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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428832/a-meta-analysis-testing-eusocial-co-option-theories-in-termite-gut-physiology-and-symbiosis
#1
Michael E Scharf, Yunpeng Cai, Yijun Sun, Ruchira Sen, Rhitoban Raychoudhury, Drion G Boucias
The termite gut accomplishes key physiologic functions that underlie termite symbiosis and sociality. However, potential candidate functions of the host-symbiont holobiome have not yet been explored across seemingly divergent processes such as digestion, immunity, caste differentiation, and xenobiotic tolerance. This study took a meta-analysis approach for concurrently studying host and symbiont gut metatranscriptome responses of the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, which has ancestral characteristics and hosts a diverse mix of eukaryotic and bacterial symbionts...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424249/lignocellulose-pretreatment-in-a-fungus-cultivating-termite
#2
Hongjie Li, Daniel J Yelle, Chang Li, Mengyi Yang, Jing Ke, Ruijuan Zhang, Yu Liu, Na Zhu, Shiyou Liang, Xiaochang Mo, John Ralph, Cameron R Currie, Jianchu Mo
Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether- and carbon-carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating termite system, we reveal unprecedentedly rapid lignin depolymerization and degradation by combining laboratory feeding experiments, lignocellulosic compositional measurements, electron microscopy, 2D-NMR, and thermochemolysis...
April 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416113/early-evolution-of-specialized-termitophily-in-cretaceous-rove-beetles
#3
Chenyang Cai, Diying Huang, Alfred F Newton, K Taro Eldredge, Michael S Engel
Termitophiles, symbionts that live in termite nests, include a wide range of morphologically and behaviorally specialized organisms. Complex adaptive mechanisms permit these animals to integrate into societies and to exploit their controlled physical conditions and plentiful resources, as well as to garner protection inside termite nests. An understanding of the early evolution of termitophily is challenging owing to a scarcity of fossil termitophiles, with all known reliable records occurring from the Miocene (approximately 19 million years ago [mya]) [1-6], and an equivocal termitophile belonging to the largely free-living Mesoporini from the mid-Cretaceous [7]...
March 31, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410430/caste-sex-and-age-dependent-expression-of-immune-related-genes-in-a-japanese-subterranean-termite-reticulitermes-speratus
#4
Yuki Mitaka, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura
Insects protect themselves from microbial infections through innate immune responses, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the activation of proteolytic cascades, and the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. Termites, eusocial insects inhabiting microbe-rich wood, live in closely-related family groups that are susceptible to shared pathogen infections. To resist pathogenic infection, termite families have evolved diverse immune adaptations at both individual and societal levels, and a strategy of trade-offs between reproduction and immunity has been suggested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403375/helminth-fauna-of-leptodactylus-syphax-anura-leptodactylidae-from-caatinga-biome-northeastern-brazil
#5
Aline Gouveia de Souza Lins, Aline Aguiar, Drausio Honorio Morais, Lidiane Aparecida Firmino da Silva, Robson Waldemar Ávila, Reinaldo José da Silva
Leptodactylus syphax is distributed in central, southeastern and northeastern Brazil, eastern Bolivia and southern Paraguay, occupying open areas and rock outcrops, in rock cavities and termite burrows. We collected 21 frogs from the Caatinga region of the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil, and 7,021 helminths were recovered from 18 of these hosts (overall prevalence = 85.7%). Six helminth taxa were recovered, as follows: Aplectana membranosa (n = 3,756); Schrankiana formosula (n = 3,176); larvae of Physaloptera sp...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386530/draft-genome-sequence-of-bacillus-oleronius-dsm-9356-isolated-from-the-termite-reticulitermes-santonensis
#6
Rodney Owusu-Darko, Mushal Allam, Senzo Mtshali, Arshad Ismail, Elna Maria Buys
Bacillus oleronius strain DSM 9356 isolated from the termite Reticulitermes santonensis was sequenced to gain insights in relation to its closest phylogenetic neighbor Bacillus sporothermodurans. The draft genome of strain DSM 9356 contains 5,083,966 bp with an estimated G + C content of 35%, 4899 protein-coding genes, 116 tRNAs and 18 rRNAs. The RAST annotation assigned these genes into 462 subsystems, with the maximum number of genes associated with amino acids and derivatives metabolism (14.84%), followed by carbohydrates (13...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358684/grass-a-gradient-based-sampling-scheme-for-retinex
#7
Michela Lecca, Alessandro Rizzi, Raul P Serapioni
Retinex is an early and famous theory attempting to estimate the human color sensation derived from an observed scene. When applied to a digital image, the original implementation of Retinex estimates the color sensation by modifying the pixels channel intensities with respect to a local reference white, selected from a set of random paths. The spatial search of the local reference white influences the final estimation. The recent algorithm Energy-driven Termite Retinex (ETR), as well as its predecessor Termite Retinex, has introduced a new path-based image aware sampling scheme, where the paths depend on local visual properties of the input image...
March 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349099/draft-genome-of-the-fungus-growing-termite-pathogenic-fungus-ophiocordyceps-bispora-ophiocordycipitaceae-hypocreales-ascomycota
#8
Benjamin H Conlon, Jannette Mitchell, Z Wilhelm de Beer, Christian Carøe, M Thomas P Gilbert, Jørgen Eilenberg, Michael Poulsen, Henrik H de Fine Licht
This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334067/response-of-the-formosan-subterranean-termite-to-neighboring-con-specific-populations-after-baiting-with-noviflumuron
#9
Sarah Bernard, Weste Osbrink, Nan-Yao Su
Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki are economically important subterranean termites, particularly in the Southeastern United States where they are considered invasive. Where two C. formosanus populations met, aggressive encounters resulted in blockages in tunnels, but reinvading termites unblocked obstructions or constructed new tunnels. Experiments in planar arenas in which one population of C. formosanus was baited resulted in elimination of baited termites and subsequent reinvasion of territory by neighboring termites...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334021/the-effect-of-remnant-forest-on-insect-successional-response-in-tropical-fire-impacted-peatland-a-bi-taxa-comparison
#10
Kok-Boon Neoh, Lee-Jin Bong, Ahmad Muhammad, Masayuki Itoh, Osamu Kozan, Yoko Takematsu, Tsuyoshi Yoshimura
Fire has become a common feature in tropical drained peatlands, and it may have detrimental impacts on the overall biodiversity of the forest ecosystem. We investigated the effect of fire on termite and ant assemblages and the importance of remnant forest in restoring species diversity in fire-impacted tropical peat swamp forests. The species loss of both termites and ants was as high as 50% in some fire-impacted peats compared to remnant forests, but in most cases the species richness for termites and ants was statistically equal along the land uses surveyed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331632/group-housed-females-promote-production-of-asexual-ootheca-in-american-cockroaches
#11
Ko Katoh, Masazumi Iwasaki, Shouhei Hosono, Atsushi Yoritsune, Masanori Ochiai, Makoto Mizunami, Hiroshi Nishino
BACKGROUND: Facultative parthenogenesis, seen in many animal phyla, is a reproductive strategy in which females are able to generate offspring when mating partners are unavailable. In some subsocial and eusocial insects, parthenogenesis is often more prevalent than sexual reproduction. However, little is known about how social cooperation is linked to the promotion of parthenogenesis. The domiciliary cockroach Periplaneta americana is well-suited to addressing this issue as this species belongs to the superfamily Blattoidea, which diverged into eusocial termites and shows facultative parthenogenesis...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330219/effect-of-chlorpyrifos-on-soil-microbial-diversity-and-its-biotransformation-by-streptomyces-sp-hp-11
#12
M Supreeth, M A Chandrashekar, N Sachin, N S Raju
The application of pesticides in agricultural fields not only reaches the target pests but also with soil where it interacts with soil microorganisms resulting in change of microbial diversity. Chlorpyrifos (CP) is one such organophosphorous insecticide most widely used against various insects, termites, and beetles throughout the globe. In the present work, the effect of CP on soil microbial population was assessed by the cultivable method. The fertile soil which does not have a history of any pesticide application was treated with 100 and 200 µg/g of CP along with control which received only sterile water and incubated for 1, 7, and 14 days...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329010/phylogenetic-reconstruction-of-syntermitinae-isoptera-termitidae-based-on-morphological-and-molecular-data
#13
Mauricio M Rocha, Adriana C Morales-Corrêa E Castro, Carolina Cuezzo, Eliana M Cancello
The subfamily Syntermitinae comprises a group of Neotropical termites with 18 genera and 101 species described. It has been considered a natural group, but relationships among the genera within the subfamily remain uncertain, and some genera appear to be non-monophyletic. Here, we provide a comprehensive phylogeny including six Neotropical species of Termitinae as outgroup, 42 Syntermitinae species as ingroup, 92 morphological characters (from external and internal anatomy of soldier and worker castes) and 117 molecular sequences (109 obtained for this study and 8 from GenBank) of 4 gene regions (41 and 22 from Cytochrome Oxidase I and II respectively, 19 from Cytochrome b, and 35 from 16S rDNA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326787/linear-peptides-are-the-major-products-of-a-biosynthetic-pathway-that-encodes-for-cyclic-depsipeptides
#14
Thomas P Wyche, Antonio C Ruzzini, Christine Beemelmanns, Ki Hyun Kim, Jonathan L Klassen, Shugeng Cao, Michael Poulsen, Tim S Bugni, Cameron R Currie, Jon Clardy
Three new dentigerumycin analogues are produced by Streptomyces sp. M41, a bacterium isolated from a South African termite, Macrotermes natalensis. The structures of the complex nonribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase (NRPS/PKS) hybrid compounds were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Both cyclic and linear peptides are reported, and the genetic organization of the NRPS modules within the biosynthetic gene cluster accounts for the observed structural diversity...
April 7, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321010/discovery-and-complete-genome-sequence-of-a-bacteriophage-from-an-obligate-intracellular-symbiont-of-a-cellulolytic-protist-in-the-termite-gut
#15
Ajeng K Pramono, Hirokazu Kuwahara, Takehiko Itoh, Atsushi Toyoda, Akinori Yamada, Yuichi Hongoh
Termites depend nutritionally on their gut microbes, and protistan, bacterial, and archaeal gut communities have been extensively studied. However, limited information is available on viruses in the termite gut. We herein report the complete genome sequence (99,517 bp) of a phage obtained during a genome analysis of "Candidatus Azobacteroides pseudotrichonymphae" phylotype ProJPt-1, which is an obligate intracellular symbiont of the cellulolytic protist Pseudotrichonympha sp. in the gut of the termite Prorhinotermes japonicus...
March 17, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291103/emergence-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-colonization-what-termites-can-teach-us-about-the-gut-microbiota
#16
Daniel A Sweeney, Andre C Kalil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285353/morphophysiological-study-of-digestive-system-litter-feeding-termite-cornitermes-cumulans-kollar-1832
#17
Géssica de Sousa, Vânia Cristina Dos Santos, Nelder de Figueiredo Gontijo, Reginaldo Constantino, Gabriela de Oliveira Paiva E Silva, Ana Cristina Bahia, Fabio Mendonça Gomes, Ednildo de Alcantara Machado
Termites are the major decomposers of lignocellulosic biomass on Earth and are commonly considered as biological reactor models for lignocellulose degradation. Despite their biotechnological potential, few studies have focused on the morphophysiological aspects of the termite digestive system. We therefore analyze the morphology, ultrastructure and gut luminal pH of the digestive system in workers of the litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Blattodea: Termitidae). Their digestive system is composed of salivary glands and an alimentary canal with a pH ranging from neutral to alkaline...
March 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281327/asexual-queen-succession-mediates-an-accelerated-colony-life-cycle-in-the-termite-silvestritermes-minutus
#18
R Fougeyrollas, J Křivánek, V Roy, K Dolejšová, S Frechault, Y Roisin, R Hanus, D Sillam-Dussès
Mixed modes of reproduction, combining sexual processes with thelytokous parthenogenesis, occur in all major clades of social insects. In several species of termites, queens maximize their genetic input into nondispersing replacement queens through parthenogenesis, while maintaining genetically diverse sterile offspring and dispersing reproductives via sexual reproduction. This so-called asexual queen succession (AQS) has multiple independent origins and its presumed advantages are diverse as well, ranging from multiplication of colony reproductive potential to extension of its lifespan beyond that of the foundress...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272326/feeding-deterrence-to-reticulitermes-speratus-kolbe-by-fibroporia-radiculosa-peck-parmasto-1968
#19
Nadia Nuraniya Kamaluddin, Shigeru Matsuyama, Akiko Nakagawa-Izumi
Brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (Peck) Parmasto grown in decayed wood and non-wood material, potato dextrose agar (PDA) media, deterred Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) feeding. Decayed wood and PDA media were extracted and tests were performed to assess termite feeding behavior towards the extracts. We found that the extract from PDA media also suppressed termite feeding, although it did not induce mortality. Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis, two bioactive compounds were detected from the decayed wood extract, and one was detected from the PDA extract...
March 6, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232746/repeated-evolution-of-soldier-sub-castes-suggests-parasitism-drives-social-complexity-in-stingless-bees
#20
Christoph Grüter, Francisca H I D Segers, Cristiano Menezes, Ayrton Vollet-Neto, Tiago Falcón, Lucas von Zuben, Márcia M G Bitondi, Fabio S Nascimento, Eduardo A B Almeida
The differentiation of workers into morphological castes represents an important evolutionary innovation that is thought to improve division of labor in insect societies. Given the potential benefits of task-related worker differentiation, it is puzzling that physical worker castes, such as soldiers, are extremely rare in social bees and absent in wasps. Following the recent discovery of soldiers in a stingless bee, we studied the occurrence of worker differentiation in 28 stingless bee species from Brazil and found that several species have specialized soldiers for colony defence...
December 2017: Nature Communications
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