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Sheng Li, Shiming Zhu, Qiangqiang Jia, Dongwei Yuan, Chonghua Ren, Kang Li, Suning Liu, Yingying Cui, Haigang Zhao, Yanghui Cao, Gangqi Fang, Daqi Li, Xiaoming Zhao, Jianzhen Zhang, Qiaoyun Yue, Yongliang Fan, Xiaoqiang Yu, Qili Feng, Shuai Zhan
Many cockroach species have adapted to urban environments, and some have been serious pests of public health in the tropics and subtropics. Here, we present the 3.38-Gb genome and a consensus gene set of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. We report insights from both genomic and functional investigations into the underlying basis of its adaptation to urban environments and developmental plasticity. In comparison with other insects, expansions of gene families in P. americana exist for most core gene families likely associated with environmental adaptation, such as chemoreception and detoxification...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Colin F Funaro, Katalin Böröczky, Edward L Vargo, Coby Schal
Chemical communication is fundamental to success in social insect colonies. Species-, colony-, and caste-specific blends of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and other chemicals have been well documented as pheromones, mediating important behavioral and physiological aspects of social insects. More specifically, royal pheromones used by queens (and kings in termites) enable workers to recognize and care for these vital individuals and maintain the reproductive division of labor. In termites, however, no royal-recognition pheromones have been identified to date...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Babar Hassan, Sohail Ahmed, Grant Kirker, Mark E Mankowski, Muhammad Misbah-Ul-Haq
Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) is a species of subterranean termite that is a destructive pest of wood and wood products in Pakistan. This study evaluated the antioxidant and antienzyme potential of heartwood extractives against H. indicola. Heartwood extractives of four durable wood species, Tectona grandis (L.f), Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.), Cedrus deodara (Roxb.), and Pinus roxburghii (Sarg.) were removed from wood shavings via soxhlet extraction with an ethanol:toluene solvent system...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Wei-Hua Jiao, Zeinab Khalil, Pradeep Dewapriya, Angela A Salim, Hou-Wen Lin, Robert J Capon
Chemical analysis of a fermentation of the Australian termite nest-derived fungus Trichoderma virens CMB-TN16 yielded five new acyclic nonapeptides, trichodermides A-E (1-5). Amino acid residues, configurations, and sequences were determined by a combination of spectroscopic (NMR and MS-MS) and chemical (C3 Marfey's) methods. The trichodermides adhere to the sequence homology pattern common to Trichoderma 11 amino acid residue peptaibols; however, unlike other peptaibols the trichodermides do not exhibit antibacterial or antifungal activity and exhibit low to no cytotoxicity against mammalian cells...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Monica Leitner, Andrew B Davies, Catherine L Parr, Paul Eggleton, Mark P Robertson
Woody encroachment can lead to a complete switch from open habitats to dense thickets, and has the potential to greatly alter the biodiversity and ecological functioning of grassy ecosystems across the globe. Plant litter decomposition is a critical ecosystem process fundamental to nutrient cycling and global carbon dynamics, yet little is known about how woody encroachment might alter this process. We compared grass decay rates of heavily encroached areas with adjacent non-encroached open areas in a semi-arid South African savanna using litterbags that allowed or excluded invertebrates...
March 8, 2018: Global Change Biology
Saki Yanagihara, Wataru Suehiro, Yuki Mitaka, Kenji Matsuura
Who should take on risky tasks in an age-heterogeneous society? Life-history theory predicts that, in social insects, riskier tasks should be undertaken by sterile individuals with a shorter life expectancy. The loss of individuals with shorter life expectancy is less costly for colony reproductive success than the loss of individuals with longer life expectancy. Termite colonies have a sterile soldier caste, specialized defenders engaged in the most risky tasks. Here we show that termite soldiers exhibit age-dependent polyethism, as old soldiers are engaged in front-line defence more than young soldiers...
March 2018: Biology Letters
Filomena Morisco, Rocco Granata, Silvia Camera, Antonio Ippolito, Michele Milella, Fabio Conti, Chiara Masetti, Antonella Smedile, Paolo Tundo, Teresa Santantonio, Maria Rosa Valvano, Antonio Termite, Pietro Gatti, Vincenzo Messina, Angelo Iacobellis, Marta Librandi, Nicola Caporaso, Angelo Andriulli
Background and aim: Direct antiviral agents (DAAs) have led to high sustained virological responses (SVR) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. However, genotype 3 patients respond to treatment in a suboptimal way. This study aims to identify which of the several treatment schedules recommended for genotype 3 would constitute the best option. Methods: Twenty-four Italian centers were involved in this real-life study of HCV genotype 3 patients treated with DAAs. To expand the number of cases, we conducted a systematic review of the literature on the outcome of genotype 3 patients treated with DAAs...
March 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Aurora M Vargas, Avanika Mahajan, Katherine S Tille, Bridget S Wilson, Christopher P Mattison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Pooja Vyas, Dinesh Kumar Yadav, Poonam Khandelwal
Tectona grandis Linn (Teak), is locally known as Sagwan, belongs to Lamiaceae family. It is one of the most valuable timber in the world, due to its beautiful surface and its resistance to termite and fungal damage. The main active ingredient compounds that are responsible for these action are tectoquinone, lapachol and deoxylapachol. Naphthoquinones, anthraquinones and isoprenoid quinones are abundant metabolites in teak. In addition to these, teak contains several other phytochemicals such as triterpenoids, steroids, lignans, fatty esters and phenolic compounds...
March 6, 2018: Natural Product Research
Graziele da C Cunha, Bruna Thaysa Dos Santos, Jôse Raymara Alves, Iris Amanda Alves Silva, Daiane Requião de Souza Cruz, Luciane P C Romão
The use of industrial waste to synthesize materials of technological interest is a rational way to minimize or solve environmental pollution problems. This work investigates the adsorption of cadmium and lead ions by magnetic hybrid adsorbents synthesized using the in natura biomasses coconut mesocarp (CCFe), sawdust (SAFe), and termite nest (TEFe) for the organic phases and magnetic cobalt ferrite as the inorganic phase. The formation of a cobalt ferrite phase was confirmed by XRD. The use of XRD and FTIR analyses revealed the presence of organic matter in the structure of the material...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Frederic Legendre, Fabien L Condamine
Eusociality, Darwin's special difficulty, has been widely investigated but remains a topic of great debate in organismal biology. Eusocial species challenge existing theories, and the impact of highly integrated societies on diversification dynamics is controversial with opposing assertions and hypotheses in the literature. Here, using phylogenetic approaches in termites - the first group that has evolved eusociality - we assessed the fundamental prediction that eusocial lineages have higher diversification rates than non-eusocial clades...
February 21, 2018: Systematic Biology
Hongpeng Xiong, Kena Xue, Wenquan Qin, Xuan Chen, Huifang Wang, Xianhui Shi, Tao Ma, Zhaohui Sun, Weiguang Chen, Xueqin Tian, Wei Lin, Xiujun Wen, Cai Wang
Previous studies showed that many wood-rotting fungi were attractive to termites; however, little attention has been paid to the relationship between termites and soil fungus. In the present study, different designs of two-choice tests were conducted to investigate the behaviors of two subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (wood-feeding lower termites) and Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) (fungus-growing higher termites), in response to soil (or sand) treated with the commercial conidial formulations of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (BioWorks) and Trichoderma viride Pers...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Erik T Frank, Marten Wehrhahn, K Eduard Linsenmair
Open wounds are a major health risk in animals, with species prone to injuries likely developing means to reduce these risks. We therefore analysed the behavioural response towards open wounds on the social and individual level in the termite group-hunting ant Megaponera analis During termite raids, some ants get injured by termite soldiers (biting off extremities), after the fight injured ants get carried back to the nest by nest-mates. We observed treatment of the injury by nest-mates inside the nest through intense allogrooming at the wound...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Alei Geng, Yanbing Cheng, Yongli Wang, Daochen Zhu, Yilin Le, Jian Wu, Rongrong Xie, Joshua S Yuan, Jianzhong Sun
Background: Wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, represents a highly efficient system for biomass deconstruction and utilization. However, the detailed mechanisms of lignin modification and carbohydrate degradation in this system are still largely elusive. Results: In order to reveal the inherent mechanisms for efficient biomass degradation, four different organs (salivary glands, foregut, midgut, and hindgut) within a complete digestive system of a lower termite, C...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Akshay Joshi, Vikram B Lanjekar, Prashant K Dhakephalkar, Sumit S Dagar
Six genera of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, namely Methanobrevibacter, Methanobacterium, Methanocorpusculum, Methanothermobacter, Methanoculleus, and Methanospirillum were cultivated from diverse environmental niches like rumen, feces, gut, and sediments using BY medium. We also report a putative novel genus and two novel species of methanogens isolated from termite, Indian star tortoise, and green iguana.
February 9, 2018: Anaerobe
Thomas Bourguignon, Nathan Lo, Carsten Dietrich, Jan Šobotník, Sarah Sidek, Yves Roisin, Andreas Brune, Theodore A Evans
The gut microbiota of animals exert major effects on host biology [1]. Although horizontal transfer is generally considered the prevalent route for the acquisition of gut bacteria in mammals [2], some bacterial lineages have co-speciated with their hosts on timescales of several million years [3]. Termites harbor a complex gut microbiota, and their advanced social behavior provides the potential for long-term vertical symbiont transmission, and co-evolution of gut symbionts and host [4-6]. Despite clear evolutionary patterns in the gut microbiota of termites [7], a consensus on how microbial communities were assembled during termite diversification has yet to be reached...
February 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Yuniar Devi Utami, Hirokazu Kuwahara, Takumi Murakami, Takahiro Morikawa, Kaito Sugaya, Kumiko Kihara, Masahiro Yuki, Nathan Lo, Pinsurang Deevong, Sasitorn Hasin, Warin Boonriam, Tetsushi Inoue, Akinori Yamada, Moriya Ohkuma, Yuichi Hongoh
Termite guts harbor diverse yet-uncultured bacteria, including a non-photosynthetic cyanobacterial group, the class "Melainabacteria". We herein reported the phylogenetic diversity of "Melainabacteria" in the guts of diverse termites and conducted a single-cell genome analysis of a melainabacterium obtained from the gut of the termite Termes propinquus. We performed amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from the guts of 60 termite and eight cockroach species, and detected melainabacterial sequences in 48 out of the 68 insect species, albeit with low abundances (0...
February 8, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Mark C Harrison, Evelien Jongepier, Hugh M Robertson, Nicolas Arning, Tristan Bitard-Feildel, Hsu Chao, Christopher P Childers, Huyen Dinh, Harshavardhan Doddapaneni, Shannon Dugan, Johannes Gowin, Carolin Greiner, Yi Han, Haofu Hu, Daniel S T Hughes, Ann-Kathrin Huylmans, Carsten Kemena, Lukas P M Kremer, Sandra L Lee, Alberto Lopez-Ezquerra, Ludovic Mallet, Jose M Monroy-Kuhn, Annabell Moser, Shwetha C Murali, Donna M Muzny, Saria Otani, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Monica Poelchau, Jiaxin Qu, Florentine Schaub, Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Kim C Worley, Qiaolin Xie, Guillem Ylla, Michael Poulsen, Richard A Gibbs, Coby Schal, Stephen Richards, Xavier Belles, Judith Korb, Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Around 150 million years ago, eusocial termites evolved from within the cockroaches, 50 million years before eusocial Hymenoptera, such as bees and ants, appeared. Here, we report the 2-Gb genome of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and the 1.3-Gb genome of the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus. We show evolutionary signatures of termite eusociality by comparing the genomes and transcriptomes of three termites and the cockroach against the background of 16 other eusocial and non-eusocial insects...
March 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Antoni Pardede, Morina Adfa, Arif Juliari Kusnanda, Masayuki Ninomiya, Mamoru Koketsu
Coreopsis lanceolata is an Asteraceous plant known to contain semiochemicals active against nematodes and leukemic agents. The objective of the study was to discover termite resistant constituents from C. lanceolata stems. Five compounds were isolated from C. lanceolata stems. These compounds were identified as 5-phenyl-2-(1-propynyl)-thiophene (1), 1-phenylhepta-1,3,5-tryne (2), β-sitosterol (3), succinic acid (4), and protocatechuic acid (5), respectively; they were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. Their antitermitic effects were evaluated with the no-choice feeding test against Coptotermes curvignathus...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Sadia Almas, Anna G Gibson, Steven M Presley
To determine potential intermediate hosts of Oxyspirura petrowi, a common nematode eyeworm of wild gallinaceous birds, various arthropod species including red harvester ants, beetles, wood cockroaches, crickets, grasshoppers, katydids, and desert termites were screened for the presence of O. petrowi using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2) of the eyeworm ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA). This is the first study to investigate the intermediate hosts of O...
January 25, 2018: Parasitology Research
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