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International health regulation

Richard Bwanika, Charles D Kato, Johnson Welishe, Daniel C Mwandah
Background: Malaria and helminths share the same geographical distribution in tropical Africa. Studies of the interaction of helminth and malaria co-infection in humans have been few and are mainly epidemiological, with little information on cellular immune responses. This study aimed to determine Cytokine profiles among patients co-infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and soil borne helminth attending Kampala International University Teaching Hospital (KIU). Methods: A case control study of 240 patients were recruited at KIU teaching hospital...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Sanaa Al Najjar, Tamer Al Shaer
BACKGROUND: To meet the emerging needs of the increasing numbers of patients with non-communicable diseases and to provide optimum care with optimum contact time and minimum waiting time, as stated in UNRWA guidelines, the mobile phone text messaging system was implemented in UNRWA centres to remind patients of upcoming appointments and to thereby improve the quality of care for vulnerable patients and regulate the work load in the clinics for non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the causes for lack of adherence to the appointment system at UNRWA centres...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Irene Papanicolas, Liana R Woskie, Ashish K Jha
Importance: Health care spending in the United States is a major concern and is higher than in other high-income countries, but there is little evidence that efforts to reform US health care delivery have had a meaningful influence on controlling health care spending and costs. Objective: To compare potential drivers of spending, such as structural capacity and utilization, in the United States with those of 10 of the highest-income countries (United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Australia, Japan, Sweden, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Denmark) to gain insight into what the United States can learn from these nations...
March 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Peter Clausing, Claire Robinson, Helmut Burtscher-Schaden
The present paper scrutinises the European authorities' assessment of the carcinogenic hazard posed by glyphosate based on Regulation (EC) 1272/2008. We use the authorities' own criteria as a benchmark to analyse their weight of evidence (WoE) approach. Therefore, our analysis goes beyond the comparison of the assessments made by the European Food Safety Authority and the International Agency for Research on Cancer published by others. We show that not classifying glyphosate as a carcinogen by the European authorities, including the European Chemicals Agency, appears to be not consistent with, and in some instances, a direct violation of the applicable guidance and guideline documents...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Carrie Ho-Kwan Yam, Eliza Lai-Yi Wong, Sian M Griffiths, Eng-Kiong Yeoh
Objective: To assess public knowledge and expectations of the ways to assess doctors' competence to ensure patient safety. Design setting and participants: Telephone survey of a random sample of 1000 non-institutionalized Hong Kong residents. Measures and results: Only 5% of public were correct that doctors are not required to periodically be assessed, and 9% were correct that the doctors are not required to update knowledge and skills for renewing their license...
March 1, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Phyllida Travis, Achmad Soebagjo Tancarino, Krisada Sawaengdee, Yanchen Chhoedon, Safeenaz Hassan, Nareerut Pudpong
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing trend of international migration of health professionals from low- and middle- income countries to high-income countries as well as across middle-income countries. The WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel was created to better address health workforce development and the ethical conduct of international recruitment. This study assessed policies and practices in 4 countries in South East Asia on managing the in- and out-migration of doctors and nurses to see whether the management has been in line with the WHO Global Code and has fostered health workforce development in the region; and draws lessons from these countries...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Aditi Jhaveri, Pranali Deshpande, Bhushan Pattni, Vladimir Torchilin
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive brain tumors with a very grim prognosis even after multi-modal therapeutic regimens. Conventional chemotherapeutic agents frequently lead to drug resistance and result in severe toxicities to non-cancerous tissues. Resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol with pleiotropic health benefits, has proven chemopreventive effects in all the stages of cancer including initiation, promotion and progression. However the poor physico-chemical properties of RES severely limit its use as a free drug...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Silvia Migliari, Antonino Sammartano, Maura Scarlattei, Giulio Serreli, Caterina Ghetti, Carla Cidda, Giorgio Baldari, Ornella Ortenzia, Livia Ruffini
Background : Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has gained high attention as a useful biomarker in the imaging evaluation of prostate cancer with positron emission tomography (PET) during recent years. [68 Ga]-labeled Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx)-HBED-CC ([68 Ga]-PSMA-HBED-CC) is a novel PSMA inhibitor radiotracer which has demonstrated its suitability in detecting prostate cancer. Preparation conditions may influence the quality and in vivo behavior of this tracer, and no standard procedure for the quality control (QC) is available...
October 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Amber B Daniel, Judy Strickland, David Allen, Silvia Casati, Valérie Zuang, João Barroso, Maurice Whelan, M J Régimbald-Krnel, Hajime Kojima, Akiyoshi Nishikawa, Hye-Kyung Park, Jong Kwon Lee, Tae Sung Kim, Isabella Delgado, Ludmila Rios, Ying Yang, Gangli Wang, Nicole Kleinstreuer
Skin sensitization test data are required or considered by chemical regulation authorities around the world. These data are used to develop product hazard labeling for the protection of consumers or workers and to assess risks from exposure to skin-sensitizing chemicals. To identify opportunities for regulatory uses of non-animal replacements for skin sensitization tests, the needs and uses for skin sensitization test data must first be clarified. Thus, we reviewed skin sensitization testing requirements for seven countries or regions that are represented in the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM)...
March 5, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Barbara Giordani, Annalisa Amato, Fabio Majo, Gianluca Ferrari, Serena Quattrucci, Laura Minicucci, Rita Padoan, Giovanna Floridia, Gianna Puppo Fornaro, Domenica Taruscio, Marco Salvatore
INTRODUCTION: The Italian Cystic Fibrosis Registry (ICFR) is based on a new agreement about the data flow towards the Registry signed on October, 4th 2016 by the Centre for Rare Diseases of the Italian National Institute of Health (NIH), the clinicians of the Italian National Referral and Support Centres for Cystic Fibrosis, the Paediatric Hospital "Bambino Gesù" (Rome), the Italian Cystic Fibrosis Society, and the Italian League for Cystic Fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present Report is to improve the knowledge on cystic fibrosis (CF) through the epidemiological description of Italian patients...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Joseph Ring, Edward Tupin, Deirdre Elder, Jerry Hiatt, Michael Sheetz, Nancy Kirner, Craig Little
The Health Physics Society (HPS) provided comment to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on options to consider when developing an action plan for President Trump's Executive Order to evaluate regulations for repeal, replacement, or modification. The HPS recommended that the EPA reconsider their adherence to the linear no-threshold (LNT) model for radiation risk calculations and improve several documents by better addressing uncertainties in low-dose, low dose-rate (LDDR) radiation exposure environments...
March 3, 2018: Health Physics
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Natasja M Klioueva, Marleen C Rademaker, Inge Huitinga
The BrainNet Europe consortium, which is a consortium of 19 European brain banks, took the initiative to draft a series of documents to provide an ethical framework for brain banks to follow. The framework includes an ethical code of conduct, a model for brain bank regulations, and a toolkit containing several documents. The sources for the information included came from the laws, regulations, and guidelines (declarations, conventions, recommendations, guidelines, and directives) that had been issued by international key organizations, such as the Council of Europe, European Commission, World Medical Association, and World Health Organization...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Flora Kisuule, Eric Howell
Hospital medicine is the fastest growing specialty in the United States. An interesting aspect of the rapid expansion of hospital medicine is the expansion of the field beyond the United States. Although the health care systems, regulations, and cultural norms in these nations differ, there are striking similarities in the profession's development. We performed a literature review to better understand the factors contributing to the growth of hospital medicine internationally. In this article, we describe some of the drivers for expansion of hospital medicine outside the United States and the challenges faced by these groups...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
Elina Järvelä-Reijonen, Leila Karhunen, Essi Sairanen, Joona Muotka, Sanni Lindroos, Jaana Laitinen, Sampsa Puttonen, Katri Peuhkuri, Maarit Hallikainen, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Riitta Korpela, Miikka Ermes, Raimo Lappalainen, Marjukka Kolehmainen
BACKGROUND: Internal motivation and good psychological capabilities are important factors in successful eating-related behavior change. Thus, we investigated whether general acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) affects reported eating behavior and diet quality and whether baseline perceived stress moderates the intervention effects. METHODS: Secondary analysis of unblinded randomized controlled trial in three Finnish cities. Working-aged adults with psychological distress and overweight or obesity in three parallel groups: (1) ACT-based Face-to-face (n = 70; six group sessions led by a psychologist), (2) ACT-based Mobile (n = 78; one group session and mobile app), and (3) Control (n = 71; only the measurements)...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Mary A Ott, Francis P Crawley, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Seth Owusu-Agyei, David Neubauer, Gary Dubin, Tatjana Poplazarova, Norman Begg, Susan L Rosenthal
Children of minor parents are under-represented in clinical trials. This is largely because of the ethical, legal, and regulatory complexities in the enrolment, consent, and appropriate access of children of minor parents to clinical research. Using a case-based approach, we examine appropriate access of children of minor parents in an international vaccine trial. We first consider the scientific justification for inclusion of children of minor parents in a vaccine trial. Laws and regulations governing consent generally do not address the issue of minor parents...
February 23, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Yuri Griko, Matthew D Regan
Animal research aboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station has provided vital information on the physiological, cellular, and molecular effects of spaceflight. The relevance of this information to human spaceflight is enhanced when it is coupled with information gleaned from human-based research. As NASA and other space agencies initiate plans for human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), incorporating animal research into these missions is vitally important to understanding the biological impacts of deep space...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Noortje I van Vliet, Rafaele J C Huntjens, Maarten K van Dijk, Ad de Jongh
BACKGROUND: The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to a history of sexual and/or physical abuse in childhood is the subject of international debate, with some favouring a phase-based approach as their preferred treatment, while others argue for immediate trauma-focused treatment. A history of (chronic) traumatisation during childhood has been linked to the development of distinct symptoms that are often labelled as symptoms of complex PTSD. Many therapists associate the presence of symptoms of complex PTSD with a less favourable treatment prognosis...
February 22, 2018: Trials
Joaquim Rovira, Martí Nadal, Marta Schuhmacher, José L Domingo
Previously to the modernization of the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) of Campdorà (Girona, Catalonia, Spain) two sampling campaigns (2015 and 2016) were conducted. In each campaign, 8 soil and 4 air samples (PM10 and total particle phase and gas phase) were collected. The levels of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl and V, and PCDD/Fs were analysed at different distances and wind directions around the MSWI. Environmental levels of trace elements and PCDD/Fs were used to assess exposure and health risks (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) for the population living around the facility...
February 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jörg Pont, Stefan Enggist, Heino Stöver, Brie Williams, Robert Greifinger, Hans Wolff
Clinical independence is an essential component of good health care and health care professionalism, particularly in correctional settings (jails, prisons, and other places of detention), where the relationship between patients and caregivers is not based on free choice and where the punitive correctional setting can challenge optimal medical care. Independence for the delivery of health care services is defined by international standards as a critical element for quality health care in correctional settings, yet many correctional facilities do not meet these standards because of a lack of awareness, persisting legal regulations, contradictory terms of employment for health professionals, or current health care governance structures...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
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