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International health regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148546/-chronic-kidney-disease-the-relevant-information-for-an-occupational-physician
#1
REVIEW
Marcin Renke, Jacek Parszuto, Marcin Rybacki, Wojciech Wołyniec, Przemysław Rutkowski, Bolesław Rutkowski, Jolanta Walusiak-Skorupa, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień
For a number of years chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been listed in the group of lifestyle diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. It is estimated that in Poland more than 4 million people may suffer from various stages of CKD. Chronic kidney disease may also be a consequence of all the other civilization diseases. At the same time it is worth noting that nephrological problems are increasingly being taken into account in modern medical certification. The aim of this work is, among other things, to improve safe access to the labor for patients with kidney diseases...
November 8, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140661/an-international-model-for-antibiotics-regulation
#2
Emilie Aguirre
We face a global antibiotics resistance crisis. Antibiotic drugs are rapidly losing their effectiveness, potentially propelling us toward a post-antibiotic world. The largest use of antibiotics in the world is in food-producing animals. Food producers administer these drugs in routine, low doses—the types of doses that are incidentally the most conducive to breeding antibiotic resistance. In general, individual countries have been too slow to act in regulating misuse and overuse of antibiotics in foodproducing animals...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137571/genotoxic-evaluation-of-common-commercial-pesticides-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#3
Cynthia Paz-Trejo, Sandra Gómez-Arroyo
This study aims to evaluate the genotoxic potential of four commercial pesticides with diverse health categorizations by different world associations currently in use. We tested the fungicide mancozeb and the insecticides pirimicarb, monocrotophos and permethrin. The research was done with in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DNA single gel electrophoresis assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) test, where we analysed common parameters such as the tail moment and the frequency of MN formation...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137397/dna-mismatch-repair-protein-mlh1-is-required-for-tetravalent-chromium-intermediate-induced-dna-damage
#4
Timothy P Wakeman, Aimin Yang, Naresh S Dalal, Rebecca J Boohaker, Qinghua Zeng, Qiang Ding, Bo Xu
Hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) is associated with occupational lung cancer and poses a significant public health concern. When exposed to Cr[VI], cells rapidly internalize this compound and metabolize it to Cr[III]. Byproducts of Cr[VI] metabolism include unstable Cr[V] and Cr[IV] intermediates that are believed to be directly responsible for the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity caused by Cr[VI] exposure; however, the carcinogenic potential of the Cr intermediates and the mechanisms of Cr-induced carcinogenesis remain to be further defined...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133110/provision-of-medical-abortion-by-mid-level-healthcare-providers-in-kyrgyzstan-testing-an-intervention-to-expand-safe-abortion-services-to-under-served-rural-and-peri-urban-areas
#5
Brooke Ronald Johnson, Elmira Maksutova, Aigull Boobekova, Ainura Davletova, Chinara Kazakbaeva, Yelena Kondrateva, Sihem Landoulsi, Gunta Lazdane, Kubanychbek Monolbaev, Armando H Seuc Jo
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility and safety of training mid-level healthcare providers (midwives and family nurses) to provide medical abortion and post-abortion contraception in under-served areas in Kyrgyzstan. STUDY DESIGN: This was an implementation study at four referral facilities and 28 Felsher Obstetric Points in two districts to train their midwives and family nurses to deliver safe and effective abortion care with co-packaged mifepristone-misoprostol and provide contraceptives post-abortion...
November 10, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132028/dna-methylation-and-genetic-variation-of-the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-ace-in-depression
#6
Dilys Lam, Marie-Laure Ancelin, Karen Ritchie, Richard Saffery, Joanne Ryan
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and in older persons is associated with high levels of comorbidity and under-treatment. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis is consistently observed in the older population as well as depressed patients, with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) a key regulator of the stress response. Epigenetic regulation of ACE may play an important role in HPA axis (dys)regulation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate ACE promoter methylation as a biomarker of late-life depression, and its association with genetic variation and cortisol secretion...
November 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130867/using-the-experience-sampling-method-to-examine-the-psychological-mechanisms-by-which-participatory-art-improves-wellbeing
#7
Nicola J Holt
AIMS: To measure the immediate impact of art-making in everyday life on diverse indices of wellbeing ('in the moment' and longer term) in order to improve understanding of the psychological mechanisms by which art may improve mental health. METHODS: Using the experience-sampling method, 41 artists were prompted (with a 'beep' on a handheld computer) at random intervals (10 times a day, for one week) to answer a short questionnaire. The questionnaire tracked art-making and enquired about mood, cognition and state of consciousness...
November 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128768/contaminated-land-in-colombia-a-critical-review-of-current-status-and-future-approach-for-the-management-of-contaminated-sites
#8
REVIEW
Victor Andres Arias Espana, Alfonso R Rodriguez Pinilla, Paul Bardos, Ravi Naidu
Environmental contaminants can have negative effects on human health and land, air and water resources. Consequently, there have been significant advances in regulation for protecting the environment in developed countries including the development of remediation frameworks and guidelines. On the other hand, fewer studies have been reported on the risks and health effects of contaminants in developing regions and there is scarce information regarding contaminated land assessment and environmental remediation...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127800/regulation-of-chemicals-in-children-s-products-how-u-s-and-eu-regulation-impacts-small-markets
#9
Maya Negev, Tamar Berman, Shay Reicher, Simona Balan, Anna Soehl, Shula Goulden, Ruti Ardi, Yaniv Shammai, Laura Hadar, Arlene Blum, Miriam L Diamond
Toys and children's products may contain trace metals and organic compounds that are potentially harmful to the health and development of infants and young children. Intergovernmental organizations and individual countries regulate chemicals in consumer products, but a coordinated international approach is lacking. This paper examines the implications of chemical regulation in children's products in large markets for a smaller market, namely Israel. We compared chemical regulations in children's products in the U...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120202/collaboration-confidentiality-and-care
#10
Latoya S Moss
There is an increasing call to attend to the needs of students in distress (Reynolds, 2013). Furthermore, research has begun to highlight links between distress, risky, or dangerous behaviors as well as issues in mental health in the higher education population (Deasy, Coughlan, Pironom, Jourdan, & Mannix-McNamara, 2014). The National Alliance on Mental Health and the Jed Foundation (National Alliance on Mental Illness & the Jed Foundation, 2016) estimate that about 20% of enrolled college students will face some type of mental illness...
November 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110651/variability-in-market-uptake-of-psychotropic-medications-in-europe-reflects-cultural-diversity
#11
J M Hoebert, A K Mantel-Teeuwisse, H G M Leufkens, L van Dijk
BACKGROUND: In the last 20-30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older) psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the effects of cultural diversity on the use of new medications entering the market. As national cultures relate deeply to held values regarding, for example, what is seen as effective versus ineffective or safe versus dangerous, (cultural) diversity in decision making around the role of new medications in clinical practice may already be expected from the first day after market authorization...
November 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106574/a-conceptual-framework-for-investigating-the-impacts-of-international-trade-and-investment-agreements-on-noncommunicable-disease-risk-factors
#12
Ashley Schram, Arne Ruckert, J Anthony VanDuzer, Sharon Friel, Deborah Gleeson, Anne-Marie Thow, David Stuckler, Ronald Labonte
We developed a conceptual framework exploring pathways between trade and investment and noncommunicable disease (NCD) outcomes. Despite increased knowledge of the relevance of social and structural determinants of health, the discourse on NCD prevention has been dominated by individualizing paradigms targeted at lifestyle interventions. We situate individual risk factors, alongside key social determinants of health, as being conditioned and constrained by trade and investment policy, with the aim of creating a more comprehensive approach to investigations of the health impacts of trade and investment agreements, and to encourage upstream approaches to combating rising rates of NCDs...
November 2, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102325/surveillance-for-control-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#13
REVIEW
Evelina Tacconelli, Frangiscos Sifakis, Stephan Harbarth, Remco Schrijver, Maaike van Mourik, Andreas Voss, Mike Sharland, Nithya Babu Rajendran, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
Antimicrobial resistance poses a growing threat to public health and the provision of health care. Its surveillance should provide up-to-date and relevant information to monitor the appropriateness of therapy guidelines, antibiotic formulary, antibiotic stewardship programmes, public health interventions, infection control policies, and antimicrobial development. In Europe, although the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network provides annual reports on monitored resistant bacteria, national surveillance efforts are still fragmented and heterogeneous, and have substantial structural problems and issues with laboratory data...
October 25, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100497/the-macro-economic-determinants-of-health-and-health-inequalities-umbrella-review-protocol
#14
Yannish Naik, Peter Baker, Ian Walker, Taavi Tillmann, Kristin Bash, Darryl Quantz, Frances Hillier-Brown, Clare Bambra
BACKGROUND: The economic determinants of health have been widely recognised as crucial factors affecting health; however, to date, no comprehensive review has been undertaken to summarise these factors and the ways in which they can influence health. We conceptualise the economy as a complex system made up of underlying approaches, regulation from institutions, markets, finance, labour, the public-private balance as well as production and distributional effects, which collectively impact on health through the effect of moderators...
November 3, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083954/screening-of-antibiotic-residues-in-fresh-milk-of-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#15
Bal Kumari Sharma Khanal, Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Manisha Singh, Anil Kumar Anal
The prevalence of two groups of antibiotics; namely penicillin and sulfonamides was studied in fresh milk available in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. The milk samples (n = 140) were collected from three different sources; individual farmers, cottage dairies and organized dairies of Kathmandu valley. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis with rapid screening kits revealed that 23% samples were positive for antibiotic residues in the fresh milk for penicillin and sulfonamide groups (1-256 µg/kg). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses detected 81% samples positive for amoxicillin (68-802 µg/kg), 41% for sulfadimethoxine (31-69 µg/kg), 27% for penicillin G (13-353 µg/kg), and 12% for ampicillin (0...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080368/towards-global-consensus-on-core-outcomes-for-hidradenitis-suppurativa-research-an-update-from-the-historic-consensus-meetings-i-and-ii
#16
L Thorlacius, A Garg, J R Ingram, B Villumsen, P Theut Riis, Alice B Gottlieb, Joseph F Merola, Robert Dellavalle, C Ardon, R Baba, F G Bechara, A D Cohen, N Daham, M Davis, L Emtestam, P Fernandez-Penas, M Filippelli, A Gibbons, T Grant, S Guilbault, S Gulliver, C Harris, C Harvent, K Houston, J S Kirby, L Matusiak, A Mehdizadeh, T Mojica, M Okun, D Orgill, L Pallack, A Parks-Miller, E P Prens, S Randell, C Rogers, C F Rosen, S E Choon, H H van der Zee, R Christensen, G B E Jemec
BACKGROUND: A Core Outcomes Set (COS) is an agreed minimum set of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all clinical trials for a specific condition. Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has no agreed upon COS. A central aspect in the COS development process is to identify a set of candidate outcome domains from a long list of items. Our long list had been developed from patient interviews, a systematic review of literature and a health care professionals (HCPs) survey and initial votes had been cast in two e-Delphi surveys...
October 28, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063275/intracellular-trafficking-of-gonadotropin-receptors-in-health-and-disease
#17
Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre, Teresa Zariñán, Rubén Gutiérrez-Sagal, James A Dias
Gonadotropin receptors belong to the highly conserved subfamily of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, the so-called Rhodopsin-like family (class A), which is the largest class of GPCRs and currently a major drug target. Both the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin hormone receptor (LHCGR) are mainly located in the gonads where they play key functions associated to essential reproductive functions. As any other protein, gonadotropin receptors must be properly folded into a mature tertiary conformation compatible with quaternary assembly and endoplasmic reticulum export to the cell surface plasma membrane...
September 27, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055177/pesticide-management-approach-towards-protecting-the-safety-and-health-of-farmers-in-southeast-asia
#18
REVIEW
Norsyazwani Mohammad, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Vivien How, Sarva Mangala Praveena, Zailina Hashim
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that pesticide production and use have increased continuously in the countries of Southeast Asia in recent years. Within the context of protecting the safety and health of workers in the agricultural sector, there is an existing gap in the implementation of the pesticide management framework because safety and health effects arising from occupational exposures continue to be reported. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide narrative similarities, differences and weaknesses of the existing pesticide management system in Southeast Asian countries (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) within the context of occupational safety and health...
October 21, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052162/international-regulations-and-recommendations-for-utility-data-for-health-technology-assessment
#19
REVIEW
Donna Rowen, Ismail Azzabi Zouraq, Helene Chevrou-Severac, Ben van Hout
Recommendations and guidelines for the collection, generation, source and usage of utility data for health technology assessment (HTA) vary across different countries, with no international consensus. Many international agencies generate their own guidelines providing details on their preferred methods for HTA submissions, and there is variability in both what they recommend and the clarity and amount of detail provided in their guidelines. This article provides an overview of international regulations and recommendations for utility data in HTA for a selection of key HTA countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain (Catalonia), Sweden and the UK (England/Wales and Scotland)...
October 19, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044369/law-as-a-fixture-between-the-one-health-interfaces-of-emerging-diseases
#20
Alexandra L Phelan, Lawrence O Gostin
A One Health approach calls for multisectoral and multi-institutional cooperation and partnership across the interfaces of human, animal and ecosystem health risks. Without strong governance, these interfaces risk detaching, leaving gaps in capacities to prevent, detect and respond to emerging and persisting public health threats. As a crucial component of governance, law can act as the fixture between interfaces. We examine some of the many forms and foci of law and propose that the process of law-making, implementation and evaluation can provide a benefit for strengthening law as a fixture between One Health interfaces...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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