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Isabella D'Antuono, Angelica Bruno, Vito Linsalata, Fiorenza Minervini, Antonella Garbetta, Maria Tufariello, Giovanni Mita, Antonio F Logrieco, Gianluca Bleve, Angela Cardinali
The effects of fermentation by autochthonous microbial starters on phenolics composition of Apulian table olives, Bella di Cerignola (BDC), Termite di Bitetto (TDB) and Cellina di Nardò (CEL) were studied, highlighting also the cultivars influence. In BDC with starter, polyphenols amount doubled compared with commercial sample, while in TDB and CEL, phenolics remain almost unchanged. The main phenolics were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, verbascoside and luteolin, followed by hydroxytyrosol-acetate detected in BDC and cyanidine-3-glucoside and quercetin in CEL...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Stephen J Taerum, Francesca De Martini, Jürgen Liebig, Gillian H Gile
Coevolution is a major driver of speciation in many host-associated symbionts. In the termite-protist digestive symbiosis, the protists are vertically inherited by anal feeding among nest mates. Lower termites (all termite families except Termitidae) and their symbionts have broadly co-diversified over ~170 million yr. However, this inference is based mainly on the restricted distribution of certain protist genera to certain termite families. With the exception of one study, which demonstrated congruent phylogenies for the protist Pseudotrichonympha and its Rhinotermitidae hosts, coevolution in this symbiosis has not been investigated with molecular methods...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Dahae Lee, Ki Sung Kang, Hae-Jeung Lee, Ki Hyun Kim
Platinum-based anticancer drug therapies can cause renal damage and apoptotic kidney cell damage. The development of reno- and kidney-protective molecules is therefore urgently required. To address this challenge, we explored secondary metabolites of termite-associated Streptomyces sp. RB1 isolated from the cuticle of the South African termite, Macrotermes natalensis for their renoprotective ability using bioassay-guided fractionation and LLC-PK1 cells. Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of Streptomyces sp...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yunhan Hsu, Hirohiko Koizumi, Masato Otagiri, Shigeharu Moriya, Manabu Arioka
Symbiotic protists in the hindgut of termites provide a novel enzymatic resource for efficient lignocellulytic degradation of plant biomass. In this study, two β-mannanases, RsMan26A and RsMan26B, from a symbiotic protist community of the lower termite, Reticulitermes speratus, were successfully expressed in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. Biochemical characterization experiments demonstrated that both RsMan26A and RsMan26B are endo-acting enzymes and have a very similar substrate specificity, displaying a higher catalytic efficiency to galactomannan from locust bean gum (LBG) and glucomannan than to β-1,4-mannan and highly substituted galactomannan from guar gum...
January 5, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Chinmay Vijay Tikhe, Chris R Gissendanner, Claudia Husseneder
We sequenced the genome of the novel Enterobacter bacteriophage Tyrion isolated from termite gut. The bacteriophage is temperate in nature and belongs to the Podoviridae family. Many predicted bacteriophage genes showed similarity to prophage regions of the genomes of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. This is the second bacteriophage isolated from termite gut.
January 4, 2018: Genome Announcements
Chinmay Vijay Tikhe, Chris R Gissendanner, Claudia Husseneder
We isolated and sequenced the novel Enterobacter bacteriophage Arya from termite gut. The genome showed synteny to lytic bacteriophage genomes; however, the genome encodes a truncated, putatively nonfunctional integrase pseudogene. Lysogeny-related genes were previously observed in certain lytic phages, but their role and evolution remain unclear.
January 4, 2018: Genome Announcements
Masahiro Yuki, Mitsuo Sakamoto, Yuki Nishimura, Moriya Ohkuma
Strain Rs-Y01T was isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding subterranean termite Reticulitermes speratus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain Rs-Y01T belonged to the genus Lactococcus and was most closely related to Lactococcus raffinolactis JCM 5706T with 98.1 % similarity in the 16S rRNA gene, followed by Lactococcus piscium JCM 16647T (97.2 %). Genomic comparisons of strain Rs-Y01T with L. raffinolactis JCM 5706Twere made using the Genome-to-Genome Distance Calculator and average nucleotide identity analysis (values indicated 29...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Ivan Monteiro, Arleu Barbosa Viana-Junior, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro Solar, Frederico de Siqueira Neves, Og DeSouza
Symbiosis, the living-together of unlike organisms, underlies every major transition in evolution and pervades most ecological dynamics. Among examples of symbioses, the simultaneous occupation of a termite nest by its builder termites and intruding invertebrate species (so-called termitophily) provides suitable macroscopic scenarios for the study of species coexistence in confined environments. Current evidence on termitophily abounds for dynamics occurring at the interindividual level within the termitarium, but is insufficient for broader scales such as the community and the landscape...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Fiona A Stewart, Alexander K Piel, Lydia Luncz, Joanna Osborn, Yingying Li, Beatrice H Hahn, Michael Haslam
Most of our knowledge of wild chimpanzee behaviour stems from fewer than 10 long-term field sites. This bias limits studies to a potentially unrepresentative set of communities known to show great behavioural diversity on small geographic scales. Here, we introduce a new genetic approach to bridge the gap between behavioural material evidence in unhabituated chimpanzees and genetic advances in the field of primatology. The use of DNA analyses has revolutionised archaeological and primatological fields, whereby extraction of DNA from non-invasively collected samples allows researchers to reconstruct behaviour without ever directly observing individuals...
2018: PloS One
Christine A Nalepa
Subsocial wood feeding cockroaches in the genus Cryptocercus, the sister group of termites, retain their symbiotic gut flagellates during the host molting cycle, but in lower termites, closely related flagellates die prior to host ecdysis. Although the prevalent view is that termite flagellates die because of conditions of starvation and desiccation in the gut during the host molting cycle, the work of L.R. Cleveland in the 1930s through the 1960s provides a strong alternate hypothesis: it was the changed hormonal environment associated with the origin of eusociality and its concomitant shift in termite developmental ontogeny that instigates the death of the flagellates in termites...
December 18, 2017: Microorganisms
Bahiru Tsegaye, Chandrajit Balomajumder, Partha Roy
The combination of NaOH pretreatment and microorganisms isolated from termite were used for releasing the wrapped polysaccharides in wheat straw biomass matrix. Different concentrations of NaOH (1, 3, 5, 7 and 10%) were considered to remove lignin and to release polysaccharides as a pretreatment method at 800C for 4 hours before subjecting it to microbial hydrolysis. Data obtained from compositional analysis of pretreated wheat straws shows significant amount of cellulose and lignin were released after NaOH pretreatments...
December 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
Felix A Hager, Lea Kirchner, Wolfgang H Kirchner
Leafcutter ants communicate with the substrate-borne component of the vibratory emission produced by stridulation. Stridulatory signals in the genus Atta have been described in different behavioural contexts, such as foraging, alarm signalling and collective nest building. Stridulatory vibrations are employed to recruit nestmates, which can localize the source of vibration, but there is little information about the underlying mechanisms. Our experiments reveal that time-of-arrival delays of the vibrational signals are used for tropotactic orientation in Atta sexdens The detected time delays are in the same range as the time delays detected by termites...
December 15, 2017: Biology Open
Wei-Ren Liang, Munetoshi Maruyama, Hou-Feng Li
The staphylinid tribe Lomechusini is known for the diverse associations with ants or termites. A new species of rove beetle belonging to Zyras (Diaulaconia) is found to be associated with the fungus-growing termite, Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki, 1909), and is showing meticulous predatory behavior. In the present study, this species is described as Zyras (Diaulaconia) artemis Liang, Maruyama & Li, sp. n. Its assignment to the subgenus Diaulaconia is based on the comparison of female spermatheca, male aedeagus, and male secondary characters...
November 1, 2017: Zootaxa
Stein R Moe, Katrine Eldegard, Ole Tobias Rannestad, Paul Okullo, Ommund Lindtjørn, Ole Gunnar Støen, Svein Dale
Vast areas of the African savanna landscapes are characterized by tree-covered Macrotermes termite mounds embedded within a relatively open savanna matrix. In concert with termites, large herbivores are important determinants of savanna woody vegetation cover. The relative cover of woody species has considerable effects on savanna function. Despite the potentially important ecological relationships between termite mounds, woody plants, large herbivores, and birds, these associations have previously received surprisingly little attention...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Lakshya Katariya, Priya B Ramesh, Renee M Borges
This study investigated for the first time the impact of the internal mound environment of fungus-growing termites on the growth of fungal crop parasites. Mounds of the termite Odontotermes obesus acted as 1) temperature and relative humidity (RH) "stabilisers" showing dampened daily variation, and 2) "extreme environments" exhibiting elevated RH and CO2 levels, compared to the outside. Yet, internal temperatures exhibited seasonal dynamics as did daily and seasonal CO2 levels. During in situ experiments under termite-excluded conditions within the mound, the growth of the crop parasite Pseudoxylaria was greater inside than outside the mound, i...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Abid Hussain, Ming-Yi Tian, Shuo-Yang Wen
The survival and foraging of Coptotermesformosanus Shiraki in a microbe-rich environment reflect the adaptation of an extraordinary, sophisticated defense mechanism by the nest-mates. We aimed to explore the host pathogen interaction by studying caste-specific volatile chemistry and genes encoding the antioxidant defense of winged imagoes, nymphs, soldiers and workers of Formosan subterranean termites. Qualitative analyses of C.formosanus Shiraki performed by HS-SPME/GC-MS showed considerable variations in the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their proportions among all the castes...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuki Yoshioka, Toshiaki Tanabe, Akira Iguchi
Numerous enzymes that digest carbohydrates, such as cellulases and chitinases, are present in various organisms (e.g., termites, nematodes, and so on). Recently, the presence of cellulases and chitinases has been reported in marine organisms such as urchin and bivalves, and their several roles in marine ecosystems have been proposed. In this study, we reported the presence of genes predicted to encode proteins similar to cellulases and chitinases in the genome of the coral Acropora digitifera, their gene expression patterns at various life stages, and cellulose- and chitin-degrading enzyme activities in several coral species (A...
2017: PeerJ
G Veera Singham, Ahmad Sofiman Othman, Chow-Yang Lee
Dispersal of soil-dwelling organisms via the repeatedly exposed Sunda shelf through much of the Pleistocene in Southeast Asia has not been studied extensively, especially for invertebrates. Here we investigated the phylogeography of an endemic termite species, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen), to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of dispersal routes of terrestrial fauna in Pleistocene Southeast Asia. We sampled 213 termite colonies from 66 localities throughout the region. Independently inherited microsatellites and mtDNA markers were used to infer the phylogeographic framework of M...
2017: PloS One
Javier Del Campo, Erick R James, Yoshihisa Hirakawa, Rebecca Fiorito, Martin Kolisko, Nicholas A T Irwin, Varsha Mathur, Vittorio Boscaro, Elisabeth Hehenberger, Anna Karnkowska, Rudolf H Scheffrahn, Patrick J Keeling
Pseudotrichonympha is a large and structurally complex genus of parabasalian protists that play a key role in the digestion of lignocellulose in the termite hindgut. Like many termite symbionts, it has a conspicuous body plan that makes genus-level identification relatively easy, but species-level diversity of Pseudotrichonympha is understudied. Molecular surveys have suggested the diversity is much greater than the current number of described species, and that many "species" described in multiple hosts are in fact different, but gene sequences from formally described species remain a rarity...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Amanda de Faria Santos, Tiago Fernandes Carrijo, Eliana Marques Cancello, Adriana Coletto Morales-Corrêa E Castro
BACKGROUND: The Neotropical Region is known for its biodiversity and ranks third in number of known termite species. However, biogeographic and phylogeographic information of termites of this region is limited compared to other world geographic regions. Nasutitermes corniger is widely distributed in the region and is of considerable economic importance. The goal of this study was to describe the phylogeography of N. corniger in the Neotropical Region, to better understand its evolutionary processes...
November 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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