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Gram-negative resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642934/evaluation-of-the-antibacterial-and-antifungal-properties-of-phragmanthera-capitata-sprengel-balle-loranthaceae-a-mistletoe-growing-on-rubber-tree-using-the-dilution-techniques
#1
Franklin Uangbaoje Ohikhena, Olubunmi Abosede Wintola, Anthony Jide Afolayan
The alarming increase in multidrug resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to conventional drugs in recent years has prompted the search for new leads in alternative remedies in natural products. Hence, this study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial properties of Phragmanthera capitata, a parasitic mistletoe growing on rubber trees. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts were investigated using five gram-negative and five gram-positive bacteria and four fungi...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642751/in-vitro-antimicrobial-activity-of-chlorquinaldol-against-microorganisms-responsible-for-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-comparative-evaluation-with-gentamicin-and-fusidic-acid
#2
Monica Bortolin, Alessandro Bidossi, Elena De Vecchi, Maura Avveniente, Lorenzo Drago
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a major therapeutic challenge for clinicians. The emergence of pathogens with decreased susceptibility to available therapies has become an emerging problem often associated with treatment failure. Hence, there is an urgent need for novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of chlorquinaldol as an alternative approach to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642142/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infections-in-177-severe-burn-patients-from-an-industrial-disaster-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#3
Chenqi Tang, Junqiang Li, Beiming Shou, Bohan Pan, Tiansheng Chen, Yongqiang Xiao, Xiaopeng Zheng, Shichu Xiao, Qian Tan, Zhaofan Xia
OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and to evaluate the impact of BSIs on mortality in severe burn patients. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in 20 tertiary hospitals. A total of 185 Patients who experienced a massive dust explosion in eastern China were included. RESULTS: After exclusion, 177 patients were analyzed. The median total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 95% (interquartile range [IQR], 85%-98%)...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642139/clinical-characteristics-and-epidemiology-of-sepsis-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-the-era-of-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-a-retrospective-review
#4
Dawood Yusef, Tala Shalakhti, Samah Awad, Hana'a Algharaibeh, Wasim Khasawneh
BACKGROUND: Sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) remains one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality, especially for preterm newborns. Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) are emerging as important pathogens that cause neonatal sepsis in NICU. Therefore, studying the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome caused by MDROs vs. non-MDROs, and identifying risk factors that may predispose patients to sepsis by MDROs are important. METHODS: Episodes of blood culture-proven sepsis (age: 0-90 days) in the NICU at our institution from January 2012 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
June 9, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639164/lipid-peroxidation-in-gram-negative-bacteremia-modulates-the-risk-for-septic-shock-and-infections-by-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#5
S Christodoulou, E Kyriazopoulou, M Chrysanthakopoulou, G Karlis, I Karampela, K Gkizeli, N Veliki, A Safarika, E J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, G Adamis
Controversies in outcomes with the parenteral administration of antioxidants as adjuvant therapies led to the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, in serum collected from 120 patients with primary Gram-negative bacteremia during the first 24 h from sepsis onset. MDA was measured by the thiobarbiturate assay, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. After receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, patients were divided into those with high levels of MDA and low levels of MDA...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639145/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-theaflavin-epicatechin-combinations-versus-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#6
Jonathan W Betts, Michael Hornsey, David W Wareham, Roberto M La Ragione
INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important human nosocomial pathogen; most clinical isolates are multidrug-resistant (MDR). Infections caused by A. baumannii often lead to high morbidity and mortality, with limited treatment options. Owing to the small number of anti-Gram-negative antibiotics in the development pipeline, researchers are looking to other natural compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro kill kinetics, in vivo efficacy and toxicity of theaflavin-epicatechin combinations against MDR A...
June 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638594/high-burden-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-critical-care-unit-of-nepal
#7
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Keshab Parajuli, Basista Prasad Rijal, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) and antimicrobial resistance are principal threats to the patients of intensive care units and are the major determining factors for patient outcome. They are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, excess hospitalization and financial costs. The present study is an attempt to investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates involved in healthcare associated infections (HCAI) in the patients of a critical care unit at a tertiary care university hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638248/evaluation-of-microorganisms-causing-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#8
Ayse Betul Ergul, Serife Cetin, Yasemin Ay Altintop, Sefika Elmas Bozdemir, Alper Ozcan, Umit Altug, Hasan Samsa, Yasemin Altuner Torun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify microorganisms causing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and also study the antibiotic resistance/susceptibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed microorganisms isolated from patients diagnosed with VAP in a pediatric intensive care unit between January 1, 2014, and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: We included 44 patients diagnosed with VAP. The prevalence thereof was 8.6 patients per 1,000 ventilator days...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637307/sparing-carbapenem-usage
#9
A Peter R Wilson
Background: Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is increasing in many countries and use of carbapenems and antibiotics to which resistance is linked should be reduced to slow its emergence. There are no directly equivalent antibiotics and the alternatives are less well supported by clinical trials. The few new agents are expensive. Objectives: To provide guidance on strategies to reduce carbapenem usage. Methods: A literature review was performed as described in the BSAC/HIS/BIA/IPS Joint Working Party on Multiresistant Gram-negative Infection Report...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636788/role-of-positively-charged-residues-on-the-polar-and-non-polar-faces-of-amphipathic-%C3%AE-helical-antimicrobial-peptides-amps-on-specificity-and-selectivity-for-gram-negative-pathogens
#10
Ziqing Jiang, Colin T Mant, Michael Vasil, Robert S Hodges
We have designed de novo and synthesized eight 26-residue all D-conformation amphipathic α-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), four with "specificity determinants" which provide specificity for prokaryotic cells over eukaryotic cells and four AMPs without specificity determinants. The eight AMPs contain six positively charged Lys residues on the polar face in four different arrangements to understand the role of these residues have on antimicrobial activity against 14 Acinetobacter baumannii strains, 7 of which were resistant to polymyxin B and colistin; 6 diverse Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains and 17 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 9 of which were Methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and 8 of which were Methicillin-resistant (MRSA)...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636368/probing-the-mechanism-of-lal-32-a-gold-nanoparticle-based-antibiotic-discovered-through-small-molecule-variable-ligand-display
#11
Rose Byrne-Nash, Danielle Lucero, Niki Osbaugh, Roberta J Melander, Christian Melander, Daniel L Feldheim
The unrelenting rise of antimicrobial resistant bacteria has necessitated the search for novel antibiotic solutions. Herein we describe further mechanistic studies on a 2.0 nm diameter gold nanoparticle-based antibiotic (designated LAL-32). This antibiotic exhibits bactericidal activity against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli at 1.0 μΜ, a concentration significantly lower than several clinically available antibiotics (such as ampicillin and gentamicin), and acute treatment with LAL-32 does not give rise to spontaneous resistant mutants...
June 21, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#12
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634535/effectiveness-and-safety-of-daptomycin-in-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-undergoing-heart-valve-replacement-a-subgroup-analysis-from-real-world-data
#13
Achyut Guleri, Riccardo Utili, Pascal Dohmen, Kamal Hamed
BACKGROUND: European Cubicin(®) Outcomes Registry and Experience (EU-CORE) was a retrospective, non-interventional, multicenter registry that collected real-world clinical outcomes following daptomycin use for the treatment of Gram-positive infections. EU-CORE data from patients with infective endocarditis (IE) who underwent heart valve replacement were analysed. METHODS: Clinical outcomes were assessed as success (cured or improved), failure, or non-evaluable...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632822/-strategies-to-reduce-infections-and-antibiotic-use-and-its-effects-in-a-neonatal-care-unit
#15
Soledad Urzúa, Marcela Ferrés, Patricia García, Amparo Sánchez, Matías Luco
INTRODUCTION: Late onset sepsis (LOS) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The empirical use of vancomycin and other broad spectrum antibiotics is very frequent and is associated with the emergence of resistant agents, infection by gram-negative bacilli (GNB), fungal infections and increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of 5 intervention protocols designed to reduce infections and promote the rational use of antibiotics (AB) in a single NICU...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632769/combining-omics-and-microscopy-to-visualize-interactions-between-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-vector-and-the-huanglongbing-pathogen-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-in-the-insect-gut
#16
Angela Kruse, Somayeh Fattah-Hosseini, Surya Saha, Richard Johnson, EricaRose Warwick, Kasie Sturgeon, Lukas Mueller, Michael J MacCoss, Robert G Shatters, Michelle Cilia Heck
Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is an economically devastating bacterial disease of citrus. It is associated with infection by the gram-negative bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). CLas is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). For insect transmission to occur, CLas must be ingested during feeding on infected phloem sap and cross the gut barrier to gain entry into the insect vector. To investigate the effects of CLas exposure at the gut-pathogen interface, we performed RNAseq and mass spectrometry-based proteomics to analyze the transcriptome and proteome, respectively, of ACP gut tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631632/risk-of-cardiac-pacemaker-pocket-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#17
Jaswinder Singh Gill, Navreet Singh, S P Khanna
BACKGROUND: The risk of pacemaker pocket infections (PPIs) is rare with good antisepsis techniques and use of advanced antibiotics. However, injudicious antibiotic usage leads to the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria, which may cause PPI. Few reports exist about the microbial spectrum of the PPI from our country, prompting us to study the same. METHODS: We conducted this retrospective observational study for 3 years (January 2013-February 2016) from all the patients with PPI...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631499/the-microbial-contamination-and-the-presence-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacteria-in-the-water-and-on-the-surfaces-of-public-recreation-water-facilities
#18
Karmen Godič Torkar, Mirjana Dražetić
The microbiological quality of bathing water and the surfaces of the surrounding pool platforms of two pools was estimated. ESBL- and MBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria isolated from water and surface samples were also studied. The water samples were satisfactory in 31 (86.1 %) out of 36 cases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as Escherichia coli were identified in only 2 (5.5 %) cases. There were no correlations between the HPC and number of enterobacteria in the pool water and those found in the surface samples...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630688/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-pathogens-from-blood-cultures-results-from-a-laboratory-based-nationwide-surveillance-in-ghana
#19
Japheth Awuletey Opintan, Mercy Jemima Newman
BACKGROUND: Blood stream infections (BSI) are critical medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of information on BSI from surveillance studies in Ghana. AIM: This study sought to demonstrate how useful BSI data can be gleaned from population-based surveillance, especially from resource-limited settings. METHODS: Data from a nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) in Ghana were extracted and analyzed...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630687/emerging-antimicrobial-resistance-in-early-and-late-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#20
Lamiaa Mohsen, Nermin Ramy, Dalia Saied, Dina Akmal, Niveen Salama, Mona M Abdel Haleim, Hany Aly
BACKGROUND: Compared to developed countries, the use of antimicrobials in Egypt is less regulated and is available over the counter without the need for prescriptions. The impact of such policy on antimicrobial resistance has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of early and late onset sepsis, and the frequency of antimicrobial resistance in a major referral neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: The study included all neonates admitted to the NICU over a 12-month period...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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