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Gram-negative resistance

Bich-Tram Huynh, Elsa Kermorvant-Duchemin, Perlinot Herindrainy, Michael Padget, Feno Manitra Jacob Rakotoarimanana, Herisoa Feno, Elisoa Hariniaina-Ratsima, Tanjona Raheliarivao, Awa Ndir, Sophie Goyet, Patrice Piola, Frederique Randrianirina, Benoit Garin, Jean-Marc Collard, Didier Guillemot, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau
Severe bacterial infections are a leading cause of death among neonates in low-income countries, which harbor several factors leading to emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Low-income countries should prioritize interventions to decrease neonatal infections; however, data are scarce, specifically from the community. To assess incidence, etiologies, and antimicrobial drug-resistance patterns of neonatal infections, during 2012-2014, we conducted a community-based prospective investigation of 981 newborns in rural and urban areas of Madagascar...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hegde Sharat Shivaramaiah, Nidhi Relhan, Avinash Pathengay, Nitin Mohan, Harry W Flynn
Purpose: To report the clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes of patients with endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin. Methods: Retrospective case series of all patients with culture-proven endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin between January 2010 and December 2016 in LV Prasad Eye Institute, Visakhapatnam, India. Results: The current study included 14 patients...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Sandra C Vega, Diana A Martínez, María Del S Chalá, Hernán A Vargas, Jaiver E Rosas
Multidrug resistance of pathogenic bacteria has become a public health crisis that requires the urgent design of new antibacterial drugs such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Seeking to obtain new, lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-based synthetic peptides as viable early-stage candidates for future development as AMPs against clinically relevant bacteria, we designed, synthesized and screened three new cationic peptides derived from bovine LfcinB. These peptides contain at least one RRWQWR motif and differ by the copy number (monomeric, dimeric or tetrameric) and structure (linear or branched) of this motif...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Siddharth Mallapragada, Ananya Wadhwa, Pallavi Agrawal
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are biological molecules bridging the innate and acquired immune systems of the defense mechanism. They have been found to be effective against not only Gram-positive and -negative bacterial species but also fungi and viruses with their broad spectrum of activity. Among the various niches where they are found in the human body, in the oral cavity, the AMPs are secreted by the epithelial cells, defense cells, crevicular fluid, and in the salivary secretions and form the first line of defense against bacterial invasion...
November 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Carlos Rodríguez-Lucas, M Rosario Rodicio, Isabel Costales, José Antonio Boga, Fernando Vazquez, Javier Fernández
Blood stream infections are serious conditions associated with high morbi-mortality. In this study, the new Sepsis Flow Chip (SFC) assay for identification of Gram-negative bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance genes was evaluated in positive blood cultures (BCs). SFC is a microarray with a broad panel comprising the most frequent causative agents of sepsis and antimicrobial resistance genes associated with them. A total of 100 prospective BCs, positive for Gram-negative bacilli, were assessed in the routine of the clinical microbiology laboratory and also applying the SFC assay...
February 14, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Qian Zhang, Satoshi Ishii
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is now commonly used to detect fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) as well as pathogens in water samples. However, DNA loss during sample processing can cause underestimation of target genes. In this study, we created a sample process control strain (SPC) by genetically engineering a non-pathogenic, Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain NH8B. The SPC strain, named NH8B-1D2, has a kanamycin-resistance gene inserted to one of the 23S rRNA genes. To specifically quantify the SPC strain, a new TaqMan qPCR assay was developed...
March 10, 2018: Water Research
Juliana S Novais, Caroline S Moreira, Ana Carolina J A Silva, Raquel S Loureiro, Agnes Marie Sá Figueiredo, Vitor F Ferreira, Helena C Castro, David R da Rocha
The aims of this study were the planning, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, searching for potential lead compounds against bacterial biofilm formation. A series of 12 new analogs of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones were synthesized by adding a thiol and different substituents to a ο-quinone methide using microwave irradiation. The compounds were tested against Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Deepti Singh, Shwetha Narayanamoorthy, Sunita Gamre, Ananda Guha Majumdar, Manish Goswami, Umesh Gami, Susan Cherian, Mahesh Subramanian
Antibiotic resistance is a global problem and there is an urgent need to augment the arsenal against pathogenic bacteria. The emergence of different drug resistant bacteria is threatening human lives to be pushed towards the pre-antibiotic era. Botanical sources remain a vital source of diverse organic molecules that possess antibacterial property as well as augment existing antibacterial molecules. Piper betle, a climber, is widely used in south and south-east Asia whose leaves and nuts are consumed regularly...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Taisa Trevizani Rocchetti, Katheryne Benine Martins, Patricia Yoshida Faccioli Martins, Rogério Antonio de Oliveira, Alessandro Lia Mondelli, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus spp. - both S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) - are relevant agents of healthcare-associated infections. Therefore, the rapid recognition of MRSA and methicillin-resistant CoNS from blood stream infections is critically important for patient management. It is worth noting that inappropriate empiric therapy has been associated with higher in-hospital mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study we evaluated a multiplex PCR standardized to detect Staphylococcus spp...
March 13, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Carlos Hernán Rodríguez, Marcela Nastro, Angela Famiglietti
Carbapenem resistance in gram-negative bacteria by production of carbapenemases is one of the most challenging issues regarding healthcare worldwide. We review the epidemiology and prevalence of carbapenemases in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Latin American countries. High resistance rates to antimicrobial agents, particularly to carbapenems, are observed in this region. OXA-23 is the most widely disseminated class D-carbapenemase; it is present in all the countries of the region and is frequently associated to endemic clones CC113/CC79, CC104/CC15, CC110/ST25 and CC109/CC1...
March 13, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Pınar Sağıroğlu, Ufuk Hasdemir, Gülşen Altınkanat Gelmez, Burak Aksu, Onur Karatuna, Güner Söyletir
In this study, the performance of the "RESIST-3 O.K.N. K-SeT" (Coris BioConcept, Gembloux, Belgium) immunochromatographic assay was evaluated in 132 Klebsiella pneumoniae comprising 102 carbapenem resistant and 30 carbapenem susceptible isolates. Genotypically known isolates of Gram negative bacteria (n=22) including various species were also tested by the assay as controls. The isolates tested by the immunochromatographic assay and also were run PCR for blaKPC , blaIMP , blaVIM , blaNDM , and blaOXA-48 ...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Norelle Sherry, Benjamin Howden
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major threat to human health globally. This has resulted in the "re-discovery" of some older antimicrobials and development of new agents, however resistance has also rapidly emerged to these agents. Areas Covered: Here we describe recent developments in resistance to three of the most important last-line antimicrobials for treatment of MDR and XDR Gram negatives: fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Dehbia Benkerrou, Matteo Ceccarelli
One of the greatest health threats facing modern medicine is the emergence of new bacterial strains which are increasingly resistant to almost all currently available antibiotics. According to a CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) report published in 2013, 63% of Acinetobacter species have been identified as Multidrug resistant strains. As for other Gram-negative bacteria, the presence of an outer membrane increases the intrinsic resistance of A. baumannii to most antibiotics. The outer membrane of A...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
P Ioannou, M Stavroulaki, V Mavrikaki, I Papakitsou, S Panagiotakis
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the main cause of euvolemic hyponatremia and is often associated with medications or underlying diseases. Linezolid is a potent antibiotic against resistant Gram-positive microorganisms that has been associated with mild hyponatremia, yet with a mechanism different from SIADH. CASE SUMMARY: We present the case of a patient who developed severe hyponatremia during treatment with linezolid for an ampicillin-resistant E...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Nicholas Agyepong, Usha Govinden, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods: Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Ronald Domalaon, Temilolu Idowu, George G Zhanel, Frank Schweizer
The global incidence of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacillary infections has been increasing, and there is a dire need to develop novel strategies to overcome this problem. Intrinsic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, such as their protective outer membrane and constitutively overexpressed efflux pumps, is a major survival weapon that renders them refractory to current antibiotics. Several potential avenues to overcome this problem have been at the heart of antibiotic drug discovery in the past few decades...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Hannah Y P Phoon, Hazilawati Hussin, Baizurah Mohd Hussain, Shu Yong Lim, Jia Jie Woon, Yi Xian Er, Kwai Lin Thong
OBJECTIVES: Hospital environments are potential reservoirs of bacteria associated with nosocomial infections. Here, we determined the distribution of cultivable environmental bacteria of clinical importance from a Malaysian tertiary hospital and to investigate their resistotypes and genotypes. METHODS: Swab and fluid samples (n=358) from healthcare workers' hands, frequently touched surfaces, medical equipment, patients' immediate surroundings, ward sinks and toilets and solutions or fluids of 12 selected wards were collected...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
James J Leyden, Vilma Sniukiene, David R Berk, Alexandre Kaoukhov
BACKGROUND: There is a need for new oral antibiotics for acne with improved safety profiles and targeted antibacterial spectra. Sarecycline is a novel, tetracycline-class antibiotic specifically designed for acne, offering a narrow spectrum of activity compared with currently available tetracyclines, including less activity against enteric Gram-negative bacteria. This phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses of sarecycline for moderate to severe facial acne vulgaris...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
I-Ling Chen, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Shih-Wen Ting, Lily Yu-Chin Wang
Objectives: The increasing number of reports on infections due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) has raised concerns, because they have complicated empiric or guided antibiotic therapy for critically ill patients. We aimed to develop a scoring system to predict nosocomial imipenem-resistant GNB (IR-GNB) septicemia among the critically ill patients. Materials and methods: The study included critically ill adult patients with nosocomial GNB septicemia at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) in 2013-2015, and the scoring system for predicting IR-GNB septicemia was developed, followed by prospective validation conducted among patients at Linkou CGMH and Kaohsiung CGMH between January and June, 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Alasdair T M Hubbard, Sian Davies, Laura Baxter, Sarah Thompson, Mark Collery, Daniel Hand, Daniel John Thomas, Colin Fink
Comparison of the genome of the Gram negative human pathogen Haemophilus quentini MP1 with other Haemophilus species revealed that, although it is more closely related to Haemophilus haemolyticus than Haemophilus influenzae, the pathogen is in fact genetically distinct, a finding confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using the H. influenzae multilocus sequence typing genes. Further comparison with two other H. quentini strains recently identified in Canada revealed that these three genomes are more closely related than any other Haemophilus species, however there is still some sequence variation...
March 13, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
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