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Pedro Guilherme Lemes, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão, Simon A Lawson
The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) was the first non-governmental organization composed of multi-stakeholders to ensure the social, environmental, and economic sustainability of forest resources. FSC prohibits certain chemicals and active ingredients in certified forest plantations. A company seeking certification must discontinue use of products so listed and many face problems to comply with these constraints. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of certification on pest management from the perspective of Brazilian private forestry sector...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wenjing Wu, Zhiqiang Li, Shijun Zhang, Yunling Ke, Yahui Hou
BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a pervasive chemical stimulus that plays a critical role in insect life, eliciting behavioral and physiological responses across different species. High CO2 concentration is a major feature of termite nests, which may be used as a cue for locating their nests. Termites also survive under an elevated CO2 concentration. However, the mechanism by which elevated CO2 concentration influences gene expression in termites is poorly understood. METHODS: To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis involved in the adaptation to CO2 concentration, a transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic analyses across different CO2 concentration (0...
2016: PeerJ
Farkhanda Manzoor, Mahnoor Pervez
Baiting systems have been introduced using slow-acting bait toxicants to provide environment-friendly and target-specific termite management. In the present study, the Exterra termite bait system (USA) with chlorfluazuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, as the active ingredient was tested against termite colonies. Ten residential areas of Lahore, infested with subterranean termites were selected for the study. The study period was from 2013 to 2015. In-ground stations were installed at 10 sites and above-ground stations were only installed at four test sites...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
David Sillam-Dussès, Robert Hanus, Michael Poulsen, Virginie Roy, Maryline Favier, Mireille Vasseur-Cognet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Open Biology
Stephanie Musgrave, David Morgan, Elizabeth Lonsdorf, Roger Mundry, Crickette Sanz
Teaching is a form of high-fidelity social learning that promotes human cumulative culture. Although recently documented in several nonhuman animals, teaching is rare among primates. In this study, we show that wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the Goualougo Triangle teach tool skills by providing learners with termite fishing probes. Tool donors experienced significant reductions in tool use and feeding, while tool recipients significantly increased their tool use and feeding after tool transfers...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jordyn M Wolfand, Gregory H LeFevre, Richard G Luthy
Fipronil is a recalcitrant phenylpyrazole-based pesticide used for flea/tick treatment and termite control that is distributed in urban aquatic environments via stormwater and contributes to stream toxicity. We discovered that fipronil is rapidly metabolized (t1/2 = 4.2 d) by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor to fipronil sulfone and multiple previously unknown fipronil transformation products, lowering fipronil concentration by 96.5%. Using an LC-QTOF-MS untargeted metabolomics approach, we identified four novel fipronil fungal transformation products: hydroxylated fipronil sulfone, glycosylated fipronil sulfone, and two compounds with unresolved structures...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Jürgen Heinze
Perennial social insects are famous for the extraordinary longevity of their queens. While the lifespan of termite kings matches those of queens, males of social Hymenoptera are usually considered to die after one or a few copulations. While this is true in species with highly synchronized nuptial flights, in others males mate over much longer periods. Male longevity is not correlated with the life span of queens but appears to be adapted to mating opportunities. This is demonstrated by the extreme life span of Cardiocondyla ant males, which monopolize mating with virgin queens over many months...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Brittany F Peterson, Michael E Scharf
BACKGROUND: Symbioses throughout the animal kingdom are known to extend physiological and ecological capabilities to hosts. Insect-microbe associations are extremely common and are often related to novel niche exploitation, fitness advantages, and even speciation events. These phenomena include expansions in host diet, detoxification of insecticides and toxins, and increased defense against pathogens. However, dissecting the contributions of individual groups of symbionts at the molecular level is often underexplored due to methodological and analytical limitations...
October 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
Kai Zhao, Jiwei Duan, Xueling Ma, Yue Zhang, Xiaohua Wang
Termites are destructive to agriculture, forestry and buildings, but they can also promote agro-ecosystem balance through the degradation of lignocellulose. Termite-triggered cellulose digestion may be clarified through microbial metabolism of cellulose products. In the present study, we characterized the activities of cellulase and its three components synthesized by the cellulase-producing fungal strain HDZK-BYTF620 isolated from the gut of Odontotermes formosanus. The protein components of cellulase were synthesized by strain HDZK-BYTF620, which were isolated and characterized using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the expression of cellulose was studied at the proteome level...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Xiaohong Su, He Liu, Xiaojuan Yang, Jiaoling Chen, Honggui Zhang, Lianxi Xing, Xiaojing Zhang
The separation of primary reproductive and secondary reproductive roles based on the differentiation of alate adults and neotenic reproductives is the most prominent characteristic of termites. To clarify the mechanism underlying this differentiation, we sequenced the transcriptomes of alate adults (ARs), brachypterous neotenics (BNs) and adultoid reproductives (ANs) from the last instar nymphs of Reticulitermes labralis. A total of 404,152,188 clean sequencing reads was obtained and 61,953 unigenes were assembled...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
C S Almeida, P F Cristaldo, D F Florencio, E J M Ribeiro, N G Cruz, E A Silva, D A Costa, A P A Araújo
Habitat fragmentation is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tropical ecosystem functioning. In this region, termites perform an important ecological role as decomposers and ecosystem engineers. In the present study, we tested whether termite community is negatively affected by edge effects on three fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Termite abundance and vegetation structure were sampled in 10 transects (15 × 2 m), while termite richness, activity, and soil litter biomass were measured in 16 quadrants (5 × 2 m) at forest edge and interior of each fragment...
September 26, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
R A Arango, C M Carlson, C R Currie, B R McDonald, A J Book, F Green, N K Lebow, K F Raffa
Subterranean termites need to minimize potentially pathogenic and competitive fungi in their environment in order to maintain colony health. We examined the ability of Actinobacteria isolated from termite guts in suppressing microorganisms commonly encountered in a subterranean environment. Guts from two subterranean termite species, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Reticulitermes tibialis Banks, were extracted and plated on selective chitin media. A total of 38 Actinobacteria isolates were selected for in vitro growth inhibition assays...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Rudolf H Scheffrahn
The termite genus Parvitermes is now recognized on the Central American mainland to include Parvitermes mexicanus, new combination (previously in Nasutitermes) and two new species, Parvitermes mesoamericanus sp. n. and Parvitermes yucatanus sp. n., herein described from soldiers and workers. These three species, nine West Indian Parvitermes, and Antillitermes subtilis all share characteristic enteric valve spines that orientate against intestinal flow. All species are subterranean nesters and cellulose feeders...
2016: ZooKeys
Klaus-Gerhard Heller, Horst Bohn, Fabian Haas, Fer Willemse, Yde de Jong
Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
Colin Campbell, Laura Russo, Alessandra Marins, Og DeSouza, Karsten Schönrogge, David Mortensen, John Tooker, Réka Albert, Katriona Shea
The analysis of ecological networks is generally bottom-up, where networks are established by observing interactions between individuals. Emergent network properties have been indicated to reflect the dominant mode of interactions in communities that might be mutualistic (e.g., pollination) or antagonistic (e.g., host-parasitoid communities). Many ecological communities, however, comprise species interactions that are difficult to observe directly. Here, we propose that a comparison of the emergent properties from detail-rich reference communities with known modes of interaction can inform our understanding of detail-sparse focal communities...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Anna Jirošová, David Sillam-Dussès, Pavlína Kyjaková, Blanka Kalinová, Klára Dolejšová, Andrej Jančařík, Pavel Majer, Paulo Fellipe Cristaldo, Robert Hanus
Termite nests often are referred to as the most elaborate constructions of animals. However, some termite species do not build a nest at all and instead found colonies inside the nests of other termites. Since these so-called inquilines do not need to be in direct contact with the host population, the two colonies usually live in separate parts of the nest. Adaptations of both the inquiline and its host are likely to occur to maintain the spatial exclusion and reduce the costs of potential conflicts. Among them, mutual avoidance, based on chemical cues, is expected...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
LiJuan Su, LeLe Yang, Shi Huang, XiaoQuan Su, Yan Li, FengQin Wang, EnTao Wang, Ning Kang, Jian Xu, AnDong Song
Aiming at learning the association between the gut microbiota and termites with different diet habits and phylogenetic positions, the gut bacteria of three populations for each of the two higher termites (wood-feeding Mironasutitermes shangchengensis and fungus-feeding Odontotermes formosanus) and two wood-feeding lower termites (Tsaitermes ampliceps and Reticulitermes flaviceps) were analyzed by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S V1-V3 amplicons. As results, 132 bacterial genera and some unidentified operational taxonomic units within 29 phyla in the gut bacteria were detected, with Spirochaetes (11-55%), Firmicutes (7-18%), Bacteroidetes (7-31%), and Proteobacteria (8-14%) as the main phyla, and Treponema, TG5, Dysgonomonas, Tannerella, za29, Lactococcus, Pseudomonas, and SJA-88 as the common genera in all the four termites...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Kazuki Izawa, Hirokazu Kuwahara, Kumiko Kihara, Masahiro Yuki, Nathan Lo, Takehiko Itoh, Moriya Ohkuma, Yuichi Hongoh
"Candidatus Endomicrobium trichonymphae" (Bacteria; Elusimicrobia) is an obligate intracellular symbiont of the cellulolytic protist genus Trichonympha in the termite gut. A previous genome analysis of "Ca Endomicrobium trichonymphae" phylotype Rs-D17 (genomovar Ri2008), obtained from a Trichonympha agilis cell in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes speratus, revealed that its genome is small (1.1 Mb) and contains many pseudogenes; it is in the course of reductive genome evolution. Here we report the complete genome sequence of another Rs-D17 genomovar, Ti2015, obtained from a different T...
October 13, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Aya Yanagawa, Tomoya Imai, Toshiharu Akino, Yoshihiro Toh, Tsuyoshi Yoshimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Joseph F Velenovsky, Jessica Kalisch, Mark S Bulmer
We identified the antifungal gene termicin in three species of Cryptocercus woodroaches. Cryptocercus represents the closest living cockroach lineage of termites, which suggests that the antifungal role of termicin evolved prior to the divergence of termites from other cockroaches. An analysis of Cryptocercus termicin and two β-1,3-glucanase genes (GNBP1 and GNBP2), which appear to work synergistically with termicin in termites, revealed evidence of selection in these proteins. We identified the signature of past selective sweeps within GNBP2 from Cryptocercus punctulatus and Cryptocercus wrighti...
October 2016: Genetica
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