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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621823/raw-material-procurement-for-termite-fishing-tools-by-wild-chimpanzees-in-the-issa-valley-western-tanzania
#1
Katarina Almeida-Warren, Volker Sommer, Alex K Piel, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido
OBJECTIVES: Chimpanzee termite fishing has been studied for decades, yet the selective processes preceding the manufacture of fishing tools remain largely unexplored. We investigate raw material selection and potential evidence of forward planning in the chimpanzees of Issa valley, western Tanzania. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using traditional archaeological methods, we surveyed the location of plants from where chimpanzees sourced raw material to manufacture termite fishing tools, relative to targeted mounds...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615497/excavation-and-aggregation-as-organizing-factors-in-de-novo-construction-by-mound-building-termites
#2
Ben Green, Paul Bardunias, J Scott Turner, Radhika Nagpal, Justin Werfel
Termites construct complex mounds that are orders of magnitude larger than any individual and fulfil a variety of functional roles. Yet the processes through which these mounds are built, and by which the insects organize their efforts, remain poorly understood. The traditional understanding focuses on stigmergy, a form of indirect communication in which actions that change the environment provide cues that influence future work. Termite construction has long been thought to be organized via a putative 'cement pheromone': a chemical added to deposited soil that stimulates further deposition in the same area, thus creating a positive feedback loop whereby coherent structures are built up...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610093/-i-aplectana-i-i-nordestina-i-n-sp-nematoda-cosmocercidae-parasitizing-i-leposternon-polystegum-i-squamata-amphisbaenidae-from-northeastern-brazil
#3
Darciane Maria DE Amorim, Lidiane Aparecida Firmino DA Silva, Drausio Honorio Morais, Reinaldo José DA Silva, Robson Waldemar Ávila
There are currently 760 reptile species known in Brazil, from which about 70 are amphisbaenians with 25 species recorded in the Brazilian northeast (Vanzolini 2002; Gomes & Maciel 2012; Costa & Bérnils, 2014; Roberto et al., 2014). Leposternon polystegum Duméril, is a widespread species distributed in the Amazon, Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, and Caatinga biomes (Porto et al., 2000; Ribeiro et al., 2011). The diet is composed mainly by ants, termites, and coleopteran larvae (Barros-Filho & Valverde, 1996; Gomes et al...
March 23, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609906/a-new-genus-of-the-mite-family-scutacaridae-acari-heterostigmata-associated-with-trinervitermes-trinervoides-isoptera-termitidae-from-south-africa
#4
Alexander A Khaustov, Elizabeth A Hugo-Coetzee, Sergey G Ermilov
A new monotypic genus of scutacarid mites, Gerdalbertia gen. nov. (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Scutacaridae), with type species G. elongata sp. nov. is described from nests of and phoretic on termites, Trinervitermes trinervoides (Sjostedt, 1911) (Isoptera: Termitidae), from South Africa. The taxonomic position of the new genus is discussed.
May 2, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609463/uric-acid-an-important-antioxidant-contributing-to-survival-in-termites
#5
Eisuke Tasaki, Hiroki Sakurai, Masaru Nitao, Kenji Matsuura, Yoshihito Iuchi
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated spontaneously in all organisms and cause oxidative damage to biomolecules when present in excess. Accumulated oxidative damage accelerates aging; enhanced antioxidant capacity may be a positive factor for longevity. Recently, numerous studies of aging and longevity have been performed using short-lived animals, however, longevity mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show that a termite Reticulitermes speratus that is thought to be long-lived eusocial insect than other solitary insects uses large quantities of uric acid as an antioxidant against ROS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608545/an-alternative-pathway-to-eusociality-exploring-the-molecular-and-functional-basis-of-fortress-defense
#6
Sarah P Lawson, Leah Sigle, Abigail Lind, Andrew W Legan, Jessica N Mezzanotte, Hans-Willi Honegger, Patrick Abbot
Some animals express a form of eusociality known as 'fortress defense', in which defense rather than brood care is the primary social act. Aphids are small plant-feeding insects, but like termites, some species express division of labor and castes of aggressive juvenile 'soldiers'. What is the functional basis of fortress defense eusociality in aphids? Previous work showed that the acquisition of venoms might be a key innovation in aphid social evolution. We show that the lethality of aphid soldiers derives in part from the induction of exaggerated immune responses in insects they attack...
June 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608290/titanium-and-iron-titanium-oxide-nanoparticles-in-antennae-of-the-migratory-ant-pachycondyla-marginata-an-alternative-magnetic-sensor-for-magnetoreception
#7
Eliane Wajnberg, André Linhares Rossi, Darci Motta S Esquivel
The most accepted hypothesis of magnetoreception for social insects is the ferromagnetic hypothesis which assumes the presence of magnetic material as a sensor coupled to sensitive structures that transmit the geomagnetic field information to the nervous system. As magnetite is the most common magnetic material observed in living beings, it has been suggested as basic constituent of the magnetoreception system. Antennae and head have been pointed as possible magnetosensor organs in social insects as ants, bees and termites...
June 12, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605564/foraging-distance-and-population-size-of-juvenile-colonies-of-the-formosan-subterranean-termite-isoptera-rhinotermitidae-in-laboratory-extended-arenas
#8
Nan-Yao Su, Weste Osbrink, Garima Kakkar, Aaron Mullins, Thomas Chouvenc
The relationship between colony size and foraging distance was examined in extended foraging arenas with juvenile colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Our results showed that as long as royal pairs are present, larger colonies foraged at longer distances, and the oldest workers distributed farther away from the central nest. The results agree with the scaling model that predicts a large foraging range for animals of larger body size. An analysis of published data from population survey studies and field trials of bait toxicants showed that field colonies of the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), follow the scaling model, while C...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587241/termite-species-distribution-and-flight-periods-on-oahu-hawaii
#9
Reina L Tong, J Kenneth Grace, Makena Mason, Paul D Krushelnycky, Helen Spafford, Maria Aihara-Sasaki
Termites are economically-important structural pests, costing residents of Hawaii over $100 million annually. On Oahu, the last published termite swarming survey occurred from 1969 to 1971, and the last termite hand-collection survey occurred from 1998 to 2000. To contribute data on termite occurrences on Oahu, a light-trap survey took place from February 2011 to September 2012, and a hand-collection survey occurred from September to November 2012. Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, swarming was compared over the duration of the study, finding peak swarming in May 2011...
June 5, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573450/cloning-production-and-characterization-of-a-glycoside-hydrolase-family-7-enzyme-from-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-termite-coptotermes-curvignathus
#10
James Sy-Keen Woon, Patricia Jie Hung King, Mukram Mohamed Mackeen, Nor Muhammad Mahadi, Wan Mohd Khairulikhsan Wan Seman, William J Broughton, Abdul Munir Abdul Murad, Farah Diba Abu Bakar
Coptotermes curvignathus is a termite that, owing to its ability to digest living trees, serves as a gold mine for robust industrial enzymes. This unique characteristic reflects the presence of very efficient hydrolytic enzyme systems including cellulases. Transcriptomic analyses of the gut of C. curvignathus revealed that carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) were encoded by 3254 transcripts and that included 69 transcripts encoding glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GHF7) enzymes. Since GHF7 enzymes are useful to the biomass conversion industry, a gene encoding for a GHF7 enzyme (Gh1254) was synthesized, sub-cloned and expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567621/cost-effective-screening-and-isolation-of-xylano-cellulolytic-positive-microbes-from-termite-gut-and-termitarium
#11
Libin Mathew Varghese, Sharad Agrawal, Divya Sharma, Rishi Pal Mandhan, Ritu Mahajan
In this study, screening and isolation of xylano-cellulolytic enzymes producing positive microbes from termitarium and termite gut microbiome were done using cost-effective agricultural wastes. The enrichment of xylano-cellulolytic microbes was done in three steps using wheat bran and waste paper. The qualitative screening of xylanase and cellulase producing micro-organisms was done on nutrient agar plates containing wheat bran and waste paper, respectively. Xylanase and cellulase positive colonies were analysed by observing the zone of substrate (wheat bran and waste paper) hydrolysis around the colonies...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558679/demonstration-of-biological-activities-of-extracts-from-isodon-rugosus-wall-ex-benth-separation-and-identification-of-bioactive-phytoconstituents-by-gc-ms-analysis-in-the-ethyl-acetate-extract
#12
Anwar Zeb, Farhat Ullah, Muhammad Ayaz, Sajjad Ahmad, Abdul Sadiq
BACKGROUND: Since long, natural sources have been explored for possible managements of various diseases. In this context, the study is designed to evaluate Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth for biological potentials including antibacterial, anthelmintic, insecticidal, anti-termites and anti-Pharaoh activities followed by GC-MS analysis of active fraction to identify various bioactive compounds. METHODS: I. rugosus was investigated against eight bacterial strains using well diffusion method and microdilution method with ceftriaxone as positive control...
May 30, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556617/discovery-of-ectosymbiotic-endomicrobium-lineages-associated-with-protists-in-the-gut-of-stolotermitid-termites
#13
Kazuki Izawa, Hirokazu Kuwahara, Kaito Sugaya, Nathan Lo, Moriya Ohkuma, Yuichi Hongoh
The genus Endomicrobium is a dominant bacterial group in the gut of lower termites, and most phylotypes are intracellular symbionts of gut protists. Here we report the discovery of Endomicrobium ectosymbionts of termite gut protists. We found that bristle-like Endomicrobium cells attached to the surface of spirotrichosomid protist cells inhabiting the termite Stolotermes victoriensis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that a putative Endomicrobium cell likely attached to the protist surface via a protrusion from the tip of the bacterium...
May 29, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528947/syntrophic-association-of-termite-gut-bacterial-symbionts-with-bifunctional-characteristics-of-cellulose-degrading-and-polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing-bacteria
#14
Balasubramanian Cibichakravarthy, Subramani Abinaya, Solai Ramatchandirane Prabagaran
The guild between higher termites and their partnership with the diverse community of bacteria and archaea in their gut is a marvel evolutionary achievement. Sustained attempts were made worldwide with a quest for identifying viable important biological macromolecule polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulating bacteria. Termite gut serve as a novel source for bacteria with dual properties like PHA production as well as cellulose degradation. Among 40 isolates cultivated, 32.5% turned positive for PCR based screening of PhaC gene...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510732/efficacy-of-bistrifluron-termite-bait-on-coptotermes-lacteus-isoptera-rhinotermitidae-in-southern-australia
#15
Garry A Webb
Bistrifluron, a benzoylphenyl urea compound, was evaluated for efficacy against Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt), a mound-building species in southern Australia. Bistrifluron bait (tradename Xterm) was delivered as containerized pellets inserted into plastic in-ground feeding stations implanted in the sides of mounds. Termites actively tunneled in the gaps between pellets and removed bait from the canisters. Two separate trials were conducted, one commencing on 22 September 2011 and the second commencing on 30 November 2011...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508537/superorganismality-and-caste-differentiation-as-points-of-no-return-how-the-major-evolutionary-transitions-were-lost-in-translation
#16
Jacobus J Boomsma, Richard Gawne
More than a century ago, William Morton Wheeler proposed that social insect colonies can be regarded as superorganisms when they have morphologically differentiated reproductive and nursing castes that are analogous to the metazoan germ-line and soma. Following the rise of sociobiology in the 1970s, Wheeler's insights were largely neglected, and we were left with multiple new superorganism concepts that are mutually inconsistent and uninformative on how superorganismality originated. These difficulties can be traced to the broadened sociobiological concept of eusociality, which denies that physical queen-worker caste differentiation is a universal hallmark of superorganismal colonies...
May 15, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488735/termite-an-r-script-for-fast-reduction-of-laser-ablation-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-data-and-its-application-to-trace-element-measurements
#17
Simon A Mischel, Regina Mertz-Kraus, Klaus Peter Jochum, Denis Scholz
RATIONALE: High spatial resolution Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) determination of trace element concentrations is of great interest for geological and environmental studies. Data reduction is a very important aspect of LA-ICP-MS, and several commercial programs for handling LA-ICPMS trace element data are available. Each of these software packages has its specific advantages and disadvantages. METHODS: Here we present TERMITE, an R script for the reduction of LA-ICPMS data, which can reduce both spot and line scan measurements...
July 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487083/hcv-clearance-after-direct-acting-antivirals-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-by-stages-of-liver-impairment-the-ital-c-network-study
#18
Antonio Massimo Ippolito, Michele Milella, Vincenzo Messina, Fabio Conti, Raffaele Cozzolongo, Filomena Morisco, Giuseppina Brancaccio, Michele Barone, Teresa Santantonio, Chiara Masetti, Paolo Tundo, Antonina Smedile, Vito Carretta, Pietro Gatti, Antonio Patrizio Termite, Maria Rosa Valvano, Giuseppe Bruno, Claudia Fabrizio, Pietro Andreone, Marianna Zappimbulso, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Nicola Napoli, Luca Fontanella, Gianfranco Lauletta, Giuseppe Cuccorese, Antonio Metrangolo, Ruggiero Francavilla, Emanuela Ciracì, Salvatore Rizzo, Angelo Andriulli
BACKGROUND: Sustained virological response (SVR12) rates at 12 weeks after treatment for HCV-infected patients with decompensated cirrhosis are used when referring to those with moderate functional impairment, while few data are available for those with more severe impairment. The use of the cirrhosis staging system proposed by D'Amico might provide new insights on timing for antiviral therapy. METHODS: We investigated efficacy (SVR12), safety, and post-treatment variations in clinical and laboratory parameters in 2612 patients with advanced fibrosis (n=575) or cirrhosis (n=2037)...
April 8, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485048/cyclohexylamine-inexplicably-induces-antennae-loss-in-formosan-subterranean-termites-coptotermes-formosanus-shiraki-cyclohexylamine-hydrogen-phosphate-salts-are-novel-termiticides
#19
Brantley Grimball, Lucas Veillon, Tara Calhoun, Frank R Fronczek, Emily Arceneaux, Roger A Laine
BACKGROUND: In experiments with Formosan Subterranean Termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shirakii), myo-inositol-2-monophosphate as the di-cyclohexylammonium salt was tested among other sugar derivatives, and was found to be toxic to C. formosanus when added to a moistened filter paper food source in plastic petri dishes. RESULTS: Curiously, over a 9 day period, the moniliform (beaded) antennae of C. formosanus deteriorated in a stepwise fashion with the most distal pseudosegment (bead) turning brown and falling off, followed by the penultimate pseudosegment, sequentially until 7-9 days when only a stub of the antennae remained...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466145/the-role-of-resource-density-on-energy-allocation-in-the-neotropical-termite-nasutitermes-aff-coxipoensis-termitidae-nasutitermitinae
#20
P F Cristaldo, C S Almeida, N G Cruz, E J M Ribeiro, M L C Rocha, A A Santos, A S Santana, A P A Araújo
Organisms acquire energy from environment and must allocate it among different life traits (growth, maintenance and reproduction). Social insects must manage the energy allocation to various levels such as colony growth and caste functions. Here, we addressed the question of whether resource density affects the energy allocation to the number of individuals and caste functions as well as nest's growth rate in the Neotropical termite Nasutitermes aff. coxipoensis (Homgren) (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae). In a manipulative field experiment, colonies of N...
May 2, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
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