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Pimprapa Chaijak, Chontisa Sukkasem, Monthon Lertworapreecha, Piyarat Boonsawang, Sutthida Wijasika, Chikashi Sato
The fungi associated with termite secret enzymes such as laccase (multi-copper oxidase) that can degrade extracellular wood matrix.Laccase usesmolecular oxygen as anelectron acceptor to catalyze the degradation of organic compounds. Owing to its ability to transfer electrons from the cathodic electrode to molecular oxygen, laccase has the potential to be a biocatalyst on the surface of the cathodic electrodeof a microbial fuel cell (MFC). In this study, a two-chamber MFC using laccase producing fungi Galactomyces reessii was investigated...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Lisa Margonelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Scientific American
Michael E Vickers, Lisa A Taylor
In many prey taxa with aposematic coloration, prey defenses also involve signals in other modalities (odors, sounds, etc.), yet the selective forces that have driven multimodality in warning displays are not well understood. One potential hypothesis that has recently received support in the avian literature (but has yet to be examined in invertebrates) is that different signal components may interact synergistically, such that one component of a signal (odor) may trigger a predator's aversion to another component of a signal (color)...
July 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Thomas Chouvenc
This study evaluated the impact of a non-repellent liquid termiticide (fipronil) and a chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI) termite bait (noviflumuron) on whole colonies of Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in laboratory conditions, over a 12-m foraging distance. The protocol simulated the implementation of remedial treatment of an infested structure, where the colony has multiple access routes, and where only a portion of the population was directly exposed to the treatment. Within 2 wk after the implementation of fipronil, all termites within 1...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jiachuan Yang, Qian Yang, Jiaqi Deng, Zhexuan Tao, Xiude Hua, Minghua Wang
A soil chemical barrier is the most important and common way to control termites; fast and on-site detection methods are significant tools to verify pesticide content meeting the standard requirements. In this study, conventional and enhanced immunochromatographic assays (ICAs) containing two test lines (TLs) were developed to semi-quantitatively detect imidacloprid in soil chemical barrier, and detection results were quantified by a smart phone. According to the results, the disappearance concentrations of first TL (TL-1) and second TL (TL-2) in an enhanced ICA and conventional ICA were 5 and 20 ng/mL and 20 and 80 ng/mL with the naked eye...
July 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Eisuke Tasaki, Kenji Matsuura, Yoshihito Iuchi
Termite royals (queen and king) exhibit extraordinary longevity without sacrificing reproductive performance, unlike most animals, in whom lifespan is generally negatively associated with reproduction. Therefore, the regulatory mechanisms underlying longevity have attracted much attention. Although ageing process is influenced by environmental factors in many insects during their life cycle, it remains unclear whether any factors have effect on the extended survival and high reproductive capacity of termite royals...
July 10, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Frédéric Legendre, Philippe Grandcolas
Despite multiple studies and advances, sociality still puzzles evolutionary biologists in numerous ways, which might be partly addressed with the advent of sociogenomics. In insects, the majority of sociogenomic studies deal with Hymenoptera, one of the two groups that evolved eusociality with termites. But, to fully grasp the evolution of sociality, studies must obviously not restrict to eusocial lineages. Multiple kinds of social system transitions have been recorded and they all bring complementary insights...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Lucas Carnohan, Nan-Yao Su
Workers of three termite species, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae), Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae), and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae), were force-fed with cellulose media pads treated with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) alone and in combination with noviflumuron for 3 d to examine their mortality time trends up to 14 d (including 3-d exposure time). Termites exhibited symptoms of hyperecdysonism before the onset of death. The times required for 20E to fully express its effects were 10-13 d for C...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Dominic Evangelista, France Thouzé, Manpreet Kaur Kohli, Philippe Lopez, Frédéric Legendre
Assessing support for molecular phylogenies is difficult because the data is heterogeneous in quality and overwhelming in quantity. Traditionally, node support values (bootstrap frequency, Bayesian posterior probability) are used to assess confidence in tree topologies. Other analyses to assess the quality of phylogenetic data (e.g. Lento plots, saturation plots, trait consistency) and the resulting phylogenetic trees (e.g. internode certainty, parameter permutation tests, topological tests) exist but are rarely applied...
June 30, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ravindran Keppanan, Sivaramakrishnan Sivaperumal, Luis Carlos Ramos Aguila, Mubasher Hussain, Bamisope Steve Bamisile, Chandra Kanta Dash, Liande Wang
The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is widely used as biocontrol agent against many insect pests. In the present study, the potential isolate of M. anisopliae TK29 was isolated from the agricultural soils in Thekkady, India. The taxonomic identity of the isolate was confirmed based on its morphology and 18S rDNA gene sequence homology. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the isolated strains were related to the same species. A potential isolate (TK29) was optimized for mass cultivation and conidial spore production was enhanced using three different raw substrates (Rice, Maize, black gram) by solid-state fermentation...
June 26, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jeremiah R Foley, Thomas Chouvenc, Robin M Giblin-Davis, Nan-Yao Su, Natsumi Kanzaki
Termites and their nests are potential resources for a wide assemblage of taxa including nematodes. During dispersal flight events from termite colonies, co-occurring nematodes in the nest may have phoretic opportunities to use termite alates as transportation hosts. The two subterranean termite species Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) and Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki are both invasive and established in south Florida. Alates of both species (n = 245) were collected during dispersal flight events in 2015-2016 from six locations, of which 30 (12...
June 26, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Benjamin Gillenwaters, Rudolf H Scheffrahn, John Warner
Imago dispersal by the West Indian drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) potentially initiates or expands structural infestations by the establishment of incipient colonies. The prevention of drywood termite colonization in structures is difficult, but a substantial reduction may be obtainable. In this experiment, seasonal dispersal of C. brevis imagos commenced from infested wood in a laboratory building. A bioassay was developed to determine the efficacy of 100, 50, and 10% label rate applications of a borate (Tim-Bor) and silica (CimeXa) dust or solution against C...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Clark Nelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Lab Animal
Hongpeng Xiong, Wenquan Qin, Xiujun Wen, Zhaohui Sun, Cai Wang
Subterranean termites often transport soil into bait stations. In this study, we hypothesize that adding soil or clay material in the bait may affect preference and performance of termites. Choice and no-choice tests were conducted in the laboratory to investigate the aggregation and feeding preference, survivorship, wood consumption, and body water percentage of termites in response to food containers (here we simulated the bait station by placing a wood block into a bigger plastic box with termite-entering holes on the wall) with the void space filled with soil (sandy clay loam), clay material (sodium bentonite), or remained unfilled...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Sónia Duarte, Tânia Nobre, Paulo A V Borges, Lina Nunes
Changes in flagellate protist communities of subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei across different locations were evaluated following four predictions: (i) Rural endemic (Portugal mainland) termite populations will exhibit high diversity of symbionts; (ii) invasive urban populations (Horta city, Faial island, Azores), on the contrary, will exhibit lower diversity of symbionts, showing high similarity of symbiont assemblages through environmental filtering; (iii) recent historical colonization of isolated regions-as the case of islands-will imply a loss of symbiont diversity; and (iv) island isolation will trigger a change in colony breeding structure toward a less aggressive behavior...
June 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Yudai Masuoka, Kouhei Toga, Christine A Nalepa, Kiyoto Maekawa
Sterile castes are a defining criterion of eusociality; investigating their evolutionary origins can critically advance theory. In termites, the soldier caste is regarded as the first acquired permanently sterile caste. Previous studies showed that juvenile hormone (JH) is the primary factor inducing soldier differentiation, and treatment of workers with artificial JH can generate presoldier differentiation. It follows that a shift from a typical hemimetabolous JH response might be required for soldier formation during the course of termite evolution within the cockroach clade...
June 22, 2018: Genetics
Iamara Silva Policarpo, Alexandre Vasconcellos, Thiago Pereira Chaves, Joanda Paolla Raimundo, Ana Cláudia D Medeiros, Henrique D M Coutinho, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves
This study aims to investigate the microbiological potential of the termite species Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Silvestri, 1901) and its support plants. We collected five C. cyphergaster nests from three different support plant species. Microbiological assays were performed on these extracts using the serial microdilution method in triplicate to measure the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each microorganism for the analysed extract. The ethanol extracts of the termite C. cyphergaster showed no significant activity against strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, with an MIC >1000 μg mL-1...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Anna Jirošová, Andrej Jančařík, Riya C Menezes, Olga Bazalová, Klára Dolejšová, Heiko Vogel, Pavel Jedlička, Aleš Buček, Jana Brabcová, Pavel Majer, Robert Hanus, Aleš Svatoš
Production of nitro compounds has only seldom been recorded in arthropods. The aliphatic nitroalkene ( E )-nitropentadec-1-ene ( NPD ), identified in soldiers of the termite genus Prorhinotermes , was the first case documented in insects in early seventies. Yet, the biosynthetic origin of NPD has long remained unknown. We previously proposed that N PD arises through the condensation of amino acids glycine and/or l-serine with tetradecanoic acid along a biosynthetic pathway analogous to the formation of sphingolipids...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Chunyan Liu, Gen Zou, Xing Yan, Xuguo Zhou
Termite gut microbiome is a rich reservoir for glycoside hydrolases, a suite of enzymes critical for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. To search for hemicellulases, we screened 12,000 clones from a fosmid gut library of a higher termite, Globitermes brachycerastes. As a common Southeastern Asian genus, Globitermes distributes predominantly in tropical rain forests and relies on the lignocellulases from themselves and bacterial symbionts to digest wood. In total, 22 positive clones with β-xylosidase activity were isolated, in which 11 representing different restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns were pooled and subjected to 454 pyrosequencing...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Satoko Noda, Chihiro Aihara, Masahiro Yuki, Moriya Ohkuma
Lactic acid bacteria are widely distributed in the termite gut. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus sp. strain NtB2, which was isolated from the gut of a wood-feeding higher termite.
June 14, 2018: Genome Announcements
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