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Newborn and health and mortality

Tanja A J Houweling, Caspar W N Looman, Kishwar Azad, Sushmita Das, Carina King, Abdul Kuddus, Sonia Lewycka, Dharma S Manandhar, Neena Sah More, Joanna Morrison, Tambosi Phiri, Shibanand Rath, Mikey Rosato, Aman Sen, Prasanta Tripathy, Audrey Prost, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in neonatal mortality are substantial in many developing countries. Little is known about how to address this problem. Trials in Asia and Africa have shown strong impacts on neonatal mortality of a participatory learning and action intervention with women's groups. Whether this intervention also reduces mortality inequalities remains unknown. We describe the equity impact of this women's groups intervention on the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) across socioeconomic strata...
August 25, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
Lydia Villa, Brent Bjornsen, Heather Giacone, Erica M Weidler, Ekta Bajaj, Andrew Muth, Melanie Kennedy, Timothy Flood, Dianna Contreras, Joseph Spadafino, Ashish Shah
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to identify locations of births in Arizona with critical CHD, as well as to assess the current use of pulse-oximetry screening and capacities of birth centres to manage a positive screen. Study design Infants (n=487) with a potentially critical CHD were identified from the Arizona Department of Health Services from 2012 and 2013; charts were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed using echocardiographies. ArcGIS was used to generate maps to visualise the location of treating facility and mother's residence...
October 11, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Elizabeth G Henry, Donald M Thea, Davidson H Hamer, William DeJong, Kebby Musokotwane, Kenneth Chibwe, Godfrey Biemba, Katherine Semrau
In 2012, Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL), a multi-level health systems initiative, launched in Kalomo District, Zambia, to address persistent challenges in reducing maternal mortality. We assessed the impact of the programme from 2012 to 2013 using a quasi-experimental study with both household- and health facility-level data collected before and after implementation in both intervention and comparison areas. A total of 21,680 women and 75 non-hospital health centres were included in the study. Using the difference-in-differences method, multivariate logistic regression, and run charts, rates of facility-based birth (FBB) and delivery with a skilled birth provider were compared between intervention and comparison sites...
October 10, 2017: Global Public Health
Nail Obeidat, Yousef Khader, Anwar Batieha, Nadin Abdel Razeq, Nihaya Al-Sheyab, Mohammad Khassawneh
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the 2009 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) data to determine the level, trend, and distribution of neonatal mortality (NNM) in Jordan and determine its associated factors. METHODS: Nationally representative data on NNM were extracted from the JPFHS data. Using multivariate analyses, the strength of associations between 12 clinical/sociodemographic variables and neonatal mortality were quantified after controlling for potential confounders...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Emmanuelle Daviaud, Helen Owen, Catherine Pitt, Kate Kerber, Fiorella Bianchi Jassir, Diana Barger, Fatuma Manzi, Elizabeth Ekipara-Kiracho, Giulia Greco, Peter Waiswa, Joy E Lawn
Home visits for pregnancy and postnatal care were endorsed by the WHO and partners as a complementary strategy to facility-based care to reduce newborn and maternal mortality. This article aims to synthesise findings and implications from the economic analyses of community-based maternal and newborn care (CBMNC) evaluations in seven countries. The evaluations included five cluster randomized trials (Ethiopia, Ghana, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda) and programmatic before/after assessments (Bolivia, Malawi)...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
Emmanuelle Daviaud, Lungiswa Nkonki, Petrida Ijumba, Tanya Doherty, Joy E Lawn, Helen Owen, Debra Jackson, Mark Tomlinson
In light of South Africa's generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic coupled with high infant mortality, we undertook a cluster Randomized Control Trial (2008-10) assessing the effect of Community Health Worker (CHW) antenatal and postnatal home visits on, amongst other indicators, levels of HIV-free survival, and exclusive and appropriate infant feeding at 12 weeks. Cost and time implications were calculated, by assessing the 15 participating CHWs, using financial records, mHealth and interviews. Sustainability and scalability were assessed, enabling identification of health system issues...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
Diana Barger, Bertha Pooley, Julien Roger Dupuy, Norma Amparo Cardenas, Steve Wall, Helen Owen, Emmanuelle Daviaud
To address inequitable access to health services of indigenous communities in the Bolivian highlands, the Bolivian Ministry of Health, with the support of Save the Children-Saving Newborn Lives, conducted operational research to identify, implement and test a package of maternal and newborn interventions using locally recruited, volunteer Community Health Workers (vCHW) between 2008 and 2010. The additional annual economic and financial costs of the intervention were estimated from the perspective of the Bolivian Ministry of Health in two municipalities...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
Bereket Mathewos, Helen Owen, Deborah Sitrin, Simon Cousens, Tedbabe Degefie, Stephen Wall, Abeba Bekele, Joy E Lawn, Emmanuelle Daviaud
About 87 000 neonates die annually in Ethiopia, with slower progress than for child deaths and 85% of births are at home. As part of a multi-country, standardized economic evaluation, we examine the incremental benefit and costs of providing management of possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) for newborns at health posts in Ethiopia by Health Extension Workers (HEWs), linked to improved implementation of existing policy for community-based newborn care (Health Extension Programme). The government, with Save the Children/Saving Newborn Lives and John Snow, Inc...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
Henrique Willian Cosme, Laura Silva Lima, Lene Garcia Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of congenital anomalies in newborns in the city of São Paulo from 2010 to 2014, as well as to analyze other variables associated with the anomalies. METHODS: Data was collected from the Ministry of Health's Live Births Information System (SINASC) from 2010 to 2014 in São Paulo City. The variables analyzed were length and type of pregnancy, maternal age, and ethnicity and sex of the newborn. The absolute and relative frequencies of congenital anomalies were verified, and the variables associated with them were calculated with the odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval...
January 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Lucinda Manda-Taylor, Daniel Mwale, Tamara Phiri, Aisling Walsh, Anne Matthews, Ruairi Brugha, Victor Mwapasa, Elaine Byrne
BACKGROUND: For years, Malawi remained at the bottom of league tables on maternal, neonatal and child health. Although maternal mortality ratios have reduced and significant progress has been made in reducing neonatal morality, many challenges in achieving universal access to maternal, newborn and child health care still exist in Malawi. In Malawi, there is still minimal, though increasing, male involvement in ANC/PMTCT/MNCH services, but little understanding of why this is the case. The aim of this paper is to explore the role and involvement of men in MNCH services, as part of the broader understanding of those community system factors...
September 25, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Maria Emília Quaresma, Ana Claudia Almeida, Maria Dalva B Méio, José Maria A Lopes, Maria Virgínia M Peixoto
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal mortality rate remains high in Brazil. The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors associated with hospitalization during the neonatal period. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in ten randomly-selected Brazilian municipalities. Mothers of children under the age of 6 who were carrying the child's health booklet were interviewed in basic health units. Hierarchical modeling of sociodemographic factors (distal level), maternal variables (intermediate level), and features of the newborns (proximal level) was performed...
September 22, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
Eileen L Yoon, Dong Hyun Sinn, Hyun Woong Lee, Ji Hoon Kim
Hepatitis A virus is one of the most frequent causes of foodborne infection, which is closely associated with sanitary conditions and hygienic practices. The clinical spectrum of acute hepatitis A is wide, ranging from mild case without any noticeable symptoms to severe case with acute liver failure leading to mortality. The severity and outcome are highly correlated with age at infection. In developing countries, most people are infected in early childhood without significant symptom. Ironically, in area where sanitary condition has improved rapidly, adults who do not have immunity for viral hepatitis A (VH-A) in early childhood is accumulating...
September 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
M W Jorgensen, A Adams-Progar, A M de Passillé, J Rushen, J A Salfer, M I Endres
Automated calf feeding systems are increasing in use across the United States, yet information regarding health and mortality outcomes of animals in these systems is limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between farm management practices, housing, and environmental factors with mortality and health treatment rates of preweaned dairy calves housed in groups with automated feeding systems. Farm records were collected for health treatments and mortality on 26 farms in the Upper Midwest of the United States...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Shidan Tosif, Titus Nasi, Amy Gray, Nahad Sadr-Azodi, Divi Ogaoga, Trevor Duke
AIM: To identify strengths and obstacles for improving the quality of newborn care in the Solomon Islands. Improving the quality of newborn care is a priority in the Sustainable Development Goals and the Action Plan for Healthy Newborns in the Western Pacific. The neonatal mortality rate in the Solomon Islands, a lower-middle-income country, has improved slower than overall child mortality. In 2013, neonatal mortality (13.2/1000) constituted 44% of under-5 deaths (30.1/1000). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of newborn care in five provincial hospitals using a World Health Organization assessment tool for hospital quality of care...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Kristen Beek, Angela Dawson, Anna Whelan
BACKGROUND: A lack of access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among displaced women and girls of reproductive age. Efforts to address this public health emergency in humanitarian settings have included the widespread delivery of training programmes to address gaps in health worker capacity for SRH. There remains a lack of data on the factors which may affect the ability of health workers to apply SRH knowledge and skills gained through training programmes in humanitarian contexts...
2017: Conflict and Health
Patricia E Bailey, Wasihun Andualem, Michel Brun, Lynn Freedman, Sourou Gbangbade, Malick Kante, Emily Keyes, Edwin Libamba, Allisyn C Moran, Halima Mouniri, Dahada Ould El Joud, Kavita Singh
BACKGROUND: Understanding the magnitude and clinical causes of maternal and perinatal mortality are basic requirements for positive change. Facility-based information offers a contextualized resource for clinical and organizational quality improvement. We describe the magnitude of institutional maternal mortality, causes of death and cause-specific case fatality rates, as well as stillbirth and pre-discharge neonatal death rates. METHODS: This paper draws on secondary data from 40 low and middle income countries that conducted emergency obstetric and newborn care assessments over the last 10 years...
September 7, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Ayo S Adebowale
BACKGROUND: Infant mortality (IM) is high in Nigeria. High-risk birth can limit a newborn's survival chances to the first year of life. The approach used in investigating the relationship between high-risk birth and IM in this study is yet to be documented in Nigeria. OBJECTIVES: The Intra-Demographic Birth Risk Assessment Scheme (IDBRAS) was generated and its relationship with IM was examined. METHODS: 2013 Nigeria demographic and health survey data were used...
2017: Global Health Action
Tannia Tembo, Gershom Chongwe, Bellington Vwalika, Lungowe Sitali
BACKGROUND: Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was estimated at 398/100,000 live births in 2014. Successful aversion of deaths is dependent on availability and usability of signal functions for emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Evidence of availability, usability and quality of signal functions in urban settings in Zambia is minimal as previous research has evaluated their distribution in rural settings. This survey evaluated the availability and usability of signal functions in private and public health facilities in Lusaka District of Zambia...
September 6, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
A Berglund, T H Johannsen, K Stochholm, L Aksglaede, J Fedder, M H Viuff, K M Main, C H Gravholt
STUDY QUESTION: What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? SUMMARY ANSWER: 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status was inferior on outcome parameters such as education and long-term income. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: 46,XX DSD males are rare and estimates of prevalence and incidence are limited...
August 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
Fabian Esamai, Mabel Nangami, John Tabu, Ann Mwangi, David Ayuku, Edwin Were
BACKGROUND: Maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality are higher in low-income compared to high-income countries due to weak health systems including poor access and utilization of health services. Despite enormous recent improvements in maternal, neonatal and under 5 health indicators, more rapid progress is needed to meet the targets including the Development Goal 3(SDG). In Kenya these indicators are still high and comprehensive systems are needed to attain the targets of the SDG 3 by 2030...
August 29, 2017: Reproductive Health
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