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Abdomen sonography

Jeffrey Gnerre, Yankai Sun, Andrzej Jedynak, Anthony Gilet
Gallbladder varices are a rare form of collateralization that develop in patients with portal hypertension. We present here a case of gallbladder varices accurately diagnosed by contrast enhanced CT imaging of the abdomen and confirmed by Color Doppler Sonography. A 76-year-old patient with hepatocellular carcinoma developed portal vein thrombosis due to tumor extension during the course of treatment and was incidentally discovered to have gallbladder varices. While most commonly asymptomatic, gallbladder varices are associated with increased risk of massive bleeding, either spontaneously or during cholecystectomy...
May 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Mohammad Ranaee, Shahla Yazdani, Seyyed Reza Modarres, Mahdieh Rajabi-Moghaddam
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Incidence of ovarian cancer is more common in postmenopausal women. Premenopausal onset is rare and the present study described two cases of ovarian clear cell tumors in young women. CASE PRESENTATION: The patients presented with pelvic mass which was confirmed by sonography and laparotomy and final diagnosis was made according to histologic examination. Both patients showed a solid mass with cystic components in adnexal areas and explorative laparotomy demonstrated extension of tumors to abdomen in both patients...
2016: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
James Spain, Matthew Rheinboldt
Representing an ascending, sexually spread pyogenic infection of the female genital tract, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a commonly encountered cause for emergency visits and hospitalizations among young and adult female patients. Though gynecologic evaluation and sonography constitute the mainstay of diagnosis, multidetector CT imaging of the abdomen and pelvis is not uncommonly performed, often as the initial imaging modality, due to the frequently vague and indeterminate clinical presentation. As such, knowledge and attenuation to the often subtle early imaging features of PID afford the radiologist a critical chance to direct and expedite appropriate pathways of patient care, minimizing the risk for secondary complications, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and enteric adhesions...
September 19, 2016: Emergency Radiology
R Hinzpeter, T Boehm, D Boll, C Constantin, F Del Grande, V Fretz, S Leschka, T Ohletz, M Brönnimann, S Schmidt, T Treumann, P-A Poletti, Hatem Alkadhi
OBJECTIVES: To identify imaging algorithms and indications, CT protocols, and radiation doses in polytrauma patients in Swiss trauma centres. METHODS: An online survey with multiple choice questions and free-text responses was sent to authorized level-I trauma centres in Switzerland. RESULTS: All centres responded and indicated that they have internal standardized imaging algorithms for polytrauma patients. Nine of 12 centres (75 %) perform whole-body CT (WBCT) after focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) and conventional radiography; 3/12 (25 %) use WBCT for initial imaging...
September 5, 2016: European Radiology
Sophie Rym Hamada, Nathalie Delhaye, Sebastien Kerever, Anatole Harrois, Jacques Duranteau
BACKGROUND: The initial management of a trauma patient is a critical and demanding period. The use of extended focused assessment sonography for trauma (eFAST) has become more prevalent in trauma rooms, raising questions about the real "added value" of chest X-rays (CXRs) and pelvic X-rays (PXR), particularly in haemodynamically stable trauma patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a management protocol integrating eFAST and excluding X-rays in stable trauma patients...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Saurabh S Patil, Vaibhav R Shah, Vivek A Choudhary
Retroperitoneal lipomatosis is a rare but distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by non encapsulated lipoma development in the retroperitoneum. Presenting complaints in the early stages are vague, and patients with retroperitoneal lipomatosis are often misdiagnosed because considerable abnormality is not detected by abdomino-pelvic sonography. However, because of the progressive nature of this lesion, most patients eventually present with varying degrees of urinary outflow obstruction and end stage renal disease, or bladder malignancies in few cases...
April 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Nigel Pereira, Anne P Hutchinson, Jovana P Lekovich, Elie Hobeika, Rony T Elias
The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has increased steadily. There has been a corresponding increase in the number of ART-related procedures such as hysterosalpingography (HSG), saline infusion sonography (SIS), hysteroscopy, laparoscopy, oocyte retrieval, and embryo transfer (ET). While performing these procedures, the abdomen, upper vagina, and endocervix are breached, leading to the possibility of seeding pelvic structures with microorganisms. Antibiotic prophylaxis is therefore important to prevent or treat any procedure-related infections...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Vinayaka Undemane Shivashankara, Siddharudha Shivalli, B H Santhosh Pai, Koteshwara Devadasa Acharya, Ravichandra Gopalakrishnan, Vivek Srikanth, Vishwanath Reddy, Arafat Haris
INTRODUCTION: The sonographic findings are of help in evaluating the nephrological diseases. Glomerular filtration rate is another parameter for assessing the reserved renal function and an indicator of prognosis. In clinical practice GFR estimation (eGFR) is done by using a mathematical formula. In our study, we compared the sonographic grading of renal parenchymal changes with eGFR calculated using Modified Diet in Renal Diseases formula based on serum creatinine, age, gender and ethnicity...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
P Haage, C A Schwartz, C Scharwächter
Ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma is by far the most common solid tumor of the pancreas. It has a very poor prognosis, especially in the more advanced stages which are no longer locally confined. Due to mostly unspecific symptoms, imaging is key in the diagnostic process. Because of the widespread use of imaging techniques, incidental findings are to a greater extent discovered in the pancreas, which subsequently entail further work-up. Ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma can be mimicked by a large number of different lesions, such as anatomical variants, peripancreatic structures and tumors, rarer primary solid pancreatic tumors, cystic tumors, metastases or different variants of pancreatitis...
April 2016: Der Radiologe
Sharad M Malvadkar, Madhuri S Malvadkar, Shilpa V Domkundwar, Shariq Mohd
Pyometra is collection of pus within the uterine cavity and is usually associated with underlying gynaecological malignancy or other benign causes. Spontaneous rupture of pyometra is a rare complication. We report a case of a 65-year-old female who presented with acute abdomen and was diagnosed with a ruptured uterus secondary to pyometra and consequent peritonitis on dynamic transvaginal sonography (TVS) which was later confirmed on contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT). An emergency laparotomy was performed and about 800 cc of pus was drained from the peritoneal cavity...
2016: Case Reports in Radiology
T C Häußler, C Peppler, S Schmitz, C Bauer, J Hirzmann, M Kramer
In a female dog with unspecific clinical symptoms, sonography detected a hyperechoic mass in the middle abdomen and blood analysis a middle grade systemic inflammatory reaction. Laparotomy revealed a peritoneal larval cestodosis (PLC). The diagnosis of an infection with tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides spp. was confirmed by parasitological examination and molecularbiological analysis. Reduction of the intra-abdominal parasitic load as well as a high dose administration of fenbendazole over 3 months led to a successful treatment which could be documented sonographically and by decreased concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP)...
2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Kristin Berona, Tarina Kang, Emily Rose
BACKGROUND: With focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) examinations being performed more commonly on pediatric trauma patients, emergency providers will encounter a positive FAST examination in patients with benign abdominal examinations. This poses a diagnostic dilemma for the provider when deciding whether to obtain a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen/pelvis, observe the patient, or admit the patient. CASE REPORT: We report a series of pediatric patients involved in blunt abdominal trauma who had small pelvic free fluid on FAST but a benign abdominal examination...
May 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nadia Maria Shaukat, Nikolai Copeli, Poonam Desai
Pelvic trauma accounts for only 3% of all skeletal injuries but may have mortality as high as 45% in cases of severe trauma. Significant high-grade-mechanism trauma to the pelvis must always take the abdomen into consideration for evaluation. The focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) examination has been shown to be a valuable tool in assessing the unstable trauma patient with blunt abdominal injury, though its diagnostic utility is much less well-defined than in primary pelvic trauma. This systematic review explores the utility and limitations of the FAST examination in patients with blunt pelvic trauma and discusses the timing for the examination during the trauma survey...
March 2016: Emergency Medicine Practice
Clarissa Precht, Sara Baustian, Silke Tribius, Maximilian Schöllchen, Henning Hanken, Ralf Smeets, Max Heiland, Alexander Gröbe
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often distant metastases occur in localized oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). The investigators hypothesize that abdominal sonography and chest X-ray may not be necessary for initial staging of early oral squamous cell carcinoma in UICC stage I/II. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigators implemented a retrospective study. The study collective was composed of 124 patients with OSCC, who were treated in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery during the years 2011-2015 at the University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany...
February 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Hamidreza Talari, Nushin Moussavi, Masoumeh Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, Fatemeh Atoof, Arezoo Abedini
BACKGROUND: In previous studies, the diagnostic value of Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) has been evaluated but few studies have been performed on the relationship between the amount of free intra-abdominal fluid and organ injury in blunt abdominal trauma. To select patients with a higher probability of intra-abdominal injuries, several scoring systems have been proposed based on the results of FAST. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of FAST according to the Huang scoring system and to propose a cut-off point for predicting the presence of intra-abdominal injuries on the Computed Tomography (CT) scan...
September 2015: Archives of Trauma Research
Yu-Hsiang Juan, Yun-Chung Cheung, Koon-Kwan Ng, Shu-Hang Ng, Jen-Seng Huang, Liang-Che Chang, Yu-Ching Lin
The imaging finding of omental cake has been demonstrated in other modalities, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. However, to the best of our knowledge, the image presentation of omental cake on a routine kidney-ureter-bladder film has not been reported before in the literature. We presented a unique case of a 61-year-old woman, with known advanced cecal colon mucinous adenocarcinoma, presented to our institution with abdominal fullness, poor appetite, and decreased stool passage for 20 days...
November 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
J Jenne, J Schwaab
BACKGROUND: In modern radiotherapy the radiation dose can be applied with an accuracy in the range of 1-2 mm provided that the exact position of the target is known. If, however, the target (the tumor) is located in the lungs or the abdomen, respiration or peristalsis can cause substantial movement of the target. METHODS: Various methods for intrafractional motion detection and compensation are currently under consideration or are already applied in clinical practice...
November 2015: Der Radiologe
Dong Soo Suh, Si Eun Han, Ka Yeong Yun, Nam Kyung Lee, Ki Hyung Kim, Man Soo Yoon
BACKGROUND: Undescended ovaries are typically detected during infertility evaluations and are frequently associated with uterine malformations. Ruptured hemorrhagic corpus luteum cyst of an undescended ovary is an unusual cause of acute abdomen in an adolescent. CASE: A 15-year-old girl presented with right lower quadrant pain, nausea, and vomiting, and transabdominal sonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis showed a 10 cm × 5 cm sized cystic mass at the level of the pelvic brim, anterior to the psoas muscle suggestive of a retroperitoneal hemorrhagic cyst...
February 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Enrique Guerado, Maria Luisa Bertrand, Luis Valdes, Encarnacion Cruz, Juan Ramon Cano
The term 'severely injured patient' is often synonymous of polytrauma patient, multiply-injured patient or, in some settings, polyfractured patient. Together with brain trauma, copious bleeding is the most severe complication of polytrauma. Consequently hypotension develop. Then, the perfusion of organs may be compromised, with the risk of organ failure. Treatment of chest bleeding after trauma is essential and is mainly addressed via surgical manoeuvres. As in the case of lesions to the pelvis, abdomen or extremities, this approach demonstrates the application of damage control (DC)...
2015: Open Orthopaedics Journal
Eitan Dickman, Victoria Terentiev, Antonios Likourezos, Anna Derman, Lawrence Haines
OBJECTIVES: Dyspnea is a common emergency department (ED) condition, which may be caused by pleural effusion and other thoracic diseases. We present data on a new sonographic marker, the extension of the thoracic spine sign, for diagnosis of pleural effusion. METHODS: In this prospective study, we enrolled a convenience sample of undifferentiated patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen or chest, which was performed as part of their emergency department evaluations...
September 2015: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
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