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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337596/prolactin-regulation-of-the-hpa-axis-is-not-mediated-by-a-direct-action-upon-crh-neurons-evidence-from-the-rat-and-mouse
#1
Papillon Gustafson, Ilona Kokay, Tony Sapsford, Stephen Bunn, David Grattan
Centrally acting prolactin has been shown to have anti-stress effects by modulating the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We tested the hypothesis that prolactin directly targets hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. In situ hybridisation confirmed expression of mRNA encoding the long, but not the short, isoform of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the virgin rat; however, only 6% of CRH neurons expressed long-form Prlr mRNA. Examination of the functional response of CRH neurons to intracerebroventricular prolactin (500 ng) showed that these neurons did not respond with activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), a marker of long-form PRLR activation...
March 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337127/nlrp3-inflammasome-in-neurological-diseases-from-functions-to-therapies
#2
REVIEW
Limin Song, Lei Pei, Shanglong Yao, Yan Wu, You Shang
Neuroinflammation has been identified as a causative factor of multiple neurological diseases. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-, leucine-rich repeat- and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a subcellular multiprotein complex that is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), can sense and be activated by a wide range of exogenous and endogenous stimuli such as microbes, aggregated and misfolded proteins, and adenosine triphosphate, which results in activation of caspase-1...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335584/atrap-expression-in-brown-adipose-tissue-does-not-influence-the-development-of-diet-induced-metabolic-disorders-in-mice
#3
Kohji Ohki, Hiromichi Wakui, Kengo Azushima, Kazushi Uneda, Sona Haku, Ryu Kobayashi, Kotaro Haruhara, Sho Kinguchi, Miyuki Matsuda, Masato Ohsawa, Akinobu Maeda, Shintaro Minegishi, Tomoaki Ishigami, Yoshiyuki Toya, Akio Yamashita, Satoshi Umemura, Kouichi Tamura
Activation of tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS), mainly mediated by an angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R), plays an important role in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. We have shown that AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), a specific binding protein of AT1R, functions as an endogenous inhibitor to prevent excessive activation of tissue RAS. In the present study, we newly generated ATRAP/Agtrap-floxed (ATRAP(fl/fl)) mice and adipose tissue-specific ATRAP downregulated (ATRAP(adipoq)) mice by the Cre/loxP system using Adipoq-Cre...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334184/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-induces-structural-and-functional-disconnection-of-local-neocortical-inhibitory-networks-via-parvalbumin-interneuron-diffuse-axonal-injury
#4
Michal Vascak, Xiaotao Jin, Kimberle M Jacobs, John T Povlishock
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) plays a major role in cortical network dysfunction posited to cause excitatory/inhibitory imbalance after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Current thought holds that white matter (WM) is uniquely vulnerable to DAI. However, clinically diagnosed mTBI is not always associated with WM DAI. This suggests an undetected neocortical pathophysiology, implicating GABAergic interneurons. To evaluate this possibility, we used mild central fluid percussion injury to generate DAI in mice with Cre-driven tdTomato labeling of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons...
March 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333962/different-regulation-of-limb-development-by-p63-transcript-variants
#5
Manabu Kawata, Yuki Taniguchi, Daisuke Mori, Fumiko Yano, Shinsuke Ohba, Ung-Il Chung, Tomomi Shimogori, Alea A Mills, Sakae Tanaka, Taku Saito
The apical ectodermal ridge (AER), located at the distal end of each limb bud, is a key signaling center which controls outgrowth and patterning of the proximal-distal axis of the limb through secretion of various molecules. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), particularly Fgf8 and Fgf4, are representative molecules produced by AER cells, and essential to maintain the AER and cell proliferation in the underlying mesenchyme, meanwhile Jag2-Notch pathway negatively regulates the AER and limb development. p63, a transcription factor of the p53 family, is expressed in the AER and indispensable for limb formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333140/metabolic-and-molecular-insights-into-an-essential-role-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase
#6
Li Q Zhang, Leon Van Haandel, Min Xiong, Peixin Huang, Daniel P Heruth, Charlie Bi, Roger Gaedigk, Xun Jiang, Ding-You Li, Gerald Wyckoff, Dmitry N Grigoryev, Li Gao, Linheng Li, Min Wu, J Steven Leeder, Shui Qing Ye
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a pleiotropic protein implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome, aging, cancer, coronary heart diseases, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and sepsis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of NAMPT in these physiological and pathological processes are not fully understood. Here, we provide experimental evidence that a Nampt gene homozygous knockout (Nampt(-/-)) resulted in lethality at an early stage of mouse embryonic development and death within 5-10 days in adult mice accompanied by a 25...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331060/proximal-tubule-glutamine-synthetase-expression-is-necessary-for-the-normal-response-to-dietary-protein-restriction
#7
Hyun-Wook Lee, Gunars Osis, Mary E Handlogten, Jill W Verlander, I David Weiner
Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during changes in dietary protein intake. Dietary protein restriction decreases endogenous acid production and ¬decreases urinary ammonia excretion, a major component of net acid excretion. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the reaction of NH4+ and glutamate, which regenerates the essential amino acid glutamine and decreases net ammonia generation...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330720/attenuation-of-uvr-induced-vitamin-d3-synthesis-in-a-mouse-model-deleted-for-keratinocyte-lathosterol-5-desaturase
#8
Anastasia M Makarova, Saloni Pasta, Gordon Watson, Cedric Shackleton, Ervin H Epstein
The lower risk of some internal cancers at lower latitudes has been linked to greater sun exposure and consequent higher levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-produced vitamin D3 (D3). To separate the experimental effects of sunlight and of all forms of D3, a mouse in which UVR does not produce D3 would be useful. To this end we have generated mice carrying a modified allele of sterol C5-desaturase (Sc5d), the gene encoding the enzyme that converts lathosterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), such that Sc5d expression can be inactivated using the Cre/lox site-specific recombination system...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328086/recruitment-and-retention-of-low-ses-ethnic-minority-couples-in-intervention-research-at-the-transition-to-parenthood
#9
Katherine J W Baucom, Xiao S Chen, Nicholas S Perry, Kaddy Y Revolorio, Astrid Reina, Andrew Christensen
Low-SES couples have limited resources to manage the chronic and acute stressors with which they are disproportionately faced. Although these couples are at greater risk for negative individual and relationship outcomes, evaluations of the impact of couple relationship education (CRE) in low-SES couples have been plagued by methodological problems, most notably challenges associated with recruitment and retention. We review the literature on challenges couples face associated with low-SES, as well as on recruitment, retention, and CRE in low-SES, ethnic minority populations...
March 22, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327634/scleraxis-is-required-for-maturation-of-tissue-domains-for-proper-integration-of-the-musculoskeletal-system
#10
Yuki Yoshimoto, Aki Takimoto, Hitomi Watanabe, Yuji Hiraki, Gen Kondoh, Chisa Shukunami
Scleraxis (Scx) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is expressed persistently in tendons/ligaments, but transiently in entheseal cartilage. In this study, we generated a novel Scx(Cre) knock-in (KI) allele, by in-frame replacement of most of Scx exon 1 with Cre recombinase (Cre), to drive Cre expression using Scx promoter and to inactivate the endogenous Scx. Reflecting the intensity and duration of endogenous expression, Cre-mediated excision occurs in tendinous and ligamentous tissues persistently expressing Scx...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327356/type-2-inositol-trisphosphate-receptor-gene-expression-in-hepatocytes-is-regulated-by-cyclic-amp
#11
Emma Kruglov, M Ananthanarayanan, Pedro Sousa, Jittima Weerachayaphorn, Mateus T Guerra, Michael H Nathanson
The type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R2) is the principal intracellular Ca(2+) release channel in hepatocytes, and so is important for bile secretion and other functions. IP3R2 activity is regulated in part by post-translational modifications but little is known about transcriptional regulation of its expression. We found that both IP3R2 mRNA and protein levels in liver were increased during fasting. Treatment of hepatocytes with forskolin or 8-CPT-cAMP also increased IP3R2, and this was reduced by actinomycin D...
March 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326341/cdc42-is-crucial-for-facial-and-palatal-formation-during-craniofacial-development
#12
Mutsuko Oshima-Nakayama, Atsushi Yamada, Tamaki Kurosawa, Ryo Aizawa, Dai Suzuki, Yoshiro Saito, Hidetoshi Kassai, Yuki Sato, Matsuo Yamamoto, Tatsuo Shirota, Atsu Aiba, Koutaro Maki, Ryutaro Kamijo
Craniofacial deformities with multifactorial etiologies, such as cleft palate and facial dysmorphism, represent some of the most frequent congenital birth defects seen in humans. Their pathogeneses are often related to cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. During CNC cell migration, changes in cell shape and formation, as well as maintenance of subcellular structures, such as filopodia and lamellipodia, are dependent on the complex functions of Rho family small GTPases, which are regulators of actin cytoskeletal organization...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325870/crispr-cas9-guided-oncogenic-chromosomal-translocations-with-conditional-fusion-protein-expression-in-human-mesenchymal-cells
#13
Fabio Vanoli, Mark Tomishima, Weiran Feng, Khadija Lamribet, Loelia Babin, Erika Brunet, Maria Jasin
Gene editing techniques have been extensively used to attempt to model recurrent genomic rearrangements found in tumor cells. These methods involve the induction of double-strand breaks at endogenous loci followed by the identification of breakpoint junctions within a population, which typically arise by nonhomologous end joining. The low frequency of these events, however, has hindered the cloning of cells with the desired rearrangement before oncogenic transformation. Here we present a strategy combining CRISPR-Cas9 technology and homology-directed repair to allow for the selection of human mesenchymal stem cells harboring the oncogenic translocation EWSR1-WT1 found in the aggressive desmoplastic small round cell tumor...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325790/dopamine-terminals-from-the-ventral-tegmental-area-gate-intrinsic-inhibition-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#14
William C Buchta, Stephen V Mahler, Benjamin Harlan, Gary S Aston-Jones, Arthur C Riegel
Spike frequency adaptation (SFA or accommodation) and calcium-activated potassium channels that underlie after-hyperpolarization potentials (AHP) regulate repetitive firing of neurons. Precisely how neuromodulators such as dopamine from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) regulate SFA and AHP (together referred to as intrinsic inhibition) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) remains unclear. Using whole cell electrophysiology, we measured intrinsic inhibition in prelimbic (PL) layer 5 pyramidal cells of male adult rats...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324645/three-dimensional-analysis-of-somatic-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-fission-deficient-injured-motor-neurons-using-fib-sem
#15
Hiromi Tamada, Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroki Hosokawa, Keisuke Ohta, Naotada Ishihara, Masatoshi Nomura, Katsuyoshi Mihara, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura, Hiroshi Kiyama
Mitochondria undergo morphological changes through fusion and fission for their quality control, which are vital for neuronal function. In this study, we examined three-dimensional morphologies of mitochondria in motor neurons under normal, nerve injured, and nerve injured plus fission-impaired conditions using the focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), because the FIB/SEM technology is a powerful tool to demonstrate both 3D images of whole organelle and the intra-organellar structure simultaneously...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324064/bmp7-induces-uterine-receptivity-and-blastocyst-attachment
#16
Diana Monsivais, Caterina Clementi, Jia Peng, Paul T Fullerton, Renata Prunskaite-Hyyryläinen, Seppo Vainio, Martin M Matzuk
In women, the window of implantation is limited to a brief two- to three- day period characterized by optimal levels of circulating ovarian hormones and a receptive endometrium. Although the window of implantation is assumed to occur 8-10 days after ovulation in women, molecular markers of endometrial receptivity are necessary to determine optimal timing prior to embryo transfer. Previous studies showed that members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family are expressed in the uterus necessary for female fertility; however, the role of BMP7 during implantation and in late gestation is not known...
January 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323958/jmjd3-is-crucial-for-female-avpv-rip-cre-neuron-controlled-kisspeptin-estrogen-feedback-loop-and-reproductive-function
#17
Anying Song, Shujun Jiang, Qinghua Wang, Jianghuan Zou, Zhaoyu Lin, Xiang Gao
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls development, reproduction, and metabolism. While most studies were focusing on the hierarch from brain to gonad, many questions remain unresolved concerning the feedback from gonad to the central nervous system, especially on the potential epigenetic modification in hypothalamic neurons. In this report, we generated genetically modified mice lacking histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase JMJD3 in hypothalamic RIP-Cre neurons. The female mutant mice display late-onset obesity due to reduced locomotor activity and decreased energy expenditure...
March 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322325/a-non-cell-autonomous-mouse-model-of-cns-haemangioblastoma-mediated-by-mutant-kras
#18
Leyuan Bao, Osama Al-Assar, Lesley F Drynan, Mark J Arends, Pam Tyers, Roger A Barker, Terence H Rabbitts
Haemangioblastoma is a rare malignancy of the CNS where vascular proliferation causes lesions due to endothelial propagation. We found that conditionally expressing mutant Kras, using Rag1-Cre, gave rise to CNS haemangioblastoma in the cortex and cerebellum in mice that present with highly vascular tumours with stromal cells similar to human haemangioblastomas. The aberrant haemangioblastoma endothelial cells do not express mutant Kras but rather the mutant oncogene is expressed in CNS interstitial cells, including neuronal cells and progeny...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322236/the-role-of-mesolimbic-reward-neurocircuitry-in-prevention-and-rescue-of-the-activity-based-anorexia-aba-phenotype-in-rats
#19
Claire J Foldi, Laura K Milton, Brian J Oldfield
Patients suffering anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic; unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) model recapitulates many of the characteristics of the human condition, including anhedonia, and allows investigation of the underlying neurobiology of AN. The potential for increased neuronal activity in reward/hedonic circuits to prevent and rescue weight loss is investigated in this model. The mesolimbic pathway extending from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was activated using a dual viral strategy, involving retrograde transport of Cre (CAV2-Cre) to the VTA and coincident injection of DREADD receptors (AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM3D(Gq)-mCherry)...
March 21, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317293/a-new-location-to-split-cre-recombinase-for-protein-fragment-complementation
#20
Maryam Rajaee, David W Ow
We have previously described a recombinase-mediated gene stacking system in which the Cre recombinase is used to remove lox-site flanked DNA no longer needed after each round of Bxb1 integrase-mediated site-specific integration. The Cre recombinase can be conveniently introduced by hybridization with a cre-expressing plant. However, maintaining an efficient cre-expressing line over many generations can be a problem, as high production of this DNA binding protein might interfere with normal chromosome activities...
March 19, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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