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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889975/consistent-individual-differences-drive-collective-behavior-and-group-functioning-of-schooling-fish
#1
Jolle W Jolles, Neeltje J Boogert, Vivek H Sridhar, Iain D Couzin, Andrea Manica
The ubiquity of consistent inter-individual differences in behavior ("animal personalities") [1, 2] suggests that they might play a fundamental role in driving the movements and functioning of animal groups [3, 4], including their collective decision-making, foraging performance, and predator avoidance. Despite increasing evidence that highlights their importance [5-16], we still lack a unified mechanistic framework to explain and to predict how consistent inter-individual differences may drive collective behavior...
September 1, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881442/many-to-one-form-to-function-mapping-weakens-parallel-morphological-evolution
#2
Cole J Thompson, Newaz I Ahmed, Thor Veen, Catherine L Peichel, Andrew P Hendry, Daniel I Bolnick, Yoel E Stuart
Evolutionary ecologists aim to explain and predict evolutionary change under different selective regimes. Theory suggests that such evolutionary prediction should be more difficult for biomechanical systems in which different trait combinations generate the same functional output: "many-to-one mapping". Many-to-one mapping of phenotype to function enables multiple morphological solutions to meet the same adaptive challenges. Therefore, many-to-one mapping should undermine parallel morphological evolution, and hence evolutionary predictability, even when selection pressures are shared among populations...
September 7, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873953/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profiling-reveals-epigenetic-adaptation-of-stickleback-to-marine-and-freshwater-conditions
#3
Artem V Artemov, Nikolai S Mugue, Sergey M Rastorguev, Svetlana Zhenilo, Alexander M Mazur, Svetlana V Tsygankova, Eugenia S Boulygina, Daria Kaplun, Artem V Nedoluzhko, Yulia A Medvedeva, Egor B Prokhortchouk
The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) represents a convenient model to study microevolution-adaptation to a freshwater environment. Although genetic adaptations to freshwater environments are well-studied, epigenetic adaptations have attracted little attention. In this work, we investigated the role of DNA methylation in the adaptation of the marine stickleback population to freshwater conditions. DNA methylation profiling was performed in marine and freshwater populations of sticklebacks, as well as in marine sticklebacks placed into a freshwater environment and freshwater sticklebacks placed into seawater...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855412/responses-of-neurogenesis-and-neuroplasticity-related-genes-to-elevated-co2-levels-in-the-brain-of-three-teleost-species
#4
Floriana Lai, Cathrine E Fagernes, Nicholas J Bernier, Gabrielle M Miller, Philip L Munday, Fredrik Jutfelt, Göran E Nilsson
The continuous increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere resulting in ocean acidification has been reported to affect brain function in some fishes. During adulthood, cell proliferation is fundamental for fish brain growth and for it to adapt in response to external stimuli, such as environmental changes. Here we report the first expression study of genes regulating neurogenesis and neuroplasticity in brains of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), cinnamon anemonefish (Amphiprion melanopus) and spiny damselfish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) exposed to elevated CO2 The mRNA expression levels of the neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) and doublecortin (DCX) were upregulated in three-spined stickleback exposed to high-CO2 compared with controls, while no changes were detected in the other species...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837259/adaptation-despite-gene-flow-low-recombination-helps
#5
David A Marques
About 15,000 years earlier, the Northern half of Europe and North America was buried under a few kilometres of ice. Since then, many organisms have colonized and rapidly adapted to the new, vacant habitats. Some, like the threespine stickleback fish, have done so more successfully than others: from the sea, stickleback have adapted to a multitude of lake and stream habitats with a vast array of complex phenotypes and life histories. Previous studies showed that most of these "ecotypes" differ in multiple divergently selected genes throughout the genome...
September 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832577/heritable-gene-expression-differences-between-lake-and-stream-stickleback-include-both-parallel-and-antiparallel-components
#6
D Hanson, J Hu, A P Hendry, R D H Barrett
The repeated phenotypic patterns that characterize populations undergoing parallel evolution provide support for a deterministic role of adaptation by natural selection. Determining the level of parallelism also at the genetic level is thus central to our understanding of how natural selection works. Many studies have looked for repeated genomic patterns in natural populations, but work on gene expression is less common. The studies that have examined gene expression have found some support for parallelism, but those studies almost always used samples collected from the wild that potentially confounds the effects of plasticity with heritable differences...
August 23, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827678/the-mean-and-variance-of-climate-change-in-the-oceans-hidden-evolutionary-potential-under-stochastic-environmental-variability-in-marine-sticklebacks
#7
Lisa N S Shama
Increasing climate variability may pose an even greater risk to species than climate warming because temperature fluctuations can amplify adverse impacts of directional warming on fitness-related traits. Here, the influence of directional warming and increasing climate variability on marine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) offspring size variation was investigated by simulating changes to the mean and variance of ocean temperatures predicted under climate change. Reproductive traits of mothers and offspring size reaction norms across four climate scenarios were examined to assess the roles of standing genetic variation, transgenerational and within-generation plasticity in adaptive potential...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821183/improvement-of-the-threespine-stickleback-genome-using-a-hi-c-based-proximity-guided-assembly
#8
Catherine L Peichel, Shawn T Sullivan, Ivan Liachko, Michael A White
Scaffolding genomes into complete chromosome assemblies remains challenging even with the rapidly increasing sequence coverage generated by current next-generation sequence technologies. Even with scaffolding information, many genome assemblies remain incomplete. The genome of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a fish model system in evolutionary genetics and genomics, is not completely assembled despite scaffolding with high-density linkage maps. Here, we first test the ability of a Hi-C based proximity-guided assembly (PGA) to perform a de novo genome assembly from relatively short contigs...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818814/exposure-to-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-and-perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-a-remote-population-of-alaska-natives
#9
Samuel Byrne, Samarys Seguinot-Medina, Pamela Miller, Vi Waghiyi, Frank A von Hippel, C Loren Buck, David O Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Many Alaska Native communities rely on a traditional marine diet that contains persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The indoor environment is also a source of POPs. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are present both in the traditional diet and the home indoor environment. OBJECTIVES: We assessed exposure to PBDEs and PFASs among residents of two remote Alaska Native villages on St. Lawrence Island. Ninespine stickleback (Pungitious pungitious) and Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) were used to detect accumulation of these compounds in the local environment...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814718/adaptive-and-non-adaptive-divergence-in-a-common-landscape
#10
Joost A M Raeymaekers, Anurag Chaturvedi, Pascal I Hablützel, Io Verdonck, Bart Hellemans, Gregory E Maes, Luc De Meester, Filip A M Volckaert
Species in a common landscape often face similar selective environments. The capacity of organisms to adapt to these environments may be largely species specific. Quantifying shared and unique adaptive responses across species within landscapes may thus improve our understanding of landscape-moderated biodiversity patterns. Here we test to what extent populations of two coexisting and phylogenetically related fishes-three-spined and nine-spined stickleback-differ in the strength and nature of neutral and adaptive divergence along a salinity gradient...
August 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812697/fish-pool-their-experience-to-solve-problems-collectively
#11
Mike M Webster, Andrew Whalen, Kevin N Laland
Access to information is a key advantage of grouping. Although experienced animals can lead others to solve problems, less is known about whether partially informed individuals can pool experiences to overcome challenges collectively. Here we provide evidence of such 'experience-pooling'. We presented shoals of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) with a two-stage foraging task requiring them to find and access hidden food. Individual fish were either inexperienced or had knowledge of just one of the stages...
April 18, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812631/contrasting-effects-of-environment-and-genetics-generate-a-continuum-of-parallel-evolution
#12
Yoel E Stuart, Thor Veen, Jesse N Weber, Dieta Hanson, Mark Ravinet, Brian K Lohman, Cole J Thompson, Tania Tasneem, Andrew Doggett, Rebecca Izen, Newaz Ahmed, Rowan D H Barrett, Andrew P Hendry, Catherine L Peichel, Daniel I Bolnick
Parallel evolution of similar traits by independent populations in similar environments is considered strong evidence for adaptation by natural selection. Often, however, replicate populations in similar environments do not all evolve in the same way, thus deviating from any single, predominant outcome of evolution. This variation might arise from non-adaptive, population-specific effects of genetic drift, gene flow or limited genetic variation. Alternatively, these deviations from parallel evolution might also reflect predictable adaptation to cryptic environmental heterogeneity within discrete habitat categories...
May 22, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808542/the-relationship-between-male-sexual-signals-cognitive-performance-and-mating-success-in-stickleback-fish
#13
Ross Minter, Jason Keagy, Robin M Tinghitella
Cognitive ability varies dramatically among individuals, yet the manner in which this variation correlates with reproduction has rarely been investigated. Here, we ask (1) do male sexual signals reflect their cognitive ability, and (2) is cognitive ability associated with male mating success? Specifically, we presented threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) with a detour-reaching task to assess initial inhibitory control. Fish that performed better were those who solved the detour-reaching task, solved it faster, and required fewer attempts to solve...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791135/local-interactions-and-global-properties-of-wild-free-ranging-stickleback-shoals
#14
Ashley J W Ward, Timothy M Schaerf, James E Herbert-Read, Lesley Morrell, David J T Sumpter, Mike M Webster
Collective motion describes the global properties of moving groups of animals and the self-organized, coordinated patterns of individual behaviour that produce them. We examined the group-level patterns and local interactions between individuals in wild, free-ranging shoals of three-spine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Our data reveal that the highest frequencies of near-neighbour encounters occur at between one and two body lengths from a focal fish, with the peak frequency alongside a focal individual...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779857/hormonal-changes-over-the-spawning-cycle-in-the-female-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#15
Chrysoula Roufidou, Monika Schmitz, Ian Mayer, Marion Sebire, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Yi Ta Shao, Bertil Borg
Female three-spined sticklebacks are batch spawners laying eggs in a nest built by the male. We sampled female sticklebacks at different time points, when they were ready to spawn and 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-spawning (hps) with a male. Following spawning, almost all females (15 out of 19) had ovulated eggs again at Day 3 post-spawning (72hps). At sampling, plasma, brain and pituitaries were collected, and the ovary and liver were weighed. Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) were measured by radioimmunoassay...
August 2, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776706/exploring-jordan-s-rule-in-pacific-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#16
M R J Morris, E Petrovitch, E Bowles, H A Jamniczky, S M Rogers
Coastal marine Gasterosteus aculeatus were captured from seven locations along the Pacific coast of North America, ranging across 21·8° latitude to test Jordan's rule, i.e. that vertebral number should increase with increasing latitude for related populations of fish. Vertebral number significantly increased with increasing latitude for both total and caudal vertebral number. Increasing length with latitude (sensu Bergmann's rule) was also supported, but the predictions for Jordan's rule held when controlling for standard length...
August 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756254/evaluation-of-chlorpyrifos-effects-alone-and-combined-with-lipopolysaccharide-stress-on-dna-integrity-and-immune-responses-of-the-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#17
Adrien Marchand, Jean-Marc Porcher, Cyril Turies, Edith Chadili, Olivier Palluel, Patrick Baudoin, Stéphane Betoulle, Anne Bado-Nilles
Organism immune defences might be weakened by pollutants, largely detected in aquatic ecosystems, leading to the facilitation for opportunistic pathogens to infect organisms. In this context, destabilization of fish non-specific immune parameters and erythrocyte DNA integrity was tested, on a model fish species, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), after exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF). Alone, pesticide exposure induced a genotoxic potential (chlorpyrifos at 1.75 and 0.88µg/L) in addition to a decrease in phagocytosis capacity and a stimulation of respiratory burst...
July 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746785/half-the-story-thermal-effects-on-within-host-infectious-disease-progression-in-a-warming-climate
#18
Alexander Stewart, Pascal I Hablützel, Martha Brown, Hayley V Watson, Sophie Parker-Norman, Anya V Tober, Anna G Thomason, Ida M Friberg, Joanne Cable, Joseph A Jackson
Immune defence is temperature-dependent in cold-blooded vertebrates (CBVs) and thus directly impacted by global warming. We asked whether immunity and within-host infectious disease progression are altered in CBVs under realistic climate warming in a seasonal mid-latitude setting. Going further, we also asked how large thermal effects are in relation to the effects of other environmental variation in such a setting (critical to our ability to project infectious disease dynamics from thermal relationships alone)...
July 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746754/structure-and-stability-of-genetic-variance-covariance-matrices-a-bayesian-sparse-factor-analysis-of-transcriptional-variation-in-the-three-spined-stickleback
#19
J Siren, O Ovaskainen, J Merilä
The genetic variance-covariance matrix (G) is a quantity of central importance in evolutionary biology due to its influence on the rate and direction of multivariate evolution. However, the predictive power of empirically estimated G-matrices is limited for two reasons. First, phenotypes are high-dimensional, whereas traditional statistical methods are tuned to estimate and analyse low-dimensional matrices. Second, the stability of G to environmental effects and over time remains poorly understood. Using Bayesian sparse factor analysis (BSFG) designed to estimate high-dimensional G-matrices, we analysed levels variation and covariation in 10,527 expressed genes in a large (n = 563) half-sib breeding design of three-spined sticklebacks subject to two temperature treatments...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739598/sequence-based-mapping-and-genome-editing-reveal-mutations-in-stickleback-hps5-cause-oculocutaneous-albinism-and-the-casper-phenotype
#20
James C Hart, Craig T Miller
Here, we present and characterize the spontaneous X-linked recessive mutation casper, which causes oculocutaneous albinism in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In humans, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome results in pigmentation defects due to disrupted formation of the melanin-containing lysosomal-related organelle (LRO), the melanosome. casper mutants display not only reduced pigmentation of melanosomes in melanophores, but also reductions in the iridescent silver color from iridophores, while the yellow pigmentation from xanthophores appears unaffected...
September 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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