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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792971/impact-of-active-surveillance-and-infection-control-measures-on-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-colonization-and-infections-in-intensive-care
#1
T Karampatakis, K Tsergouli, E Iosifidis, C Antachopoulos, A Karapanagiotou, A Karyoti, N Gritsi-Gerogianni, A Tsakris, E Roilides
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) infections constitute a global threat for critically ill patients and the outcome of their hospitalization. Early identification of CRGNB through rectal surveillance cultures and routine infection control measures including contact precautions, use of appropriate disinfectants, staff education on cleaning, and hand hygiene may reduce the dissemination of CRGNB. AIM: To assess the impact of enhanced infection control measures on CRGNB infections in a nine-bed polyvalent intensive care unit in a tertiary level hospital in an endemic area...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792343/plasma-initiated-graft-polymerization-as-an-immobilization-platform-for-metal-free-russian-propolis-ethanol-extracts-designed-specifically-for-biomaterials
#2
Ashwin Ambi, Carolina Vera, Nisharg Parikh, Naidel Perez, Anthony Lopez Rojas, Sanket Kumar, Christopher Stradford, Katherine Borbon, Julia Bryan, Christian Traba
The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of propolis have been intensively reported. However, the application of this folk remedy as a means to prevent biomedical implant contamination has yet to be completely evaluated. In response to the significant resistant and infectious attributes of biofilms, biomaterials engineered to possess specific chemical and physical properties were immobilized with metal free Russian propolis ethanol extracts (MFRPEE), a known antibacterial agent. The results obtained from this study begin to examine the application of MFRPEE as a novel alternative method for the prevention of medical and biomedical implant infections...
May 24, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792307/putative-vaccine-candidates-and-drug-targets-identified-by-reverse-vaccinology-and-subtractive-genomics-approaches-to-control-haemophilus-ducreyi-the-causative-agent-of-chancroid
#3
Alissa de Sarom, Arun Kumar Jaiswal, Sandeep Tiwari, Letícia de Castro Oliveira, Debmalya Barh, Vasco Azevedo, Carlo Jose Oliveira, Siomar de Castro Soares
Chancroid is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi The control of chancroid is difficult and the only current available treatment is antibiotic therapy; however, antibiotic resistance has been reported in endemic areas. Owing to recent outbreaks of STIs worldwide, it is important to keep searching for new treatment strategies and preventive measures. Here, we applied reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomic approaches for the in silico prediction of potential vaccine and drug targets against 28 strains of H...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791598/chemical-characterization-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-propolis-obtained-from-melipona-quadrifasciata-quadrifasciata-and-tetragonisca-angustula-stingless-bees
#4
A R Torres, L P Sandjo, M T Friedemann, M M Tomazzoli, M Maraschin, C F Mello, A R S Santos
In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Chemical composition of EEP was determined by colorimetry and chromatographic (HPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS) analysis. Antimicrobial activity of EEP was evaluated against gram-positive (S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, E. faecalis) and gram-negative (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) bacteria by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test using the microdilution method...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791143/water-soluble-silver-i-complexes-featuring-the-hemilabile-3-7-dimethyl-1-3-5-triaza-7-phosphabicyclo-3-3-1-nonane-ligand-synthesis-characterization-and-antimicrobial-activity
#5
Declan Armstrong, Sarah M Kirk, Cormac Murphy, Antonella Guerriero, Maurizio Peruzzini, Luca Gonsalvi, Andrew D Phillips
This paper describes the preparation and comprehensive characterization of a series of water-soluble cationic silver(I)-centered complexes featuring the hemilabile P, N-ligand known as 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (herein abbreviated as PTN(Me)) and differing types of monoanionic counterions including known biologically active sulfadiazine and triclosan. The complexes primarily differed though the number of coordinating PTN(Me) ligands. The bis-substituted Ag(I) complexes revealed P, N bidentate coordination, while the only P-monocoordination of the metal center was observed for the tris-substituted systems...
May 23, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790841/guidelines-for-the-management-of-paediatric-cholera-infection-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#6
Phoebe C M Williams, James A Berkley
Background Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile Gram-negative bacterium which is responsible for 3 million cases of diarrhoeal illness and up to 100,000 deaths per year, with an increasing burden documented over the past decade. Current WHO guidelines for the treatment of paediatric cholera infection (tetracycline 12.5 mg/kg four times daily for 3 days) are based on data which are over a decade old. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for cholera infection in children (taking account of susceptibility patterns, cost and the risk of adverse events) is necessary...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790489/inhibitory-effect-of-hop-fractions-against-gram-positive-multi-resistant-bacteria-a-pilot-study
#7
Katerina Bogdanova, Milan Kolar, Katerina Langova, Martin Dusek, Alexandr Mikyska, Vanda Bostikova, Pavel Bostik, Jana Olsovska
AIM: Our research focused on the antimicrobial effects of purified hop (Humulus lupulus L.) fractions including α-bitter acids (humulones), β-bitter acids (lupulones) and xanthohumol, and a commercial CO2 hop extract of bitter acids against reference and multi-resistant strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and against selected yeast strains. METHODS: In vitro testing of antimicrobial activity was performed according to standard testing protocols (EUCAST)...
May 23, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789624/interplay-between-gut-microbiota-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-hiv-infection
#8
EDITORIAL
Jorge F Vázquez-Castellanos, Sergio Serrano-Villar, Nuria Jiménez-Hernández, María Dolores Soto Del Rio, Sara Gayo, David Rojo, Manuel Ferrer, Coral Barbas, Santiago Moreno, Vicente Estrada, Tomas Rattei, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya, María José Gosalbes
HIV infection causes a disruption of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, driving a shift in the composition of gut microbiota. A deeper understanding of the metabolic changes and how they affect the interplay with the host is needed. Here, we assessed functional modifications of HIV-associated microbiota by combining metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses. The transcriptionally active microbiota was well-adapted to the inflamed environment, overexpressing pathways related to resistance to oxidative stress...
May 23, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787834/structure-and-mechanism-of-bacterial-tripartite-efflux-pumps
#9
Arthur Neuberger, Dijun Du, Ben F Luisi
Efflux pumps are membrane proteins which contribute to multi-drug resistance. In Gram-negative bacteria, some of these pumps form complex tripartite assemblies in association with an outer membrane channel and a periplasmic fusion protein. These tripartite machineries span both membranes and the periplasmic space, and they extrude from the bacterium chemically diverse toxic substrates. In this chapter, we summarise current understanding of the structural architecture, functionality, and regulation of tripartite multi-drug efflux assemblies...
May 19, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787300/recent-progress-in-the-discovery-and-development-of-dna-gyrase-b-inhibitors
#10
Michaela Barančoková, Danijel Kikelj, Janez Ilaš
New antibacterials that modulate less explored targets are needed to fight the emerging bacterial resistance. DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV are attractive targets in this search. These are both type II topoisomerases that can cleave both DNA strands, and can thus alter DNA topology during replication or similar processes. Currently, there are no ATP-competitive inhibitors of these two enzymes on the market, as the only aminocoumarin representative, novobiocin, was withdrawn due to safety concerns. The search for novel ATP-competitive inhibitors is a focus of ongoing industrial and academical research...
May 22, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785663/enterobacteria-and-host-resistance-to-infection
#11
REVIEW
Eugene Kang, Alanna Crouse, Lucie Chevallier, Stéphanie M Pontier, Ashwag Alzahrani, Navoun Silué, François-Xavier Campbell-Valois, Xavier Montagutelli, Samantha Gruenheid, Danielle Malo
Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of Gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria. Although many species exist as part of the natural flora of animals including humans, some members are associated with both intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. In this review, we focus on members of this family that have important roles in human disease: Salmonella, Escherichia, Shigella, and Yersinia, providing a brief overview of the disease caused by these bacteria, highlighting the contribution of animal models to our understanding of their pathogenesis and of host genetic determinants involved in susceptibility or resistance to infection...
May 21, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785534/an-enzyme-free-homogenous-electrochemical-assay-for-sensitive-detection-of-the-plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-1
#12
Bo Li, Zhixin Chai, Xiaohui Yan, Chunchen Liu, Bo Situ, Ye Zhang, Weilun Pan, Shihua Luo, Jianhua Liu, Lei Zheng
Antibiotic resistance associated with the mcr-1 gene of Gram-negative bacteria, which confers resistance to drugs of last resort and has the potential to spread via plasmids, is one of the most pressing issues facing global health today. Point-of-care testing for the mcr-1 gene is needed to aid in the identification of colistin resistance in the field and to control its horizontal transmission. Here, we report the successful development of an enzyme-free homogenous electrochemical strategy for sensitive detection of the antibiotic resistance gene mcr-1 using the hybridization chain reaction and mcr-1-specific toehold probe...
May 22, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785529/isolation-and-characterization-of-bacillus-sp-gfp-2-a-novel-bacillus-strain-with-antimicrobial-activities-from-whitespotted-bamboo-shark-intestine
#13
Jia Wu, Guoqiang Xu, Yangyang Jin, Cong Sun, Li Zhou, Guodong Lin, Rong Xu, Ling Wei, Hui Fei, Dan Wang, Jianqing Chen, Zhengbing Lv, Kuancheng Liu
The abuse of antibiotics and following rapidly increasing of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is the serious threat to our society. Natural products from microorganism are regarded as the important substitution antimicrobial agents of antibiotics. We isolated a new strain, Bacillus sp. GFP-2, from the Chiloscyllium plagiosum (Whitespotted bamboo shark) intestine, which showed great inhibitory effects on the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Additionally, the growth of salmon was effectively promoted when fed with inactivated strain GFP-2 as the inhibition agent of pathogenic bacteria...
May 22, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785131/epidemiology-susceptibility-and-risk-factors-for-acquisition-of-mdr-xdr-gram-negative-bacteria-among-kidney-transplant-recipients-with-urinary-tract-infections
#14
Xiuhong Yuan, Taohua Liu, Di Wu, Qiquan Wan
Background: Multiple drug resistant/extensively drug resistant (MDR/XDR) Gram-negative urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a growing threat to kidney transplant recipients. This retrospective study aimed to assess the incidence and microbiological profile of MDR/XDR Gram-negative UTIs, to identify drug susceptibility of MDR/XDR bacteria, and to determine the potential risk factors for MDR/XDR UTIs in kidney recipients. Materials and methods: During the study period, 1569 patients underwent consecutive kidney transplantation in two transplantation centers...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784864/group-iia-secreted-phospholipase-a-2-in-human-serum-kills-commensal-but-not-clinical-enterococcus-faecium-isolates
#15
Fernanda L Paganelli, Helen L Leavis, Samantha He, Nina M van Sorge, Christine Payré, Gérard Lambeau, Rob J L Willems, Suzan H M Rooijakkers
Human innate immunity employs cellular and humoral mechanisms to facilitate rapid killing of invading bacteria. The direct killing of bacteria by human serum is mainly attributed to the activity of the complement system that forms pores in Gram-negative bacteria. Although Gram-positive bacteria are considered resistant to serum killing, we here uncover that normal human serum effectively kills Enterococcus faecium. Comparison of a well-characterized collection of commensal and clinical E. faecium isolates revealed that human serum specifically kills commensal E...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784837/the-inoculum-effect-in-the-era-of-multidrug-resistance-minor-differences-in-inoculum-have-dramatic-effect-on-minimal-inhibitory-concentration-determination
#16
Kenneth P Smith, James E Kirby
The observed MIC may depend on the number of bacteria initially inoculated into the assay. This phenomenon is termed the inoculum effect (IE) and is often most pronounced for β-lactams in strains expressing β-lactamase enzymes. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommended inoculum is 5 x 105 CFU mL-1 with an acceptable range of 2-8 x 105 CFU mL-1 IE testing is typically performed using an inoculum 100-fold greater than the CLSI recommended inoculum. Therefore, it remains unknown whether the IE influences MICs during testing performed according to CLSI guidelines...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784578/quantitative-study-about-the-role-of-environmental-conditions-in-the-survival-capability-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#17
Adrienn Hanczvikkel, Ákos Tóth
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) are of global concern and hospital textiles can contribute to their transmission. MDRB are able to survive on textiles for more than enough time to spread in the environment. Some studies summarized the effect of environmental factors on the duration of bacterial survival, but it remained an open question how these factors influence the quantity of surviving bacteria in a period of a few days, which is relevant from the perspective of HAIs...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783685/novel-imidazole-aldoximes-with-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-potency-against-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#18
Mirjana Skočibušić, Renata Odžak, Alma Ramić, Tomislav Smolić, Tomica Hrenar, Ines Primožič
In the search for a new class of potential antimicrobial agents, five novel N -substituted imidazole 2-aldoximes and their six quaternary salts were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was assessed against a panel of representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug resistant bacteria. All compounds demonstrated potent in vitro activity against the tested microorganisms, with MIC values ranging from 6.25 to 50.0 μg/mL. Among the tested compounds, two quaternary compounds ( N -but-3-enyl- and meta - ( 10 ) or para - N -chlorobenzyl ( 11 ) imidazolium 2-aldoximes) displayed the most potent and broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains...
May 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782818/antimicrobial-activity-profiles-of-amphiphilic-xanthone-derivatives-are-a-function-of-their-molecular-oligomerization
#19
Jun-Jie Koh, Shuimu Lin, Yang Bai, Wendy Wan Ling Sin, Thet Tun Aung, Jianguo Li, Verma Chandra, Konstantin Pervushin, Roger W Beuerman, Shouping Liu
Currently, membrane-targeting small antimicrobial peptidomimetics (SAP) are important in antibiotic development because bacteria appear to develop resistance to these surface-active compounds less readily. However, the molecular membrane-targeting action of SAPs has received little attention. In this study, we investigated the effect of oligomerization of amphiphilic xanthone, a model SAP, on its antimicrobial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. First, oligomer formation by an amphiphilic xanthone, compound 2 (also coded as AM052), was investigated via solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
May 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782539/comparison-of-two-commercial-carbapenemase-gene-confirmatory-assays-in-multiresistant-enterobacteriaceae-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-complex
#20
Stephan Rösner, Kevin Gehlweiler, Uta Küsters, Mathias Kolbert, Kirsten Hübner, Niels Pfennigwerth, Dietrich Mack
Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) producing carbapenemases are increasing at an alarming speed. Rapid confirmation of carbapenemase type will be an important diagnostic step in clinical microbiology laboratories not only to reduce the risk of transmissions but also for optimising antibiotic therapy in the future. We compared diagnostic reliability of two commercially available molecular assays (Check-Direct CPE vs. AID line probe assay) for detection and typing of carbapenemase genes in 80 well-characterized isolates of MDR-GNB...
2018: PloS One
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