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Newborn and health and mortality

Marie E Wang, Archana B Patel, Nellie I Hansen, Lauren Arlington, Amber Prakash, Patricia L Hibberd
BACKGROUND: Possible serious bacterial infection (PBSI) is a major cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. We studied risk factors for PSBI in a large rural population in central India where facility deliveries have increased as a result of a government financial assistance program. METHODS: We studied 37,379 pregnant women and their singleton live born infants with birth weight ≥ 1.5 kg from 20 rural primary health centers around Nagpur, India, using data from the 2010-13 population-based Maternal and Newborn Health Registry supported by NICHD's Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research...
October 19, 2016: BMC Public Health
Grzegorz Majka, Grażyna Więcek, Małgorzata Śróttek, Klaudyna Śpiewak, Małgorzata Brindell, Joanna Koziel, Janusz Marcinkiewicz, Magdalena Strus
Translocation of bacteria, primarily Gram-negative pathogenic flora, from the intestinal lumen into the circulatory system leads to sepsis. In newborns, and especially very low birth weight infants, sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The results of recently conducted clinical trials suggest that lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein that is abundant in mammalian colostrum and milk, may be an effective agent in preventing sepsis in newborns. However, despite numerous basic studies on lactoferrin, very little is known about how metal saturation of this protein affects a host's health...
October 18, 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Hannah H Leslie, Günther Fink, Humphreys Nsona, Margaret E Kruk
BACKGROUND: Ending preventable newborn deaths is a global health priority, but efforts to improve coverage of maternal and newborn care have not yielded expected gains in infant survival in many settings. One possible explanation is poor quality of clinical care. We assess facility quality and estimate the association of facility quality with neonatal mortality in Malawi. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on facility infrastructure as well as processes of routine and basic emergency obstetric care for all facilities in the country were obtained from 2013 Malawi Service Provision Assessment...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Amos Grünebaum, Laurence B McCullough, Birgit Arabin, Joachim Dudenhausen, Brooke Orosz, Frank A Chervenak
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the underlying causes of neonatal mortality (NNM) in midwife-attended home births and compare them to hospital births attended by a midwife or a physician in the United States (US). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) linked birth/infant death data set (linked files) for 2008 through 2012 of singleton, term (≥37 weeks) births and normal newborn weights (≥2500 grams)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Xiuting Mo, Ruoyan Gai Tobe, Xiaoyan Liu, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: Each year in China, approximately 700,000 children under 5 years old are diagnosed with pneumonia, and 30,000 die of the disease. Although 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23) are available in China, the costs are borne by the consumer, resulting in low coverage for PCV-7. We aimed to conduct a simulation study to assess the cost-effectiveness and health benefits of PCV-7, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and PPV-23 to prevent childhood pneumonia and other vaccine-preventive diseases in China...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Annamagreth M Mukwenda, Columba K Mbekenga, Andrea B Pembe, Pia Olsson
BACKGROUND: Eclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal mortality that requires advanced care and long hospital stays with uncertain outcomes for mother and baby. Care of eclamptic women is particularly challenging in low-income settings. Standards for medical care for eclampsia are established but the psychosocial needs of women are under-researched. AIM: To explore and describe women's experiences of having had, and recovered from, eclampsia at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania...
October 14, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Sue Kildea, Sally Tracy, Juanita Sherwood, Fleur Magick-Dennis, Lesley Barclay
The well established disparities in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include a significant and concerning higher incidence of preterm birth, low birth weight and newborn mortality. Chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease) that are prevalent in Indigenous Australian adults have their genesis in utero and in early life. Applying interventions during pregnancy and early life that aim to improve maternal and infant health is likely to have long lasting consequences, as recognised by Australia's National Maternity Services Plan (NMSP), which set out a 5-year vision for 2010-2015 that was endorsed by all governments (federal and state and territory)...
October 17, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Péter Mihalicza, György Csákány, Miklós Szabó
INTRODUCTION: Care provision for very low birth weight and very low gestational age newborns requires high level clinical preparedness. Appropriate care and care management reduce mortality. AIM: To present Hungarian and international outcomes and local regional differences characterizing neonatal care in 2006-2008, based on the results of the EuroHOPE study. METHOD: Hungarian data were created by linking the obstetrics registry with the financing database of the Health Insurance Fund...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Mary V Kinney, Jeffrey Michael Smith, Tanya Doherty, Jorge Hermida, Karen Daniels, José M Belizán
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), particularly pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, remain one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and are contributory in many foetal/newborn deaths. This editorial discusses a supplement of seven papers which provide the results of the first round of the CLIP (Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia) Feasibility Studies. These studies report a number of enablers and barriers in each setting, which have informed the implementation of a cluster-randomized trial (cRCT) aimed at reducing pre-eclampsia-related, and all-cause, maternal and perinatal mortality and major morbidity using community-based identification and treatment of pre-eclampsia in selected geographies of Nigeria, Mozambique, Pakistan and India...
September 30, 2016: Reproductive Health
Yvonne Tam, Luis Huicho, Carlos A Huayanay-Espinoza, María Clara Restrepo-Méndez
BACKGROUND: Peru has made great improvements in reducing stunting and child mortality in the past decade, and has reached the Millennium Development Goals 1 and 4. The remaining challenges or missed opportunities for child survival needs to be identified and quantified, in order to guide the next steps to further improve child survival in Peru. METHODS: We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to project the mortality impact of proven interventions reaching every women and child in need, and the mortality impact of eliminating inequalities in coverage distribution between wealth quintiles and urban-rural residence...
October 4, 2016: BMC Public Health
Vicki Flenady, Aleena M Wojcieszek, Ingvild Fjeldheim, Ingrid K Friberg, Victoria Nankabirwa, Jagrati V Jani, Sonja Myhre, Philippa Middleton, Caroline Crowther, David Ellwood, David Tudehope, Robert Pattinson, Jacqueline Ho, Jiji Matthews, Aurora Bermudez Ortega, Mahima Venkateswaran, Doris Chou, Lale Say, Garret Mehl, J Frederik Frøen
BACKGROUND: Electronic health registries - eRegistries - can systematically collect relevant information at the point of care for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH). However, a suite of process and outcome indicators is needed for RMNCH to monitor care and to ensure comparability between settings. Here we report on the assessment of current global indicators and the development of a suite of indicators for the WHO Essential Interventions for use at various levels of health care systems nationally and globally...
September 30, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Joy E Lawn, Hannah Blencowe, Mary V Kinney, Fiorella Bianchi, Wendy J Graham
Despite the impressive progress gains for maternal and child health during the Millennium Development Goals era, over 5.6 million women and babies died in 2015 due to complications during pregnancy, birth and in the first month of life. In order to achieve the new mortality targets set out in the Sustainable Development Goals, there needs to be intentional efforts to maintain and accelerate action to end preventable maternal and newborn deaths and stillbirths. This paper outlines what progress is required to meet these new 2030 targets based on patterns of progress in the recent past; where the burden is the greatest; when to focus attention along the continuum of care; and what causes of death require concerted efforts...
July 28, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Suleyman Cuneyt Karakus, Bulent Hayri Ozokutan, Unal Bakal, Haluk Ceylan, Mehmet Sarac, Seval Kul, Ahmet Kazez
AIM: The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of delayed diagnosis on mortality rates, and evaluate the role of delayed diagnosis as a new prognostic factor in patients with oesophageal atresia (OA), especially in developing countries. METHODS: The records of 80 consecutive patients with OA (2008-2013) were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the time of diagnosis. As we demonstrated the effect of delayed diagnosis on mortality, we decided to develop a new classification that will be utilised to predict the prognosis of OA...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Katherine E A Semrau, Julie Herlihy, Caroline Grogan, Kebby Musokotwane, Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Reuben Mbewe, Bowen Banda, Chipo Mpamba, Fern Hamomba, Portipher Pilingana, Andisen Zulu, Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Godfrey Biemba, Donald M Thea, William B MacLeod, Jonathon L Simon, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine umbilical cord washes reduce neonatal mortality in south Asian populations with high neonatal mortality rates and predominantly home-based deliveries. No data exist for sub-Saharan African populations with lower neonatal mortality rates or mostly facility-based deliveries. We compared the effect of chlorhexidine with dry cord care on neonatal mortality rates in Zambia. METHODS: We undertook a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia, with 90 health facility-based clusters...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Shannon A McMahon, Rachel P Chase, Peter J Winch, Joy J Chebet, Giulia V R Besana, Idda Mosha, Zaina Sheweji, Caitlin E Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Births before arrival (BBA) to health care facilities are associated with higher rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality compared to facility deliveries or planned home births. Research on such births has been conducted in several high-income countries, but there are almost no studies from low-income settings where a majority of maternal and newborn deaths occur. METHODS: Drawing on a household survey of women and in-depth interviews with women and their partners, we examined the experience of BBA in rural districts of Morogoro Region, Tanzania...
September 27, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Margaret E Kruk, Hannah H Leslie, Stéphane Verguet, Godfrey M Mbaruku, Richard M K Adanu, Ana Langer
BACKGROUND: Global efforts to increase births at health-care facilities might not reduce maternal or newborn mortality if quality of care is insufficient. However, little systematic evidence exists for the quality at health facilities caring for women and newborn babies in low-income countries. We analysed the quality of basic maternal care functions and its association with volume of deliveries and surgical capacity in health-care facilities in five sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: In this analysis, we combined nationally representative health system surveys (Service Provision Assessments by the Demographic and Health Survery Programme) with data for volume of deliveries and quality of delivery care from Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Tanja A J Houweling, Ivan Arroyave, Alex Burdorf, Mauricio Avendano
BACKGROUND: Low-income and middle-income countries have introduced different health insurance schemes over the past decades, but whether different schemes are associated with different neonatal outcomes is yet unknown. We examined the association between the health insurance coverage scheme and neonatal mortality in Colombia. METHODS: We used Colombian national vital registration data, including all live births (2 506 920) and neonatal deaths (17 712) between 2008 and 2011...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Hagen Heinrich Scherb, Kuniyoshi Mori, Keiji Hayashi
Descriptive observational studies showed upward jumps in secular European perinatal mortality trends after Chernobyl. The question arises whether the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident entailed similar phenomena in Japan. For 47 prefectures representing 15.2 million births from 2001 to 2014, the Japanese government provides monthly statistics on 69,171 cases of perinatal death of the fetus or the newborn after 22 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days after birth. Employing change-point methodology for detecting alterations in longitudinal data, we analyzed time trends in perinatal mortality in the Japanese prefectures stratified by exposure to estimate and test potential increases in perinatal death proportions after Fukushima possibly associated with the earthquake, the tsunami, or the estimated radiation exposure...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Franz Castro, Julio Zúñiga, Gladys Higuera, María Carrión Donderis, Beatriz Gómez, Jorge Motta
BACKGROUND: This is the first study in Panama and Central America that has included indigenous populations in an assessment of the association between socioeconomic variables with delayed diagnosis and mortality due to congenital heart defects (CHD). METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted. A sample calculation was performed and 954 infants born from 2010 to 2014 were randomly selected from clinical records of all Panamanian public health institutions with paediatric cardiologists...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer A Callaghan-Koru, Abiy Seifu Estifanos, Ephrem Daniel Sheferaw, Joseph de Graft-Johnson, Carina Rosado, Rachel Patton-Molitors, Bogale Worku, Barbara Rawlins, Abdullah Baqui
AIM: To assess the effects of a facility and community newborn intervention package on coverage of early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) and exclusive breastfeeding-the therapeutic aspects of kangaroo mother care. METHODS: A multilevel community and facility intervention in Ethiopia trained health workers in 10 health centers and the surrounding communities to promote early SSC and exclusive breastfeeding for all babies born at home or the facility. Changes in SSC and exclusive breastfeeding were assessed by comparing baseline and endline household surveys...
September 19, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
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