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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099062/rectal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-in-intensive-care-units-in-tunisia
#1
Samia Hammami, Chaima Dahdeh, Kelthoum Mamlouk, Sana Ferjeni, Elaa Maamar, Zeineb Hamzaoui, Mabrouka Saidani, Salma Ghedira, Mohamed Houissa, Amin Slim, Ilhem Boutiba-Ben Boubaker
This study was conducted to evaluate the rate of fecal carriage of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (third GC) in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis and to identify the enzymatic mechanisms involved. From February to April 2014, rectal swabs were collected from all patients (n = 38) at admission and once weekly thereafter to identify acquisition. They were cultured on desoxycholate-lactose-agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2 mg/L)...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098416/motuporamine-derivatives-as-antimicrobial-agents-and-antibiotic-enhancers-against-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#2
Diane Borselli, Marine Blanchet, Jean-Michel Bolla, Aaron Muth, Kristen Skruber, Otto Phanstiel, Jean Michel Brunel
Dihydromotuporamine C and its derivatives were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities and antibiotic enhancement properties against Gram-negative bacteria and clinical isolates. The mechanism of action of one of these derivatives, MOTU-N44, was investigated against Enterobacter aerogenes by using fluorescent dyes to evaluate outer-membrane depolarization and permeabilization. Its efficiency correlated with inhibition of dye transport, thus suggesting that these molecules inhibit drug transporters by de-energization of the efflux pump rather than by direct interaction of the molecule with the pump...
January 18, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097714/photoantimicrobial-biohybrids-by-supramolecular-immobilization-of-cationic-phthalocyanines-onto-cellulose-nanocrystals
#3
Eduardo Anaya-Plaza, Eveline van de Winckel, Joona Mikkilä, Jani-Markus Malho, Olli Ikkala, Oscar Gulías, Roger Bresolí-Obach, Montserrat Agut, Santi Nonell, Tomás Torres, Mauri A Kostiainen, Andrés de la Escosura
The development of photoactive and biocompatible nanostructures is a highly desirable goal to address the current threat of antibiotic resistance. Here, we describe a novel supramolecular biohybrid nanostructure based on the non-covalent immobilization of cationic zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) derivatives onto unmodified cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), following an easy and straightforward protocol, in which binding is driven by electrostatic interactions. These non-covalent biohybrids show strong photodynamic activity against S...
January 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097633/meropenem-dosing-based-on-a-population-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-in-elderly-patients-with-infection-of-the-lower-respiratory-tract
#4
Qing-Tao Zhou, Bei He, Ning Shen, Ying Liang, Li-Na Sun
BACKGROUND: Meropenem is used for the treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the clinical benefits of a strategy of meropenem dosing based on a population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model in elderly patients with an LRTI. METHODS: In this prospective single-center open-label randomized controlled trial, 79 elderly patients with an LRTI caused by Gram-negative bacilli were randomized to a study group (SG) or a control group (CG)...
January 17, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096976/effect-of-handrubbing-using-locally-manufactured-alcohol-based-handrubs-in-paediatric-wards-in-harare-zimbabwe
#5
Muchaneta Gudza-Mugabe, Marcelyn T Magwenzi, Hilda A Mujuru, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Valerie Robertson, Alexander M Aiken
We assessed bacterial contamination of hands of adults present in paediatric wards in two tertiary-care hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe and the microbiologic efficacy of locally-manufactured alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR). During unannounced visits, samples were collected using hand-print and hand-rinse methods. Samples were collected from 152 individuals (16 nurses, 10 doctors, 28 students, 86 parents/guardians, 12 others). Contamination of hands with Gram-negative bacteria was found in 91% of adults tested with a mean of 14...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096686/peptide-consensus-sequence-determination-for-the-enhancement-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-and-selectivity-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#6
Ammar Almaaytah, Ya'u Ajingi, Ahmad Abualhaijaa, Shadi Tarazi, Nizar Alshar'i, Qosay Al-Balas
The rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria is causing a serious threat to the world's human population. Recent reports have identified bacterial strains displaying pan drug resistance against antibiotics and generating fears among medical health specialists that humanity is on the dawn of entering a post-antibiotics era. Global research is currently focused on expanding the lifetime of current antibiotics and the development of new antimicrobial agents to tackle the problem of antimicrobial resistance. In the present study, we designed a novel consensus peptide named "Pepcon" through peptide consensus sequence determination among members of a highly homologous group of scorpion antimicrobial peptides...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096166/the-role-of-renal-drug-exposure-in-polymyxin-b-induced-nephrotoxicity
#7
Pooja Manchandani, Jian Zhou, Jessica T Babic, Kimberly R Ledesma, Luan D Truong, Vincent H Tam
Despite dose-limiting nephrotoxic potentials, polymyxin B has re-emerged as the last line of therapy against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. However, the handling of polymyxin B by the kidneys is still not thoroughly understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of renal polymyxin B exposure on nephrotoxicity and to explore the role of megalin in renal drug accumulation. Sprague-Dawley rats (225-250 g) were divided into 3 dosing groups, and polymyxin B was administered (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) subcutaneously once daily...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096165/in-vitro-activity-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-against-multidrug-resistant-non-fermenting-gram-negative-bacilli-isolated-from-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#8
Patrick Grohs, Gary Taieb, Philippe Morand, Iheb Kaibi, Isabelle Podglajen, Marie Lavollay, Jean-Luc Mainardi, Fabrice Compain
Ceftolozane-tazobactam was tested against 58 multidrug-resistant non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (35 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 11 Achromobacter xylosoxydans and 12 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) isolated from cystic fibrosis patients and compared to ceftolozane alone, ceftazidime, meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. Ceftolozane-tazobactam was the most active agent against P. aeruginosa but was inactive against A. xylosoxydans and S. maltophilia In time-kill experiments ceftolozane-tazobactam had complete bactericidal activity against 2/6 (33%) clinical isolates...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096160/determinants-of-antibacterial-spectrum-and-resistance-potential-of-the-elongation-factor-g-inhibitor-argyrin-b-in-key-gram-negative-pathogens
#9
Adriana K Jones, Angela L Woods, Kenneth T Takeoka, Xiaoyu Shen, Jun-Rong Wei, Ruth E Caughlan, Charles R Dean
Argyrins are natural products with antibacterial activity against Gram-negative pathogens such as P. aeruginosa, B. multivorans and S. maltophilia We previously showed that argyrin B targets elongation factor G (FusA). Here we show that Argyrin B activity against P. aeruginosa PAO1 (MIC = 8 μg/mL) was not affected by deletion of the MexAB-OprM, MexXY-OprM, MexCD-OprJ or MexEF-OprN efflux pumps. However, argyrin B induced expression of MexXY causing a slight but reproducible antagonism with the MexXY substrate antibiotic ciprofloxacin...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095918/anti-staphylococcal-activity-resulting-from-epithelial-lining-fluid-elf-concentrations-of-amikacin-inhale-administered-via-the-pulmonary-drug-delivery-system
#10
Islam M Ghazi, Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Amikacin inhale (BAY41-6551), a unique drug-device combination of a specially formulated drug solution and a pulmonary drug delivery system device (AMK-I) is currently under phase III study as an adjunctive therapy to IV antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. While the epidemiology of nosocomial pneumonia is predominated by Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of concern for these pulmonary based infections...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093424/strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome-and-vre-pneumonia
#11
Mohannad Abu Omar, Mouhanna Abu Ghanimeh, Sola Kim, Gregory Howell
Immunocompromised patients have high risk of infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. One of these infections is those caused by Strongyloides stercoralis Immunocompromised patients are at risk of hyperinfection syndrome which is characterised with more systemic manifestation and a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This can be complicated by coinfection with enteric organisms, specifically Gram-negative. Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci which are inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089718/cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-from-alligator-mississippiensis-has-antibacterial-activity-against-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumanii-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#12
Stephanie M Barksdale, Evelyn J Hrifko, Monique L van Hoek
Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator), a member of order Crocodilia, lives in bacteria-laden environments but is not often known to succumb to bacterial infections. Their serum has been shown to have antibacterial activity beyond that of human serum, and it is believed that this activity is partially due to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). CAMPs are produced by many organisms as part of the innate immune system. CAMPs are attractive possible therapies against multi-drug resistant bacteria, such as those found in biofilm-infected war wounds, because they seldom cause genetic resistance in bacteria and are effective against antibiotic resistant bacteria...
January 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089138/bloodstream-infections-in-children-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-versus-carbapenem-susceptible-gram-negative-microorganisms-risk-factors-and-outcome
#13
Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Banu Sancak, Sevilay Karahan, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
Carbapenems are often considered the last resort agents reserved for treatment of infections due to highly antimicrobial resistant organisms such as A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. However, carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative (CRGN) pathogens have become much more prevalent in the last decade. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for and outcome of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative microorganisms in a pediatric tertiary-care hospital. Among 97 patients with hospital-acquired Gram-negative bacteremia, 66 patients with carbapenem-susceptible Gram-negative pathogens (CSGN) were compared with the remaining 31 with CRGN isolates...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088889/-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#14
Bálint Velkey, Eszter Vitális, Zsuzsanna Vitális
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III...
January 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088587/late-onset-neonatal-sepsis-in-arab-states-in-the-gulf-region-two-year-prospective-study
#15
Majeda S Hammoud, Abdullah Al-Taiar, Sameer Y Al-Abdi, Hussain Bozaid, Anwar Khan, Laila M AlMuhairi, Moghis Ur Rehman
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of Late-Onset Sepsis (LOS) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Arab states in the gulf region and describe the main causative organisms and their antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Observational prospective cohort study was conducted over two-year period in five NICUs in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. LOS was defined as the growth of a single potentially pathogenic organism from blood or cerebrospinal fluid in infants >3days of age with clinical and laboratory findings consistent with infection...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087782/mutation-supply-and-relative-fitness-shape-the-genotypes-of-ciprofloxacin-resistant-escherichia-coli
#16
Douglas L Huseby, Franziska Pietsch, Gerrit Brandis, Linnéa Garoff, Angelica Tegehall, Diarmaid Hughes
Ciprofloxacin is an important antibacterial drug targeting Type II topoisomerases, highly active against Gram-negatives including Escherichia coli The evolution of resistance to ciprofloxacin in E. coli always requires multiple genetic changes, usually including mutations affecting two different drug target genes, gyrA and parC Resistant mutants selected in vitro or in vivo can have many different mutations in target genes and efflux regulator genes that contribute to resistance. Among resistant clinical isolates the genotype, gyrA S83L D87N, parC S80I is significantly overrepresented suggesting that it has a selective advantage...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087253/what-is-an-ideal-antibiotic-discovery-challenges-and-path-forward
#17
REVIEW
Sheo B Singh, Katherine Young, Lynn L Silver
An ideal antibiotic is an antibacterial agent that kills or inhibits the growth of all harmful bacteria in a host, regardless of site of infection without affecting beneficial gut microbes (gut flora) or causing undue toxicity to the host. Sadly, no such antibiotics exist. What exists are many effective Gram-positive antibacterial agents as well as broad-spectrum agents that provide treatment of certain Gram-negative bacteria but not holistic treatment of all bacteria. However effectiveness of all antibacterial agents is being rapidly eroded due to resistance...
January 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080212/heterogeneity-of-carbapenem-resistance-mechanisms-among-gram-negative-pathogens-in-lebanon-results-of-the-first-cross-sectional-countrywide-study
#18
Dalal Hammoudi Halat, Carole Ayoub Moubareck, Dolla Karam Sarkis
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens have progressively disseminated to different countries worldwide, presenting a serious public health concern. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria in Lebanon, to elucidate molecular mechanisms, and to identify genetic relatedness of incriminated strains. Carbapenem nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas were collected from 11 Lebanese hospitals in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed with phenotypic tests, genes encoding carbapenemases were screened via PCR-sequencing, and genetic relatedness was examined by PGFE and ERIC-PCR...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077265/a-smart-aminoglycoside-hydrogel-with-tunable-gel-degradation-on-demand-drug-release-and-high-antibacterial-activity
#19
Jingjing Hu, Yanchun Quan, Yuping Lai, Zhao Zheng, Zhiqi Hu, Xinyu Wang, Tianjiao Dai, Qiang Zhang, Yiyun Cheng
Aminoglycosides are a family of critically important antibiotics for the treatment of serious infections including multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, clinical use of aminoglycoside antibiotics is compromised by bacterial biofilm formation at subinhibitory concentrations or adverse side effects such as ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity at high antibiotic doses. Preparation of aminoglycoside formulation that allows on-demand drug delivery is a solution to this sticky issue. Here, we designed a new type of aminoglycoside hydrogels by cross-linking oxidized polysaccharides such as dextran, carboxymethyl cellulose, alginate, and chondroitin using aminoglycosides as cross-linkers...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074057/development-of-new-polymyxin-derivatives-for-multi-drug-resistant-gram-negative-infections
#20
REVIEW
Pamela Brown, Michael J Dawson
Over the last decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in polymyxins owing to the rapid rise in multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria against which polymyxins offer a last-resort treatment. Although having excellent antibacterial activity, the clinical utility of polymyxins is limited by toxicity, especially renal toxicity. There is much interest therefore in developing polymyxin analogues with an improved therapeutic index. This review describes recent work aimed at improving the activity and/or reducing the toxicity of polymyxins...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
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