synchronously sampled fish monthly from the wild (two habitats), and from semi-natural outdoors mesocosms (stocked from one of the wild habitats)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Callum Duffield, Christos C Ioannou
Marginal predation, also known as the edge effect, occurs when aggregations of prey are preferentially targeted on their periphery by predators and has long been established in many taxa. Two main processes have been used to explain this phenomenon, the confusion effect and the encounter rate between predators and prey group edges. However, it is unknown at what size a prey group needs to be before marginal predation is detectable and to what extent each mechanism drives the effect. We conducted 2 experiments using groups of virtual prey being preyed upon by 3-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ) to address these questions...
September 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Demetra Andreou, Christophe Eizaguirre, Thomas Boehm, Manfred Milinski
Adaptation to ecologically contrasting niches can lead to the formation of new species. Theoretically, this process of ecological speciation can be driven by pleiotropic "magic traits" that genetically link natural and sexual selection. To qualify as a true magic trait, the pleiotropic function of a gene must be reflected in biologically relevant mechanisms underlying both local adaptation and mate choice. The immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contribute to parasite resistance and also play a major role in sexual selection...
July 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Chloé Suzanne Berger, Nadia Aubin-Horth
Detecting the presence of a parasite within its host is crucial to the study of host-parasite interactions. The Schistocephalus solidus - threespine stickleback pair has been studied extensively to investigate host phenotypic alterations associated with a parasite with a complex life cycle. This cestode is localized inside the stickleback's abdominal cavity and can be visually detected only once it passes a mass threshold. We present a non-lethal quantitative PCR approach based on detection of environmental DNA from the worm (eDNA), sampled in the fish abdominal cavity...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Younes Mohamed Ismail Hani, Adrien Marchand, Cyril Turies, Elodie Kerambrun, Olivier Palluel, Anne Bado-Nilles, Rémy Beaudouin, Jean-Marc Porcher, Alain Geffard, Odile Dedourge-Geffard
Determining digestive enzyme activity is of potential interest to obtain and understand valuable information about fish digestive physiology, since digestion is an elementary process of fish metabolism. We described for the first time (i) three digestive enzymes: amylase, trypsin and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), and (ii) three gut morphometric parameters: relative gut length (RGL), relative gut mass (RGM) and Zihler's index (ZI) in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and we studied the effect of temperature and body size on these parameters...
2018: PloS One
Taylor C Gibbons, Tara L McBryan, Patricia M Schulte
Colonization of freshwater habitats from marine environments exposes organisms to novel combinations of temperature and salinity, but little is known about physiological responses to the interactive effects of these stressors. Here, we examined the effects of temperature (14 versus 4 °C) and salinity (11 versus 0.3 ppt) on gill gene expression in marine, anadromous, and freshwater populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Expression of the epithelial calcium channel was not affected by temperature or salinity, but had significantly higher expression in the freshwater ecotype...
March 29, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Priscilla A Erickson, Jiyeon Baek, James C Hart, Phillip A Cleves, Craig T Miller
In nature, multiple adaptive phenotypes often coevolve and can be controlled by tightly linked genetic loci known as supergenes. Dissecting the genetic basis of these linked phenotypes is a major challenge in evolutionary genetics. Multiple freshwater populations of threespine stickleback fish ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ) have convergently evolved two constructive craniofacial traits, longer branchial bones and increased pharyngeal tooth number, likely as adaptations to dietary differences between marine and freshwater environments...
March 28, 2018: Genetics
L Franco-Belussi, C De Oliveira, H N Sköld
Fish can change their skin and eye colour for background matching and signalling. Males of Gasterosteus aculeatus develop ornamental blue eyes and a red jaw during the reproductive season, colours that are further enhanced during courtship. Here, the effects of different hormones on physiological colour changes in the eyes and jaws of male and female G. aculeatus were investigated in vitro. In an in vivo experiment, G. aculeatus were injected with a receptor blocker of a pivotal hormone (noradrenaline) that controls colour change...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Sarah H Peterson, Joshua T Ackerman, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Mark P Herzog, C Alex Hartman
Predators sample the available prey community when foraging; thus, changes in the environment may be reflected by changes in predator diet and foraging preferences. We examined Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) prey species over an 11-year period by sampling approximately 10,000 prey fish returned to 17 breeding colonies in south San Francisco Bay, California. We compared the species composition among repeatedly-sampled colonies (≥ 4 years), using both relative species abundance and the composition of total dry mass by species...
2018: PloS One
Antoine Paccard, Ben A Wasserman, Dieta Hanson, Louis Astorg, Dan Durston, Sara Kurland, Travis M Apgar, Rana W El-Sabaawi, Eric P Palkovacs, Andrew P Hendry, Rowan D H Barrett
The evolutionary consequences of temporal variation in selection remain hotly debated. We explored these consequences by studying threespine stickleback in a set of bar-built estuaries along the central California coast. In most years, heavy rains induce water flow strong enough to break through isolating sand bars, connecting streams to the ocean. New sand bars typically re-form within a few weeks or months, thereby re-isolating populations within the estuaries. These breaching events cause severe and often extremely rapid changes in abiotic and biotic conditions, including shifts in predator abundance...
May 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Aleksey A Bolotovskiy, Marina A Levina, Jacquelin DeFaveri, Juha Merilä, Boris A Levin
The three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus is an important model for studying microevolution and parallel adaptation to freshwater environments. Marine and freshwater forms differ markedly in their phenotype, especially in the number of lateral plates, which are serially repeated elements of the exoskeleton. In fishes, thyroid hormones are involved in adaptation to salinity, as well as the developmental regulation of serially repeated elements. To study how thyroid hormones influence lateral plate development, we manipulated levels of triiodothyronine and thiourea during early ontogeny in a marine and freshwater population with complete and low plate phenotypes, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Laura Casas, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Xabier Irigoien
Clownfishes are an excellent model system for investigating the genetic mechanism governing hermaphroditism and socially-controlled sex change in their natural environment because they are broadly distributed and strongly site-attached. Genomic tools, such as genetic linkage maps, allow fine-mapping of loci involved in molecular pathways underlying these reproductive processes. In this study, a high-density genetic map of Amphiprion bicinctus was constructed with 3146 RAD markers in a full-sib family organized in 24 robust linkage groups which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of the species...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robin M Tinghitella, Whitley R Lehto, V Faith Lierheimer
Our knowledge of how male competition contributes to speciation is dominated by investigations of competition between within-species morphs or closely related species that differ in conspicuous traits expressed during the breeding season (e.g. color, song). In such studies, it is important to consider the manner in which putatively sexually selected traits influence the outcome of competitive interactions within and between types because these traits can communicate information about competitor quality and may not be utilized by homotypic and heterotypic receivers in the same way...
February 2018: Current Zoology
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